Week 1 - Medieval Spanish Art (Wednesday Lecture)
Week 1 - Medieval Spanish Art (Wednesday Lecture) Rel Std 100
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hazel Medina on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Rel Std 100 at University of California - Irvine taught by Betancourt, R. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Medieval Spain in Religious Studies at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Professor Bettancourt 09302015 Art HistoryReligious Studies Medieval Spain Week 1 Wednesday lecture From Damascus to alAndalus I Starting from the origins of Medieval Spanish culture A Late antique world circa classical Greeks and Romans B Christianity trying to solidify following especially with images portraying religious figures allow or no C Start seeing panMediterranean culture 1 Consider late Roman Empire and its farreaching expanse 2 Consider the convergences of various cultures Starting from Rome A Christianity s divide for example Romans cremate but Christianity said to leave the body in tact 1 One resolution was the Catacombs a Bodies in nice sarcophagi were put in slots b However radical changes in the empire led to theories of early Christian performing rituals in the Catacombs c Predominantly Christian 2 Christianity started developing a visual language I Early Christianity used images such as Christ as the Good Shepherd Catacomb of Priscilla Rome Italy early 4th century A Used to show Christ as a sort of good shepherd B Orant figure hands outsuch as the Mother of Christ Compare the iconography of these two figures J 39 J Icon of the Mother of God Blachernitissa Saint Catherine s Monastery on Mount Sinai 12601270 Orant Figure or lquotraydng39 l igu re with Good Shepherd scene above Catacomb of Priscilla Rome Italy Early 4 Century IV Catacombs just outside of Roman walls to keep dead outside and push forward new practices V A For example practice of sharing a meal with the dead 1 People would have picnics to symbolically eat with the dead 2 Comes from Ancient Egyptian practice of offerings to the dead B Catacombs also offered places to put the dead 1 Some wealthier people wanted to commemorate their quotnewfound religion through sarcophagi Roman Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Lives of Saint l ter and Christ c 312 On left Three Hebrew Boys in a Fiery Furnace On right Adam and Eve with the Tree of Knmvled ge 2 Various Christian figures used in iconography Christianity accepted as mainstream A More consideration about Christian burials B For example Church of Santa Costanza Mausoleum of Constantina and Helena the daughters of Constantine the Great Rome Italy c 325 350 Church of Santa Costanza Mausoleum of Constantina and Helena the daughters of Constantine the Great Rome Italy c 325 350 as 919319 639 Mosaics of winemaking on the vaults of the ambulatory of the Church of Santa l Costanza Mausoleum of Constantina and Helena the daughters of Constantine the Great Rome Italy c 325 350 9 1 Mosaic of winemaking on the vaults of the ambulatory of the church a Wine to allude to the sacrifice of blood b Also shows political message of commemorating new religion in their land by showing fruitful harvest of grapes to make wine Christianity as a political power 2 Notice iconography of plants around the edge possibly homage to offering foods VI Late Antique A Dura Europos 1 Lots of trade came through 2 Shrine to the God Mithras aka the Mithraeum Dura Europos c 240 CE Shrine to the God Mithras aka the Mithraeum DuraEuropos c 240 CE a Mithras was part of mystery religion which required some sort of initiation to a sort of cult b Mithras born in a cave and had to kill a bull c Offered promises of the afterlife similar to Christianity 3 There was also the synagogue a Assembly Room of the Synagogue Dura Europos c 250 CE b No depictions of God Judaism and later Islam was anionic but this Synagogue still used them to make references to the geography of the Holy Land as well as components of the religion 4 There was also Christian Building DuraEuropos c 232 CE a Tomb architecture to give sense of the convergence of life baptism and death b Image in this building Wallpainting of the Women at the Holy Tomb of Christ Baptistery in Christian Building DuraEuropos c 232 CE to show women in Holy Land seeing Christ has already risen Wallpainting of the Women at the Holy Tomb of Christ Baptistery in Christian Building DuraEuropos C 232 CE Wallpainting of Christ as the Good Shepherd Baptistery in Christian Building DuraEuropos c 232 CE as earliest depiction of Christ Wallpainting of Christ as the Good Shepherd Baptistery in Christian Building DuraEuropos C 232 CE VII Religious Syncretism A Religions often adopted from each other 1 For example the Statuette of Isis and Horus Ptolemaic Period Egypt c 30430 BCE and Master of the St Ursula Legend Iactans nursing and Child 1475 1500 Statuette of Isis and Horus Ptolemaic Master of the St Ursula Legend Virgin Period Egypt c 30430 BCE lactans nursing and Child 14751500 2 RomanEgyptian Image of Image of Isis on a Panel from a Triptych Egypt c 100 or 180200 and Virgin and Child Enthroned St Catherine s Monastery Mt Sinai 6th century 39 4 r r a L if y 7 r7 7 7 39 l 39 i j RomanEgyptian Image of Isis on a Panel Virgin and Child Enthroned St Catherine s from a Triptych Egypt c 100 or 180 200 Monastery Mt Sinai 6th Century a Know first image is from triptych because two prongs reveal it can be slotted somewhere b Notice that both female figures look into the distance to show them looking beyond c The right image plays on where each figure is looking Figure of Christ himself had generally come from Roman depictions of Helios their sun god 1 For example Christ as Helios Burial Grotto of the Julii Family underneath the church of St Peter Rome Italy Mid3rel century a Wears a halo b Vague cross which does not let people see a pagan image 2 Marble Plaque of the Ascension of Alexander the Great Chalkis Greece 12th century a Shows Alexander trying to escape from the many that love him by ploying griffins but saw serpent and came back to Earth to send them back b Shows secular dimensions of art VIII Fayum Egypt A Panel Portrait of a Teenage Boy from Fayum Hawara Egypt 2ncl century Mummy with an Inserted Panel Portrait of a Youth from Fayum llaxrvara Egypt circa 80I00 1 Images of the dead stuck onto mummies 2 Shows different burial practices as Christian used mummies to preserve dead for awhile B Panel portraits were also the start of freestanding paintings which gave rise to significant icons in Mt Sinai Panel Portrait of a thinfaced bearded Icon of Christ Philantln opos Lover of man from Fayum Hawara Egypt circa Humanity Saint Catherine s Monastery 160180 Mt Sinai Mid6th Century IX Sacred Architectures A Religious architecture often made references to Roman architecture often places for administration 1 Church of San Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna Italy 549 and Basillica 39 I l r l u l l I Iquot h h l h i I h 439 391 339 I Eglllll li39 Church of San Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna Italy 549 39 r Basilica of Maxentius Roman Forum Rome Italy 308312 2 Churches have central nave that draws attention to alter B Courtyard of the Great Mosque of Damascus Damascus Syria 706 pg 7 Cortyard of the Great Mosque of Damascus mascus Syria 706 1 Originally a Christian Church 2 The Umayyad shared the mosque with Christian Church at first
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