Lifespan Development Week 3
Lifespan Development Week 3 PSY 09218
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Haynes on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 09218 at Rowan University taught by Robert B. Haynes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Lifespan Development Week 3 Biological Foundations 0 Heredity 0 00000 O O 0 Twins 0 As egg and sperm unite at conception each egg an sperm cell has 23 chromosomes When the sperm penetrates the cell it now has 23 pairs of chromosomes The first 22 pairs are called autosomes The 23rd determined the sex of the child Woman X Man X girl xx boy xy 1 chromosome holds 1 molecule of DNA which are made up of chemical compounds called genes Genes are the functional unit of heredity A complete set makes up a person s genotype When genes interact with the environment a phenotype occurs Phenotype is an individual s physical behavioral and psychological features Anything that genetics isn t a cause of Monozygotic twins identical single fertilized egg splits in two Common mistake is when there are identical twins that are opposite sex There can only be one sex Dizygotic twins fraternal Two separate eggs fertilized by two separate sperm 0 Down syndrome 0 O 0 Individual with down syndrome typically have an extra 21St chromosome provided in the egg It comes from the mother s side Depending on how old the mother was when the child was born could play a part 0 From conception to birth 0 O O O In vitro fertilization when the sperm is input into the mother s womb Ensures the sperms attaches the uterine for fertilization May use sperm donors The first test tube baby was born 30 years ago named Louis Brown When going to a sperm bank mothers can choose the characteristics of their baby s Father Stages of Prenatal Development ZEF 0 Zygote Weeks 12 0 O O 0 Is a technical term for fertilized egg It begins when the egg is actually fertilized And ends when the egg is embedded the in mom s uterine wall Menstruation stops 0 Embryo Weeks 38 0 O O O 0 Once the embryo is embedded in the uterine walls development begins to occur Develops 2 ways from the brain developing the spinal cord vital organs Etc And the middle out Developing arms before hands legs before feet before toes etc Umbilical cord houses blood vessels that join the embryo to the placenta Amniotic uid cushions the embryo from shocks and bumps and maintains a constant temperature 0 Fetus Weeks 9 birth 0 O Cartilage begins to form to bone At about 4 months mother beings to feel movement 0 Age of viability 2228 weeks 0 This is the age at which most systems function well enough that a fetus born at this time has a chance to survive The problem is that the lungs are not fully developed and there is no fat layer to insulate to maintain homeostasis normal temperature 0 Prenatal diagnosis 0 O O 0 Ultra sound uses soundwaves to generate a picture of a fetus Typically done as early as 4 5 weeks after conception Sex can be seen after 1620 weeks Amniocentesis is where a needle is inserted into the abdomen to get a sample of amniotic uid that surrounds the uid An ultra sound is used when inserting the needle in order to avoid sticking the fetus The fetus s genotype can be determined from this uid The issue with this testing is that it takes 3 weeks for the cells to grow enough for testing In uences on Prenatal Development 0 Nutrition 0 O The mother is the baby s sole source of nutrition She needs to increase calorie intake by 1020 daily and should expect to gain between 2535 lbs during pregnancy Its also not unusual to gain 15201bs after pregnancy Onethird of the weight during pregnancy is the baby placenta and uid one third is fat and onethird is breast growth Folic acid is important for brain development Not enough folic acid could lead to spina bifida This is when the baby s spine is not correctly formed and enclosed the way it should be Prenatal vitamins are essential Stress 0 Women under extreme stress have given birth earlier or have babies that weigh less than average 0 Stress can weaken a mom s immune system 0 Women under stress are more likely to smoke or drink if they were previously doing so before pregnancy 0 Stress is defined by six elements Frustration con ict change pressure disappointment disrespect 0 How you respond to stress results in the outcome You re the only one that can make the outcome good or bad 0 Stress response outcome Age 0 Mom s in their teens are more likely to have problems with pregnancy labor and delivery 0 Teens do not always get proper prenatal care and nutrition 0 Teen moms are less likely to have the child s father around 0 Women in their 20 s are twice as fertile as women in their 30 s and so forth 0 After 35 risks of miscarriage increase rapidly among 4045 nearly half of pregnancies end in miscarriages 0 Women in their 40 s are more likely to have a child with down syndrome Teratogen 0 Latin translation giving birth to monsters 0 An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development 0 Common teratogen include drugs diseases environmental Toxoplasmosis 0 Outdoor cats often have toxoplasmosis which is a one celled organism that causes a mild infection of the blood and other organs in humans 0 Cats get it from eating rodents like rats or mice 0 The infected mother infects the unborn baby and can cause damage to the brain and eyes 0 Never empty or clean a litter box while pregnant or inside where the baby is it is safer to clean it outside since the parasite s eggs pass through cat s intestinal tract Post partum Depression 0 O O O Irritability confusion fatigue crying spells forgetfulness Hippocrates called it puerperal fever in 460 Bc In the 11th century gynecologists said PPD was caused by the moist womb that filled the brain with uid and crying was the release of that water 5080 of new mother deal with PPD Bottle feeding Vs Breast feeding O O 0 Bottle feeders can regulate and measure the amount of formula consumed Dad can help feel included mom doesn t have to be the only one up at 3 am Most formula has the nutrients that breast milk has 0 Breast feeding O O O O O O O O Builds baby s immune system It s also cheaper Babies are more resistant to disease Mother s milk or more easily digested Helps build psychological bond with the mother Helps the uterus contract and the abdomen is reduced to prepregnancy size quicker Temperature of the milk is always perfect Night feeding is simplified Freezing breastmilk is okay Never microwave 0 Medication and Anesthetics O O O O Demerol I Too soon slows labor I Too late may not give adequate relief Tranquilizers narcotics Atarax Valum Ativan I Relieves anxiety nausea I May cause dizziness dry mouth blurred vision Epidural I Single dose or through a plastic catheter I Numbness to waist to toes I In use for at least 50 years I Best for cesarean section 0 Breech delivery 0 O O O O 3 of birth are feet first Most cases babies are delivered in good condition Doctor can use ultrasound to guide birth Sometimes fetus can be turned manually Sometimes Csection is necessary