apology of socrates
apology of socrates pols 2310
Popular in Introduction to politics
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Sherwin on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to pols 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Webking, Robert H in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views.
Reviews for apology of socrates
Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/02/15
THE APOLOGY OF SOCRATES Different from antigone Socrates is a philosopher Athens is a democracy Laws are made by the public Socrates is tried by a jury of 501 people 1 2 Is socrates technically guilty of breaking athenian law If so what should happen A Socrates should stop it B Athens should change its laws C Both socrates learning and athens law are important Lover of wisdom OUTLINE INTRO NP P PP N lntro Old accusers New accusers Account of what socrates does Proposal of penalty Talk to quotguiltyquot voters Talk to quot not guiltyquot voters Accusers are good at rhetoric l socrates will use simple truth I will say whatever comes to mind Rhetoric VS Simple truth Socrates then outlines his speech and explains why it should be organized as it is Socrates already is not using the simple truth Old accusers More to be feared than the formal accusers Have created a prejudice against socrates He investigates the things in the slq and the things beneath the earth Makes the worse argument appear the stronger SCIENCE RHETORIC ATHEISM Does not deny that science is harmful to the city Denies that he teaches science Does not teach for money Does not teach science in the market place But if I don39t teach science why are people prejudiced against me Because I am very wise Only when the people don39t believe the truth socrates tells a story that appeals to their prejudices to explain how he got his reputation The story of the oracle at Delphi Oracle story Chaerephon asks quotis there anyone wiser than socratesquot Priestess says quotnoquot What could this riddle mean quotThinking I could refute the oraclequot Goes out to question people Does this story make sense Chaerephon is the brother of plate Chaerephon is dead but you can ask plate Asks people why do they do certain things Asks Politicians Poets Artisans Sometimes it is good for people not to question things Socrates confuses and embarrasses respected public gures Socrates efforts to learn about human beings and political goals Unintentionally causes political instability Plato shows the community39s perspective on the harm socrates seems to cause This is the rst of three times Plato makes socrates explain what he does New accusers Meletus anytus Lycon Anytus brought back democracy to Athens Lycon Meletus CHARGE socrates corrupts the youth socrates does not believe in the gods of athens but in other divinities Socrates engages meletus in dialogue quotif I corrupt the youth who makes them betterquot Meletus says everyone Meletus is following democratic assumption Example only a few train horses well So only a few can possibly train the youth well Does socrates show that he is one of the few good trainers If I corrupt or harm the youth it must be involuntarily ARGUMENT To corrupt someone is to make them bad Bad people harm other people So if I corrupt people they would harm me Now nobody wants to be harmed So nobody would want to corrupt anyone Therefore if I do corrupt the youth I don39t mean to must be unintended Since it is unintended don39t punish me but teach me show me this is corruption lmplies that no one should ever be punished for corrupting the youth Teach don39t punish me Argument almost admits that socrates teaches people things that are different from the community s beliefs This is the issue who39s teachings harm the youth SOCRATES or athens Socrates and athens disagree on their understanding of corruption Socrates replies to meletus do you mean I don39t believe in the gods of athens or in no gods at all Meletus I mean you are atheist Socrates is an atheist that believes in new gods Meletus contradicts himself Why make such a obvious mistake Meletus is appealing to the prejudice against socrates Does socrates show that he believes in the gods of athens and not in the other new divinities Plato makes socrates defend himself badly against the formal charge But socrates claims to have proven that he is not guilty of the formal charges If I m not guilty why do people think I m guilty This is the second of three times that plate makes socrates explain what he does The oracle story shows the harm socrates seems to cause This shows the good he does for the people of Athens What socrates does If I m not guilty why do people think I am Like Achilles Not afraid to do what I know is just Think ofjustice before life and death But what is just How does socrates know Socrates says it is wrong to disobey a superior But whom does socrates consider to be his superior NOT TH E LAWS By saying he would disobey a law because it would be unjust socrates places his judgment about justice above the law Socrates denies that the laws are his superior Yet claims to be the best citizen of Athens Socrates39 bene t to athens Leads people to think about their live to learn what is important quotGad yquot Provide not political help tries to stay out of politics A political community cannot give with someone who insists on justice In athens or elsewhere The problem isn39t athens the problem is politics what communities must do to maintain themselves Closes defense speech with an insult to his audience Proposal of penalty Socrates found guilty Surprised at the small margin quotl have escaped meletusquot Socrates convicted for the right reasons not prejudice Socrates to propose alternate penalty Would be unjust to propose something he doesn39t deserve Free meals Expected to propose exile I cannot propose anything that would be harmful to myself But exile would harm him Because socrates could not live as he does anywhere else This is the third of three times that Plato makes SOCRATES explain what he does The oracle story shows the harm socrates seems to cause The second shows the good he does for the people of athens This time socrates says he39s telling the truth Socrates does what he does because it is the best way for people to live To develop their minds To be happy ful lled The community cannot maintain itself if it permits socrates to do that which makes people happy and ful lled Proposes sma ne Sentenced to death Loses votes People that voted not guilty then voted guilty Because he tells the truth Closing speech to quotguilty quot voters Very mild Doesn39t focus on moral qualities Tells them they are politically stupid I am going down in history as the wise man and you will be the men who killed the wise man Plato understands the political problem socrates is a problem for the community39s stability Closing speech to quotNon guiltyquot voters Also very mild Socrates can keep friends only if he does not tell them the whole truth To preserve itself any political community must not allow all assumptions to be questioned ls socrates technically guilty of breaking athenian law If so what should happen A SOCRATES should stop B Athens should change its law C Both socrates learning and Athens law are important PROBLEM OF HUMAN BEIG AND CITIZEN Socrates claims that no one who insists on justice can get along with the community That one cannot be a fully good person and a fully good person at the same time A GOOD PERSON Same everywhere Fu development of human capacities Especially reason and understanding A GOOD CITIZEN Contribute to a goal of the community Different communities have different goals Some not compatible with what it takes to be a bad person Even community with good goals Need stability avoid anarchy to reach goal People have different roles to play Can antigone support the stability of thebes and be a good sister Can socrates support the stability of athens and develop his mind ad he minds of others 0 So if its not possible always to be a fully good citizen and a fully good person at the same time o Is there and reason one should want to be a good citizen Is it practically impossible to be a fully good person and a fully good citizen at the same time Which should one choose to be IF antigone is right there is no authority Do communities only prevent people from living well Is the only good reason to obey the law fear of power Is there any reason to obey the law Just because it is the law SPARTA Know for its regime REGIME laws rulers customs religious beliefs all the things that go together to determine how people live REGIME COUNTRY WAY of LIFE Controlled by political decisions Account from Plutarch39s quotlife of lycurgusquot Example of what politics does to the lives of individuals LYCURGUS Assumed throe when brother died Left so as not to cause trouble Traveled around doing political research Returned when the community asked Laws for the public and private good Laws for the public and private good Make spartans better VIRTUE temperance justice courage public spiritedness LAWS Domestic peace Redistribute land Too many power Too many rich Equality Suf ciency Change the money Made of iron blocks Discourage greed Robbery Bribery Foreign corruption Common meals 0 Avoid luxury 0 Work against the private Marriage 0 Purpose is to provide more good spartans No con ict between public and private Private good was the public good Lasted for about 500 years Preserved by EDUCATION Teach people the importance to them of the public good Teach people the respect of authority