Week 4 - Notes
Week 4 - Notes CLAS 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willa Sharpe on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 1010 at Tulane University taught by Chrisopther Caterine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Rise of Rome in Classical Studies at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome September 14 2015 Roman Expansion 4th 3rd c BC Most campaigns are single season 46 weeks 3 months was super long 0 Fight while grain is growing 0 Steal movable goals 0 July and August brutally dry and hot 0 September high tail it back and get crops Very ritual Citizen armies are normal at roman O No mercenaries like Greeks 0 Draft selects starts at 16 or 17 46 Tributa finance longer campaigns 0 Leeved on rich 0 Help pay for war Veii as significant turning points 0 Deditio entidem I Handing over into the trust of I Handover everything to Rome 0 Temples people houses I Useful because it increases the number of potential soldiers I Poor people get plots of land and now qualify as soldiers I Absorption rather than conquest Rome s new neighbors O Campanians I Bay of naples have points poking out 0 Samnites I Live in Apinine Mountains I Long local tradition of confederacy 0 1st Samnite War 343 341 BCE I Romans agreed to help Capula against Samnites I Come to a treat 0 The Latin War 341 338 BCE I Fed up with Rome I Get help from Campaigna I Samnites help Rome I Roman Victory ends Latin Independence I Cannot make treaties on their own without permission from Rome I Municipia pl a satalite to the city of Rome 0 2 types 0 With suffragium full roman citizenship can vote close to Rome 0 Without suffragium limited number of latin rights I Socii nominis latini 0 Special relationship with Rome Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome 0 Nominal independence 0 Allies of the latin name I Coloniea still independent 0 No right to vote I Still have original latin rights but can only exercise with Rome 0 Romans unwilling to give up things that made sense 0 Applies to cities that gave in quickly 0 If not brutally eliminated I As a result Rome controls most of Latium 0 Benefits of this system I No buereaucracy I Send military help otherwise do not get rights I Soldiers 0 Obligated to send people to fight in summer 0 Loyalty 0 Giving different communities varying degrees of rights 0 Rome encourages communities to fight to get rights 2nd Samnite War 326 304 BC 0 Attack Naples 0 910 months are normal 0 Only fight 46 weeks 0 Battle of Caudine Fork s I Lots of Romans catured alive I Pass under yoke as an example to say they are less than the Samnites I Embarrasment I At pass at beneventum O Samnites drive into Latium I Rome drives them out 0 Major Development in 312 BC I Appius Claudius Caecus serves as a censor 0 Controls large public works 0 Makes road from Rome down coast and across the country 0 Via Appia 0 Used as a military road 0 Established coloniea O 53 colonies established 0 Aqua Appia O Aquaduc that runs from mountains to Rome 0 Says we are too big to support 3rd Samnite War 298 290 BC 0 Unite Etruscans Guals Umbrines O Surround Rome 0 Everyone is concerned 0 Battle of Sentinum 295 BC I Happens on WE coast of Italy I Roman win Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome I Decisive battle The Roman Manipular Army 0 Start 300 BC certain formation 0 Type of fighting style was learned by Samnites O CoC I 2 Consuls over see two legions 0 Normal total or 4 legions per year 0 Must have fought for ten years before you can run for office I 6 military tribunes manage each legion 24 I 5 years experience First 24 are elected Elected position 0 4 legions tribunes selected by consuls I Infantry is divided into thirty maniples 0 Two centurians selected per maniples 0 Select two standard bearers I Infantry divisions 4200 men at arms I Velites 1200 Like hockey goalies 0 G0 first throw spears and rocks 0 Do helmets however they want I Hastati 1200 1st line 0 Heavy armor O 2 throwing spears 1 sword I Principes 1200 0 Main fighting force 0 Lots of experience 0 Armed same as hastate 0 Triarii 600 O Oldest people 0 Reserve force 0 Only with thrusting spear I Calvary division 300 0 Five squads of 30 on each wing 0 Tight in waves 0 Group force 0 1St velites