Anthroplogy section 2: chapters 4 and 16
Anthroplogy section 2: chapters 4 and 16 ANTR 110S
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nathaniel Rhodes on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTR 110S at Old Dominion University taught by KRISTIN M MACAK in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Anthropology Section 2Ch 4 ANTR 1105 Chapter 4 Biological Anthropology A B Paleontology The study of ancient life through fossil records Humans are social creatures Research methods A Fossils A Biological anthropologists study biological remains bone DNA and recent human primates from a genetic standpointReconstructing the human behaviors social patterns and culture features of the area Archaeologists study the material given to them from an excavation site bones ceramics etc Paleoanthropologists study the skeletal material of humans paleontologists study every kind of fossil Paleoanthropology Study of early hominids homonins and human life through fossils multidisciplinary approach Multiple fields of anthropology working together to solve a complex task ex Biologists and archaeologists working together to solve the life of a australopithecine Fossils Remains of past life ex turkana boy Remote sensing Use of aerial photos and satellite imaging to locate sites on the ground ex Google maps Fossils reconstruct the past with each find Archaeologists must survey and get permission to quotdigquot excavate a site Systematic survey study of settlement patterns over a large area identifying how groups in the past organized themselves in a region Excavation Digging through layers on a site a time consuming and expensive task you must know what you39re looking into before hand Cultural Resource Management CRM vocation of managing resources such as ceramics and other objects Anthropology Section 2Ch 4 ANTR 1105 F Taphonomy study of processes affecting remains of dead animals Fossil dating A Relative dating establishing a time frame in relation to other strata or materials B Absolute dating establishing dates in number ranges and time frames C Stratigraphy study of Earth sediments deposited in demarcated layers D Carbon 14 C14 dating based on how long a fossil has been deprived of carbon 14 used on organic material E The half life technique is also used on fossils by finding C7 or the half life of carbon F Dendrochronology dating the rings of a tree years can vary G Molecular anthropology DNA comparisons for links and relations Methods of dating A Carbon 14 C14 used on organic material B PotassiumArgon dating KA used on volcanic material C Uranium series C38 minerals D Thermoluminescence TL Rocksminerals E Electronic Spin Resonance ESR Rocksminerals F Dendrochronology wood other definitions A Paleopathology Study of disease and injury in skeletons B Anthropometry Measurement of human body parts and dimensions C Bone biology Study of bone as a biological tissue Anthropology Section 2Ch 4 ANTR 1105 D Informed consent Agreement to take part in research while being informed ahead of time E Anthropology has ethics even though it involves fossils F Garbology dating starting from old at the bottom to new at the top like a trash can Chapter 16 Making a living food production A food production Plant cultivation and animal domestication B Production started our path to sedentism over foraging as hunter gatherers C adaptive strategies means of making a living productive system D People in the arctic still engage in hunting and gathering as well as southsouth east Asia Malaysia Africa and a few others Eskimos and inuits would be the closest hunter gatherers to us Canada and Alaska E Band A basic social unit fewer than 100 people can split seasonally into a few groups F correlation association of 2 variables if one changes the other does as well food intake correlating with calorie increasedecrease G Agriculture cultivation using land and labor continuously and extensively H Horticulture Nonindustrial plant cultivation and management shifting cultivation moving crops around after a while to keep cultivation going so if there are 3 spaces corn onion and a free space they will switch to free space corn and onion t quotshiftsquot around J cultivation continuum continuous use of landshifting plots and labor K slash and burn cutting trees downslashing and burning them to be used as nutrients for crops must be left fallow for years before returning Other agricultural methods A Domesticated cows pigs and cattle Anthropology Section 2Ch 4 ANTR 110S B Irrigation mass watering of plants C Terracing setting up smalls hills so crops don39t fall out of place from rain D costbenefit of agriculture intensive on land money and people but greatly benefits surrounding community if the harvest is good Nomadism A Nomadism The annual movement of a pastoral group with herdsseasonaly too B Pastoralists herders of a domesticated animal group C Transhumanance System in which part of the population moves seasonally with herds Economy A Economy System in which resources are produced distributed and consumed B Economizing Allocation of scarce means resources among alternative ends C Market principle Buying selling and valuation based on supply and demand D Means of production Major productive resources land labor tech production E Mode of production Specific set of social relations that organize labor F industrialization mass manufacturing requires tools labor and specializations G Industrial workers are not as committed to a product as nonindustrial workers H Industrial alienation tends to have a negative appearance low wages physical and emotional taxation and overbearing bosses in the workplace of factories I Redistribution Flow of goods from a local level into a center of command and then back to the local level Adaptive strategies A Distribution and exchange B EconomizingMaximizingavoiding waste maximizing profitsgetting the most out of product C Food Productionhorticulture agriculture Pastoralism Anthropology Section 2Ch 4 D E ANTR 110 Foraging huntgather Mode of productionreprocity Reciprocity A Reciprocity principle governing exchanges among social equals Reciprocity continuum A continuity happens frequently running from generalized closely related or good standing to negative bad standing Generalized reciprocity Exchanges among closely related individuals easy to do Balanced reciprocity Exchange between acquaintances slightly longer transaction time Negative reciprocity Potential hostility in exchanges among strangers or people with bad pasts