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Week 11: (March 14-18) Marriage and Kinship - Culture Anthropology

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 11: (March 14-18) Marriage and Kinship - Culture Anthropology ANT2410

Marketplace > University of Florida > ANT2410 > Week 11 March 14 18 Marriage and Kinship Culture Anthropology
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 11: Marriage and Kinship
Cultural Anthropology
Crystal Felima
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT2410 at University of Florida taught by Crystal Felima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
Monday, March 14, 2016 Marriage and the Family Universality of Family and Marriage All societies recognize families and marriages Definition of Family  Social unit characterized by: o Economic cooperation o Management of reproduction o Child rearing o Common Residence o Recognition of rights and responsibilities o Socially approved sexual relationship Tradition view of marriage Heteronormative Marriage Defined  …as a series of customs formalizing the relationship between adults within the family  …regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligation between a married couple  …usually involves an explicit contract or understanding and is entered into with the assumption that it will be permanent. Non-ethnocentric view of Marriage  A relationship between one or more men (male or female) and one or more women (female or male) who are recognized by society as having a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another.  This recognized that gender is culturally defined  Not all married couple live together  Multiple spouses are accepted in many societies  In no society do all marriages endure until death Social Functions of Marriage  Creates relationships between partners that regulate mating and reproduction  Provides a mechanism for regulating the sexual division of labor  Creates a set of family relationships that provides for the material, educational, and emotional needs of children. Mate selection: Who is Out of Bounds? Incest Taboos: Theories  Inbreeding (biological consequences)  Family Disruption (negative social consequences)  Expanding Social Alliances (incest avoidance) Mate selection: Whom Should You Marry? Exogamy: marriage outside of one’s own social or kinship group Endogamy: marriage within a specified social or kinship group  Indian Aste System  Race, class, ethnicity, religion What are examples of de facto endogamy in he United States? Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Marriage and the Family Marriage: Transfer of Rights  Rights of sexual access  Legal rights to children  Rights of spouses to each other’s economic goods and services Economical Transactions of Marriage  Bridewealth: Goods or money of some type that will be give from the broom to the family’s bride  Bride service: In case the bride doesn’t have the money for the wedding…  Dowry: Bride to broom  Reciprocal exchange: Both partners exchange goods Mate Selection: Online Dating Mate Selection: Preferential Cousin Marriage Mate Selection: Levirate and Sororate Levirate: a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother Sororate: a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister Number of Spouses Monogamy: Maritial practice with only one spouse Polygyny: Marriage of a man to two or more women Polyandry: Marriage of a woman to two or more men Friday, March 18, 2016 Marriage, the Family, and Kinship “Anthropologists use relationships to uncover relationships” —Marilyn Strathern Family Structure  The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children  The extended family consists of a larger social unit, comprising relatives from three or more generations. US Family structures  Divorce is more acceptable  Woman in the workplace  Individualism Kinship Defined  Kinship: the social relationships that people are born into or create later in life, and are expressed through but not limited to, family member terms (i.e. mother, son, cousin, and so on).  Can be visualized as a “network of relatedness” that radiates from each individual. Perspective of Kinship: By blood (descent) and law (marriage)  Kinship is the recognition of a relationship between persons based on descent or marriage  Consanguines: blood relatives  Affinal: relatives by marriage Perspective of Kinship: Relationships Fictive Kinship: The socially recognized relationship between people in a culture who are or are held to be biologically related or who are given the status of relatives by designation or ritual. Function of Kinship Systems  Vertical function: provides social continuity by binding together a number of successive generations  Horizontal function: solidify or tie together a society across a single generation through marriage. Principles of Kinship Classification  Generation  Gender  Lineality Versus Collaterality  Consanguineal versu Affinal Kin  Relative age  Sex of the connecting  etc… The formation of descendent groups A descendent group is a social unit whose members claim common ancestry. Rules of Descent: Two Types  Unilateral o Trace their ancestry through mother’s line (matrilineal) or father’s lineal (patrilineal), but not both  Cognatic (Multilineal) descent o Includes double descent, ambilineal descent, and bilateral descent. Unilineal Descent Groups Lineage: an unilineal descent group of up to approximately ten generations – can trace ancestry back (step-by-step) to a common founder Clan: A group of kin, usually comprising more than ten generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step-by-step Cognatic or Multilineal Descent Groups  A form of descent traced through both females and males  Types of Multilineal Descent o Double descent – responsibilities from both sides o Ambilineal descent - you can choose the most important to you o Bilateral descent – egalitarian (un árbol familiar) Marital Residence Patterns -local=place  Patrilocal – Live with the husband’s family  Matrilocal – Live with wife’s family  Avunculocal – they live close or near their husband’s mother’s brother.  Almbilocal – They choose  Neolocal – The couple is independent


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