PSC 142 Week 2 Lecture Notes (Sept29/Oct1)
PSC 142 Week 2 Lecture Notes (Sept29/Oct1) PSC 142
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Denise Kaira Marquez on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 142 at University of California - Davis taught by Anne Dunlea in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Social and Personality Development in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Week 2 Notes Include Sept 29 Continued Lecture Notes from Week 1 Starting from Slide 19 Oct lst Aligns with Lecture Outline Cont Notes from previous lecture Slide 19 We do something because our society is doing it We come to act as our society does the mob in which we are in does He tried to explain the behavior in terms of group membership Sociocultural perspective Sociocultural perspective Edward Ross Tulip phenomenon Looked at the idea that explains the idea of the ind By looking at the social idea of the group Today it looks at someone s preferences are in uenced by one s group affiliations religious groups current trends political affiliation could in uence your choices amp behaviors that you make It pulls in ideas about society and culture to provide a set of values to try amp explain the behavior of an individual Social action is highly valued seen in places like Oxford amp Cambridge Person greed are scorned because one should be in the greater good Rowling works for Amnesty International google this who are very active in prisoner rights amp war issues amp human life Rowling was in a group of ind Fighting for the oppressed This from a sociocultural perspective shows that her value of personal greed amp instead giving to the greater good Her behavior would draw on the left wing international groups in Britain Vgotsky s theory tools of intellectual adaptation amp collaborative learning gt zone of proximal development Micahel Tomacello is the director of the developmental program that has a theory of cognitive culture of co evaluation Modern develop mentalist who pulls in part from socio cultural perspective Social Learning Perspective Social behavior is driven by an individual s past learning experiences In particular when one is rewarded or punished Historically this is associated with Freud Hall amp Floyd Alpold Their focus was on the role of the env amp nurture Relative role of how in uences from the env impacted the course of development As the field matured children also learned by paying attention Introduces the idea that children often chose the models they attend to that we are exposed to a great deal in our life Who did you admire Who were your mentors You were drawn to more people than others held some people at esteem more than others You held a choice of which you did your learning from helping to shape the learning of your env Empowers the child If we were to apply this to Rowling during an interview she was asked if she had a role model Her answer was yes Jessica Midford social rights activist She was a wealthy woman of a British conservative family She defied her family amp left wealthy Britain amp went to America amp devoted herself to social justice causes particularly in African American causes Left wing intellectual Social Cognitive Perspective Child centered perspective an ind Phenomenon Emphasizes subjective experiences amp how you feel about it yourself As you grow amp learn amp your thinking develops you are able to think amp ponder like morality the social expression of gender etc Involved in personal thinking about yourself Contribute to your identity altruism etc The child brings his own thinking to this Relies on cognitive based discoveries Piaget lt developmental psychologist Steema decentration desensitization of others perspective More abstract thinking Imaginary audience trying to look back at ourselves amp how we want to be seen by others Rowling was asked if she resented paying high taxes amp she said it would be hypocritical because she used to live off welfare Note that this behavior or willingness to do one s part is indeed consistent with her sense of identity partially internal amp also how we want to be seen Biological Bases of Social Behavior Ethology amp genetic in uence on behavior amp traits that you have Heritability amp biological foundations of aspects of personality EXOGINIST outside the biology ENDOGONIST within the domain of conversation Temperament amp personality features Resilience is the ability is the ability to grow from negative experience to be strong malleable exible To be there to bounce back Apply to the story of J oyce gt One might speculate that emotionally she Is inclined toward qualities amp altruism sensitivity to context amp personality features OCT 1 The Infant s Biological Preparedness for the Social World Vision 1 Earliest Vision is limited I Vision humans have fixed focal range Their ability to discrimination is fairly limited to things fairly close to them Range has expanded to about 13 inches a Fixed focal range b Black and White c Red amp yellow then blue amp green d Acuity Snellen measure 20800 20200 1 month 2150 2 months 2 0 100 6 months 2 What babies like to look at a Objects that have large visible elements movement contours and contrast We often bring our babies close amp face to face with us Do babies see color Not right after birth They have grey tone vision Babies start to see vision at two weeks Red is the first color they see social amp emotional Then yellow amp blue amp green Cones process color How clearly does the baby see After birth they see about 28100 They see at 20 feet at what someone sees at 100 feet 0 In 2 months 2150 6 months 2020 b Particularly interested in eyes and faces that look directly at them What do they like to look at High contrast things Objects that have a lot of visible elements movement contours amp contrasts such as the human face They are interested in eyes amp faces that look directly towards them c by age 3 months Discriminate better They look longer at faces than other things When we look at brain activity noninvasively increases when an infant is presented with a face compared to other objects fMRI studies indicate that there are areas in the cortex that are specialized in face recognition d Adults have a repertoire of infant elicited exaggerated facial expressionsquot What these are If you think about how parentsmothers behave when they re around an infant when they look towards you you have a tendency to greet them with a big positive facial It s the infant that disengages with the interaction These are displayed when adult esp parent perceives baby is looking at them Evidence of filmed interactions indicates the adult responds to the infant the baby is the one who disengages when looses interest etc Auditory a well developed at birth b infant in utero De Casper amp Spense 1986 Cat and Hatquot Babies respond to their mother s voice STUDY Had mothers of 7 8 9 months read from Cat in the Hatquot daily so the baby was exposed to this over amp over 0 Do babies really hear I Take a pacifier connected to a computer Non neutrative nipple I Babies get excited when they perceive They hear the subtle speech sounds The baby heard its mother read amp something ELSE The baby could decide which one to 3 listen to The pacifier was rigged if the baby changed the speed of sucking it would change which recording would play it s mother or not The babies chose to change their sucking rate to trigger the recording of their own mother s voice I The baby can learn by observing has memoriziation has cognitive representation amp choose to modify their own behavior in order to have a desired effect I Babies hear choose modify choice and remember c VOT Voice onset timing Subtle distinctions in the sounds the human voice makes d Infants open eyes wider and look at speaker suggests biological programming to respond to human voices e Especially attend to highpitched voices Parents tens to uses exaggerated intonation and long drawn out vowels f Infants prefer this kind of baby talk compared with standard language Smell a Very well developed at birth b Babies can choose own mother s breast milk Touch a Skin is the largest sense organ and sensation develops there early in utero b Infants respond to gentle touch and are calmed when patted stroked and rubbed Each of these senses contributes to social engagement Each help prepare the infant for the social world Neonatal Imitation film clip Probably enabled by mirror neurons Serves an adaptive function Interactional Synchrony see text pages 1367 0 Human engage with one another in a synchronous way If you re talking to someone the way you respond is contingent upon what the person has done prior to you verbal amp NV 0 Do you like chocolatequot Yeah I like chocolatequot 0 It helps the baby learn to take turns with one another in social contingency o Facetoface interactions 0 Parent responses are contingent and predictable o By 23 months infants begin to show social contingency A 3 month old will usually smile and show delight when parent smiles at him 0 Often involves chorusing o In research studies Ed Tronick infants become distressed if baby and mother are in en face engagement and mother keeps her face still or is unresponsive and silent Babies try to engage M then when fail get very upset
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