MU 2313 Ch 10
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
MU 2313 Ch 10 The High Renaissance and Mannerism Expansion of the European World a Columbus i quotWest Indies ii Trade route to India b Pedro Alvarez Cabral i Brazil c Vasco de Gama i Route to India ii Went around South America d Vasco de Balboa i First to reach the Pacific Ocean e Hernando Cortez i Conquistadors early Spanish explorers and El Dorado city of gold ii Massacre of the Aztecs 1 They didn t value gold so they gave it to Cortez 2 Conquistadors wiped them out in pursuit of more gold II The Papal States a Worldly popes control central Italy i Obsessed with wealth and influence ii Fascinated with what was happening in the present iii Alexander VI 1 Had many mistresses and many children 2 Used the pope position to lavish gifts to his families and give jobs to his sons iv Julius II 1 Warrior pope 2 Tried to unify the citystates under the church led an army in his conquests 3 Commissioned the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel v Leo X Lorenzo de Medici s son Giovanni 1 Indulgences a People could buy a paper to be absolved of their sins b Used to raise funds c Helped fund the building ofa church in Rome III Spain s Golden Century a There was a lot of wealth in Spain accumulated more from exploration b Ferdinand and Isabella i Patrons of Christopher Columbus ii Their children married into royalty in England France and Rome iii Some of their children were influential like Charles V c Charles V i Sought to expand Spanish empire prevented by 1 Protestant Reformation 2 Ottoman invasion 3 Constant conflict with France ii Conquered Rome and established himself as the Holy Roman Emperor d Philip II i England France Netherlands unite against him Vl ii Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588 iii End of the Golden Century Ottoman Turks a Longer reign in Eastern Europe than Spain b Organized trained fighting force c Suleiman I the magnificent i One of the greatest rulers of the 16th century ii Tolerant conquered areas didn t have to assimilate 1 Those he conquered would pay tribute to the empire their sons served in the army Concepts a Classicism i Idealism more important than verisimilitude true to life be as realistic as possible b The High Renaissance i 1495 1527 ii Papal authority summons artists to Rome 1 Many ongoing architectural projects Roman Catholic Church has a lot of money to work with iii Led by Michelangelo and da Vinci c Mannerism 16th century i Move away from classicism ii Virtuosity sophistication elegance of composition and quotfearless manipulations or distortions of accepted conventions of form Stokstad iii A reaction toagainst the art of the high Renaissance Art a Da Vinci The Madonna of the Rocks c 1485 i Virgin Mary John the Baptist to her right baby Jesus and angel to her left ii Figures create a triangular arrangement iii John has his hands clasped before him baby Jesus is blessing him b Da Vinci The Last Supper 1495 1508 i Moment when Jesus tells his disciples that one of them will betray him ii Animated discussion iii Attention is directed to Jesus by the lines of the room c Da Vinci Mona Lisa c 150305 i Triangle arrangement with her head and arms ii She appears to have a feeling of tranquility iii Contrast to background which is a wild landscape iv Portrait made in can see her torso becomes standard for later artists Michelangelo The Creation ofAdam Sistine Chapel ceiling 150812 i Anticipation as Adam reaches out to receive the divine spark from God Michelangelo Last Judgment 153441 i One wall of the Sistine Chapel ii Cherubs and heavenly figures on top iii The River Styx and people being tortured on the bottom Michelangelo ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 150812 i Bible stories from Genesis ii Scenes from Adam and Eve sacrifice of Noah drunkenness of Noah creation story Raphael The Alba Madonna c 1510 i Baby Jesus blessing John the Baptist Mary overlooking ii Triangle arrangement 9 D Th 2 h Raphael The Deliverance of St Peter 151214 i Depicts three scenes ii Peter in his cell being visited by the angel iii The angel puts the guards to sleep and escorts Peter out iv The guards being reprimanded after the prisoner has escaped i Titian Assumption of the Virgin 151618 i Assumption means being lifted into heaven ii Painting is divided in the middle iii Contrast between the glowing light above and the gray sky below iv People are reaching up towards the heavens to partake in the spiritual event v Artist accentuated the shadows and used a glaze to enhance the glow j Bronzino Portrait of a Young Man c 15351540 i Mannerism 1 Reaction to the virtuosity of High Renaissance artists 2 Formal 3 Inward lookingreflective faces and poses 4 Abandoned classical formbalance ii Proportions are a little skewed head is slightly big and hands appear large iii No warmth seems cold k Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck c 1534 i Mannerism ii The baby Jesus has a large body not proportional to the head iii Disruption of the triangle arrangement VII Sculpture a Michelangelo Pieta 14989 i The Virgin Mary with Christ s body draped across her lap after his crucifixion ii This scene doesn t actually take place in the bible iii Focus is on the Virgin her body is slightly larger and has a downcast gaze b Michelangelo David 15014 i A 14 foot tall man ii Emphasis on the idealized form of life shows the shift from early to high Renaissance iii Intended to be perched on a colonnade at the St Florence Cathedral 1 Church decided it was too great a work to be outdoors in the elements 2 Was placed inside on a pedestal iv Sculpture s nudity was offputting 1 Originally displayed with a copper leaf girdle c Giovanni da Bologna Mercury 1567 i Mannerism in sculpture ii Formal pose iii Messenger of the gods supposed to be fast 1 A burst of air is lifting him up VIII Architecture a Donato Bramante the Tempietto completed 1511 i Small chapel ii A round building not a common shape at the time unique design iii Classic elements dome columns iv Built at the site where St Peter was crucified in Rome b Michelangelo St Peter s Basilica Rome 154664 i Defining the city by Christian buildings Xl ii Concerns the original design had a shorter dome but the church wanted the basilica to stand out in the skyline 1 Cylinder was added to the base of the dome after a decade cracks appeared Chains were added to hold it together iii Interior of the dome is ornater decorated c Gian Lorenzo Bernini statues on colonnade of St Peter s Square designed 1657 i About 140 statues d Pierre Lescot facade of the Square Court of the Louvre Paris begun 1546 i Mannerist architecture ii Classic characteristics altered slightly 1 Dome sides and tops flattened 2 Engaged columns some protrude while others are flat iii Statues at the high windows seemed balanced precariously Renaissance Music a Intent on expressing textlyrics emphasis on choral music i Masses motets and madrigals secular love poems b Word painting i Reflect in music what the lyrics say c Avoids extreme contrasts d Polyphonic texture i Some homophonic ii Extreme polyphony discouraged by the church 1 Can be difficult to discern the melody Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina a Exclusively vocal works b Almost all liturgical c Pope Marcellus Mass 1555 i Six voice parts i Rich polyphony iii Imitation iv Melismatic d Moves away from cantus firmus Secular music a Choral music i Madrigals ii 38 voices iii By mid1500s the dominant secular form in Italy 1 Gesualdo s quotMoro Lasso b Instrumental music i Subordinate role to vocal music ii Specific instruments not indicated 1 Indoor harpsichord lute and recorder vs Outdoor trumpets shawm
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