Week 1 Bio Notes
Week 1 Bio Notes Biol 180
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nikki Hovland on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 180 at University of Washington taught by Scott Freeman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 638 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Friday October 2 2015 Week 1 Notes Syllabus Week Lecture 1 Experimental Design First Day of Class What is science Pseudoscience a claim or belief that is incorrectly presented as scientific but it doesn t actually follow the scientific method Science facts that are supported by observations and the scientific method Religion a cultural belief system The Scientific Method Observations gt Question gt Hypothesis gt Prediction gt Test Test experiment or other observations Includes Controlled Dependent Response and Independent Manipulated variables f test does NOT support the hypothesis then revise or create a new one f test DOES support hypothesis then make more predictions NOTE NEVER use the word PROVE instead use the word SUPPORT Rarely can you actually ever prove something in science but you CAN provide support Lecture 2 Experimental Design What is the difference between a hypothesis and a prediction Hypothesis a possible explanation in response to a questionfirst observations Prediction something you test and should be true if the hypothesis posed is correct First start with observations about something gt then come up with hypothesis statement gt then make a prediction usually f Then Because to test gt collect data Need a hypothesis before a prediction INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Friday October 2 2015 Key Difference hypothesis is a mechanism that supports an observation about something while a prediction states what you will measure and think will happen based on the suggested mechanism Design an Experiment Example Hypothesis In low doses aspirin is an effective way to reduce blood clotting Treatment groups control group no aspirin high blood clotting risk with no aspirin high blood clotting risk with aspirin Outcome variable frequency of clotting ex strokes Conditions to control VERY large sample of people to reduceaverage out the influence of outside factors like death obesity other health issues and RANDOMIZED Or could use same person for each group to compare against himherself Lecture 3 Evidence of Evolution as mentioned before the scientific method always begins with a question consider the question Where do species come from and how have they adapted to their environments Pattern component observable facts or what things are Process component a mechanism that creates a patternwhy 1 what are examples of nonexperimental evidence scientists sometimes use astronomers and geologists use physical evidence such as measuring radiation rock layers fossils star patterns etc 2 theory of special creationtypological thinking the process God created everything and every organism at one time Can we test this NO because each organism is said to be created once are unrelated and don t change It is special creation because everything was created in a unique way and you can t test a single event the pattern species are created independently of one another and are static they do notchange Can we test this INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Friday October 2 2015 1 uniformitarianism processes occurring today also occurred in the past like erosion or volcanic eruptions 2 radiometric dating measuring things like rocks using decay rates suggests that the Earth is much more ancient than special creation suggests special creation predicts that species are all unrelated 1 geographic relationships where species are in relation to each other in the world special creation does not make predictions about similar species in geographic locations because it would suggest species are where they are simply because God wanted it that way 2 homologies similarities between species can be at the genetic level ie similar genomes between species the developmental level embryos may be similar or at the structural level like how birds and humans have similar bones in arms and wings provides evidence against special creation because homologies suggest species would have a similar ancestor and not be created independently Summary ways we can test the pattern component of special creation the prediction that species are staticnot changing law of succession suggests that species change in response to environment and pass on to offspring not static law of extinction evidence like fossils that species died off many many years ago Earthspecies are not new like special creation suggests vestigial traits suggests species change over time because of traitscharacteristics they have that have no use anymore Not static homologous structures suggests species have a common ancestor because of similarities not all unique 3 Lamarckian evolution pattern species become larger and more complex progressively over time like the ladder of life Chain of Greater Beings INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Friday October 2 2015 process individuals Change in response their environments and pass traits on to o spnng
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