Week 7 Lecture Notes
Week 7 Lecture Notes PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Week 7 Notes Monday 928 Social Behavior of the Week Be a deviate act in a nonconforming way in a public place Describe what you did don t break the law how did others react how did you feel Our own behavior in uences our attitudes Supporting the ag can make people feel more patriotic Brainwashing in Korean War 0 Some American POWs cooperated with the communists 0 Methods I Active participation was required American soldiers were forced to write essays about strengths of communism I Demands were increased gradually Told the soldiers to send those essays home Saying it became believing it 0 After the war was over some of the POWs didn t want to leave Cognitive Dissonance o Explains why active participation in uences our attitudes 0 When our behavior is inconsistent with our beliefs we have this uncomfortable feeling of dissonance gt change your attitude so your behavior and beliefs match up 0 Example smoking and dissonance smoking is bad for your health and you believe that you should take care of your body people will give rationalizations about it o Dissonance is unpleasant so we try to reduce it 0 Ways to reduce dissonance I Change their attitude I Change the perception of their behavior I Add consonant cognitions think of justifications rationalizations Role of justification o If we perform counterattitudinal something that goes against their beliefs behavior for low justification 0 We experience dissonance which can lead to an attitude change Festinger amp Carlsmith performed an experiment in which they induced participants to say that a boring task was interesting twisting pegs in a board then the experimenter asks the participant to tell a new participant that turning these pegs will be interesting and enjoyable Half of the participants got 20 high justification to do this while the other half got just 1 low justification The man who was pair 20 knows the reason they were lying The person getting 1 doesn t have justification to be lying so they changed their attitudes to match what they were saying they felt more dissonance leading to more attitude change Less justification gt more cognitive dissonance gt more attitude change Timing o Dissonance often occurs after we make a decision 0 People were asked about their confidence in winning before and after placing the bets People who were asked about it after they had already placed their bet would feel dissonance if they admitted they didn t think their horse would win so they said they thought they would Social in uence can be automatic yawning is contagious Wednesday 930 Social in uence can be automatic Mimicry o In babies they often duplicate your facial expression 0 In adults the confederate mimics the participant and then the participant tends to like them more 0 We do it sometimes without knowing we re doing it Social Impact Theory 0 In class exercise Had 5 people sing the star spangled banner together and next had one person sign the star spangled banner by themselves 0 Social in uence depends on I Strength of the source who the audience members are more or less authoritative I Immediacy or closeness how close the audience is to the person I Number of sources how many audience members there are 0 Social impact diffused when we had multiple singers the impact was diffused but when we had one singer all social impact was on them Conformity Compliance and Obedience o Conformity we aren t asked to follow what others do we copy the behavior of others 0 Compliance is when someone asks you to do something 0 Obedience is when someone of authority tells you to do something 0 Differ mainly in the degree of social pressure on the individual I Conformity involves the least pressure I Obedience involves the most social pressure following order I Example two older individuals led a cult called Heaven s Gate Said a comet was coming towards Earth and one leader thought the comet would rescue them to Heaven The cult needed to prepare had the group members drink lots of alcohol and then tie plastic bags around their heads Largest group suicide because they were obedient to the leaders 0 Stereotype that resisting conformity is good Example being Rosa Parks Resisting conformity means you re true to yourself not selling out think for yourself But considered weird might be more alone 0 But Nonconformity is bad Example being the naked guy who tried to attend all his college classes naked Conforming means you ll be liked popular 0 Stereotypes about conformity are too simpleminded Peer pressure can produce either good setting good examples for others or ill pressured into something you don t want to do Conformity a change in behavior of belief toward a group norm you see what others are doing and follow along 0 The pressure may be subtle 0 We deny conformity in ourselves but can see it easily in others Within ourselves it s automatic we don t know we re doing it but we can recognize when others conform to the group Most people want to be normal Why conform o Informational needs I Festinger When uncertain we rely on others We use LEI comparison when we compare yourself to other people 0 Social pressure Friday 102 Obedience Compliance Conformity Independence Assertiveness Defiance Yielding to Resisting In uence In uence Why do we conform o Informational needs I Festinger When uncertain we rely on others we use social comparison I It leads to private acceptance 0 Social Pressure normative in uence I We conform in order to gain rewards I Example Binge eating in sororities researchers have found that the more a woman engaged in binge eating the more popular she was but in other sororities moderate amounts of binge eating were the most popular I Leads to public conformity I May lead to going to extremes to be popular Schacter 1951 found that of his confederates the conformer went along with the group s opinion was most liked the slider started out arguing against but then conformed was next and the deviate argued against the whole time was least liked Private acceptance versus public conformity 0 Participants make a judgment about johnny Rocco write on a piece of paper they generally wanted to be easy on johnny and the researcher says in general he presents a false group norm said everyone wanted a harsh punishment Next the participants make a 2nd judgment some people in front of the group some in private There was a 26 change towards the fake group norm even when the participants were in private In public there s a 39 change towards the fake group norm 0 In juries it s pretty rare to see an 111 deadlock gt the lone person feels a lot of social pressure Task Characteristics and Conformity o Ambiguity increases conformity when something is unclear or people don t know what s happening people turn to others 0 Sherif 1936 autokinetic effect a light in the dark seems to move Over time participants converge on a group norm that leads to private conformity Example results of the autokinetic effect experiement after Sherif 1935 E 12 P1 10 P2 8 P3 Q 0 1st estimate 2nd estimate 3rd estimate 4th estimate alone group group group Ambiguity o Is likely when distinguishing quotrightquot from wrong 0 There was a German named Adolf Eichmann who was hired to help improve the train system in Germany This was used to transport and eventually kill tons of Jews He was ruined by modestyquot because quotwho was he to have his own thoughtsquot about the Final Solution 0 If we feel ambiguous about our opinions we might doubt ourselves and trust that others know what they re talking about Asch When reality is clear will people conform 0 When people were asked which line it matched and they were alone in the room almost everyone gave the right answer Q When in a group and confederates gave a wrong answer then the participants doubted their original answer gt A B C agreed with the confederate s wrong answer F reploIamn at the cares uyrc duvno the Q conformity on critical trials r lzio lert39 L T li Hard 5 zm Iquot fur 39rlmm39uir H39w air393 CH The 71 s lcws UV ilerrI5r wry RE ERFNCE o 75 conformed at least once over 12 trails 0 It s due to social pressure that leads to public conformity
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