poke holes I Layout is identical I Consul is center I Everyone else is easy access I Camp home away from home I Severe discipline 0 Lots of punishment by death 0 Run gauntlet pelt with sticks and stones 0 If you live you lose Roman rights I Helps encourage sound sleep Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome 0 Pay I Some pay by 2 c I Supplies deducted 0 Booty is crucial I Oak crown is given to someone who saves someone else in battle I Now obligated to call the guy who saved him father I Golden crown is awarded to the first to pass the line I Spear is awarded to those with exceptional valor one on one fight usually velites O Romans were driven to show valor in war September 16 2015 Memorable Stories Sabine Women 0 Phase 1 Romans snatch women I Romulus organize festival of Neptune I Women assured they will be wives 0 Phase 2 Women prevent war between father and husbands 0 What role do women play in Roman society I Form peaceful relations between men I Roman women are courageous special I Loyalty with father and husband because it determines social rights 0 Romans are denied a reasonable request of conubium and they don t like that so they use force Horiatti Roman amp Curiattii Albans 0 Phase one Triplets fight on behalf of their cities 0 Horatius kills his sister I Every woman should be happy because Rome war 0 Horatius goes to trial I Loses first time then appeals king urges I Second time pass under lender yoke 0 Why is murder forgiven I King favors the guy I Father says he needed to kill him then he would have 0 Challenges patria potestaes I Father is old and wouldn t have any more kids if Horatius is killed I No bloodline is a bad deal 0 Why tried for treason I Goes against the patria potestaes of his father which is committing treason on his father Horatius Cocles not related to previous 0 Phase 1 Horatius holds a bridge by self or with friends 0 Phase 2 Once it is destroyed he swims to safety 0 According to Polybius Horatius Cocles dies 0 Why does Livy tell this I Shows Rome is not an individual society Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome 0 Why does he die in one and not the other I Livy rewards his heroism C Mucius Scaevola 0 Phase 1 C Mucius tries to kill Lars Porsena 0 Phase 2 the king frees him after a gruesome display throws his right arm in the fire 0 Phase 3 C Mucius reveals his conspiracy 0 Was there a plan to kill the king I No C Mucius has to ask permission 0 What should we admire I Clever brave the deceit because it benefits Rome Cloelia 0 Phase 1 Cloelia helps hostages escape I Gets sent back to Etruscans 0 Phase 2 Lars Porsena frees her 0 Is this consistent I Not really Lars Porsena takes hostages when he s asking for peace L Quinctius Cincinnatus Phase 1 Romans face a military crisis Phase 2 Cincinnatus named dictator Phase 3 He resolves the crisis and resigns What does this teach us about Roman attitudes to political office I Romans love farmers in political office and military A Cornelius Cossus 0 Phase 1 Cossus kills an Etruscan king in battle 0 Phase 2 He dedicates the spolia opima Exemplary History 0 Stories are called exempla I Short and rumor I Furnish models of behavior 0 Key Roman virtues I Virtus manliness I Fides trustworthiness I Pietas duty to God country and family I Gravitas seriousness or weight I Severitas sternness I These all re ect mos maiorium custom and ancestors I I 0000 0 Add to dignitas and auctoritas September 18 2015 Rome s civic Institution A mixed government 0 Power divided between different groups I Magistrates senate people 0 General principles at Magistrates I All offices elected I All offices are collegial has a colleague Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome I Strict term limit I Provinciae sphere of in uence very clear I Consuls I Praetor Commander in chief Religious obligations Powers 0 Possess imperium O Possess auspicium O O I The right to take the auspices ask the gods a question Can summon the senate Can summon assemblies of the people I Laws and legal cases Visible symbols of power 0 O O O Toga Pretexta 12 lictors Inside of pomerium the fasces ax portion removed Sella curulis I Ivory folding chair Lex LicinaSextia 367 BCE I Fixes consulship as highest power Number increases over time Main job is to stand in for the consul when they re on campaign Power 0 O O O Possess imperium I More judicial Possess auspicium Can summon senate Can summon assemblies Symbols of power 0 O O Toga Praetexta 2 lictors I Imperium is less than that of a consul Sella Curulis Most associated with courts I Curule Aediles 2 from 366 BC on Oversee public works Powers 0 O I Quaestors Up keep of the roads temples and sewers Oversee annual games Treasurers Few always stay in Rome and generals take a quaestor to go on a campaign Powers O 0 Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome 0 Oversee the treasury O Oversee the general abroad I Can stand up to consul in monetary matters Plebian Magistrates I Tribune of the Plebs 10 0 Powers 0 Can summon concilium plebis O Summon senate O Veto acts of regular assembly magistrates I Result of sacrosanctity I Plebian Aediles 0 Powers 0 Assist the tribunes of the plebs O Oversee plebian temples and games Extraordinary Magistrates I Censors 2 elected every 5 years for 18 mos 0 Conduct the census 0 Powers 0 Assign citizens to centuries 0 Manage roll of senate I Evaluate moral failings I Blackball senators 0 Major public works I Can start new huge projects I Dictator I temporary king 0 Not elected 0 Term 6 mos or at the end of the crisis 0 24 lictors 0 Absolute power even inside the pomerium 0 Tribunes of the Plebs cannot veto when dictator is in office 0 Names magister equium as proxy Roman Assemblies 0 00000 All meetings are open air meetings Only convene when certain people call them to order Vote calls the law No quorum number of people voting is never the same No absentee ballot Comitia Curiata I Division of patricians into 30 curiae I Lictors as reps in historical period I Powers 0 Legally confer imperium 0 Legally confer auspicium 0 Legally confirm a priest I Ratifies adoption and wills Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome I Summoned by patrician magistratea pontifex I During interregnum these people rule Comitia Centuriata I Division of citizens into 193 centuries I Powers 0 Elect consul praetors and censors I Vote on major bills warpeace etc I Hears appeals of capital charge I Summoned by magistrates with imperium I Must meet outside of the pomerium Comitia Tributa I Division of the citizens into 35 tribes I Each tribe has an equal vote I Powers 0 Elect curule aediles quaestors military tribunes 0 Sometimes allowed to pass laws I Passes judgement in trial I Summoned by magistrate with imperium Concilium Plebis I Same as comitia tributa but without the Patricians I Power 0 Elect the tribune of the pleb 0 Pass law after 287 BCE I Passes judgement in trials after 287 BCE I Summoned by Tribune of the Plebs I Can meet anywhere in or around Rome The Senate I Advisory board I Old fucks I Starting in 318 the censors start to manage the senate 0 Must have been in a major elected office to be on the senate I MEMBERSHIP IS NOT HEREDITARY I Gives advice to office holders I NO INDEPENDENT LEGAL AUTHORITY I Power 0 Advise consul praetors or tribunes I Summoned by consul praetors or tribunes I Most be in a space consecrated to the gods 0 Any temple I Closed forum I Princeps Senatus speak first 0 Elected by consul 0 Highest dignitas I Recommendations are not made by vote I Made by consensus Notes Week 4 Rise of Rome 0 In uence based on accumulated dignitas of its membership Roman Religion 0 Preliminaries State religion not private Guiding principle practice not belief PaX dueorum Peace of Gods No separation of church and state 0 Key concepts of Priesthood Most are collegial Not elected but chosen by fellow priests Held for life 0 Few are full time PontifeX eventually 15 people 0 Headed by pontifeX maximus 0 Oversees most sacrifice and the calendar 0 College gives advice on legal matters Augus eventually 15 0 Divining the will of the gods through augury 0 Advises the magistrates exercising auspicium 0 Inaugurate sacred spaces Vestal Virgins 6 women 0 Dedicated to Vesta 0 30 year term 0 Special Privileges 0 Freed from patria potesta O Sacrosanctity 0 Married after terms ends 0 Distinguished mark 0 Wears toga but keeps haircut of a women 0 Special seats at festivals 0 Protected through severe punishment
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