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CHap4 exam cumulative.pdf

by: Jalen Williams

CHap4 exam cumulative.pdf CHEM 1C

Jalen Williams
Introduction to Chemistry
Dr. ward

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Chemistry powerpoint.... best chemistry powerpoint ever
Introduction to Chemistry
Dr. ward
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jalen Williams on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1C at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Dr. ward in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Chemistry at University of South Carolina Aiken.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
CHap4 exam cumulative Physical Properties characteristic observed or measured wo changing the identify of s substance Shape physical state boiling and freezing points density an colon of that substance Chemical properties descibe the ability of a substance To interact with other substancees To change into a new substances Physical Changes occur when matter undergoes a physical change of state but its composition remains constant water exists in three states ice water and steam Chemical change chemicals are substances that always have the same composition and properties Things are made from chemicals Soup and lotions Toothpaste Cosmetics Clothes Chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances At the molecular level chemical change involves making or breaking of bonds between atoms These changes are chemical iron Summary of the scientific method obsrvation Hypothesis experiments Theory Lengifh Wieghi 111mm 1 11111 1111111l ri1 1 119 1111111 g 1 11L 1111111 L 1 m 2111111 11111 1 2 11111 limgl 1 L 11111 11L 1 rl 11111em 1 g a 11111 1 L 11101 L 1 cm 2 111 m 1 g 2 111 g 1 EL 2 111 L 1 ITI g 1111111 mm 1 g g 1111111 mg 1 L g 1111111 ITIIL 1 mm 3 11111 m 1 mgr 11111 g 1 innL 11111 L Metric Conversion Chart K110 To convert to a smaller unit move 1000 Hlecto decimal point to the right or multiply unns 10 units BaSIc Deci 1118 centi 091 Milli To convert to a larger unit move Ul ltS 0 001 decimal point to the left ordivide Units 4 Q Calculate a percentage ten karotgold is 417 gold how many grams of pure gold are there in a ring made of 700 goften karat gold 417 x 70 2919 Rearrange an equation to solve for a variable example T1 18TC32 an element that is composed of just one type of atom a compound that is composed of two or more elements Heterogeneous mixture the composition varies from one part of the mixture to another the diff parts of the the mixture are visible Homogenous mixture the composition is uniform throughout the sample The diff part of the mixture not visible Mixtures the type of matter that consist of 2 or gt substances that are mixed but not combined Two or more substances in different proportions that can be separated by physical methods Number Significant Figures Rule 48923 3967 U lPU I L 124 00004 4 E4 1 14 81000 13 001 501040 1234 3000000 3 E6 1 1 100 100 E1 3 134 Scientific notation is the way that scientists easily handle very large numbers or very small numbers For example instead of writing 00000000056 we write 56 X 10 9 1 41 alkali metals haiagana alkaline earth niatais nabia gases pen and H Ill 1 1 transition metals rare earth alemanta E21 39 539quot Tquot1 13 14 15 1E 17 anther metalg lanthanida alemanta Ff 7391 anlyj Ina Iva 7 Fa Mina Erna athar nanrnatais actinida alemanta 39 3 4 5 E T B 9 H 11 12 IE ill 1FIIJ ETIIb II iFIIIb LF II III 22 2a 24 25 2a 27 2a 29 an mi Ti 439 Cr Mn FE 11 Hi Eu En 5375 Br 411 41 42 4a 44 45 4a 47 4a Er HI HI TE Ru Rh F39III Ag El 72 7a 74 75 7a 77 7a 79 an Hf Ta 14 RE Us Ir Pt Au Hg N104 1115 1116 1117 1112 1119 111 111 112 113 114 115 III III HIEI III 1 11E 41 121 111 59 E111 H5 r1t D5 Hg mummu mut lmup IEIquot Uth conversting units The energy of 3600 cal is equal to kj 1cal 4184 j 3600x418415 Density equattion JJ THompson electrons negative Ernest Rutherford protons positive James Chadwick neutrons neutral Know that the atomic number is to number of protons The mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus The atomic number is the number of protons Therefore you can subtract the atomic number from the mass number to find the number of neutrons Know that a subscript such as Brg relates to the number of atoms Know that a superscript relates to the atomic mass such as 130 isotope are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers How to convert to Scientific Notation 2630000263 X lOA6 How to calculate the weighted atomic mass isotopes mass x abundance 100 than add the results together That a single unit of light is called a photon Quantum principal number sublevels orbitals and how many electrons are in each TABLE Eta Electrnzn E apanity in Eruhieuels inr Energy Levels l ril Enenggglr Hilllll39lllllEli if Type Elf Hum39lJIEr lf Maximum HuthT Thrill Elentrne renal Suhlenels Stihllelrel rllzlri talla nil Eleclmnn Eng l l if 3 4 7391 Hi 41 ii 45 i ii 3 fitl39 5 fin 5 3 l E 3 Eu 3 II 39I Err i I I It 3 ll 3 Liv J Pauli Exclusion Principal any orbital can hold at most 2 electrons Difference between electron configuration and orbital diagrams Igtntalz 1 Ellezctmn 151 printcipltnuantur i39 numlznen n l l valence Electr n in an 5 azurlzli tal E g i 39Di F a ishs i liiiliit 5E III E E a DE F I l39 3 E L E li39fi ta g Etli li li liifhi r r a i 39 l i Q L t d E1quot E u LL Ll itlitreui Ma it it H H Enamel 439 V39 4 quot l MEN393 ma Q LLLLJEEE Ti Atomic size is the radius of a neutral atom It is determined bv the electron farthest from the nucleus This would be the last electron in the highest energy level so the atomic size increases down the periodic table Goind across the oeriodic table the electrons are doind into the same enerdv level However the charde in the nucleus is increasino oullino the electrons in closer The atomic size decreases across the periodic table left to right DECREASES TO THE RIGHT vma 1111 H1 1 H1 31 521 1111 111121 1111111 11111 111111 11111 1 L117 7 7quot 12 H 11 F H151 1 1 391 391 3953 T 5 1 3 1 59 ii i g i Q l l 1 1111 El 77 T 52 1 Ar it 113 111 1111 1m 99 1 911 r I x l Ga EB 1113 5111 Br 1111 231 W 1 7 15131 1g 121 11139 111 1919 1 0 D 1 I I I g l I I l1 1 I if 1i 1 w I i In En 1 Sb TE I ER 1344 fm 115 153 11m 1111 11111 131 O I i 111 i I III in I a i x quot7 1 111 1111 Hi IP11 a1 Fin 2 13 111 115 fats 141 11121 141 1 1 gt7 w i 39 r 1 1 39 OIClnlil Illa a a 1 1 1 Increases going down Kinetic is the energy of motion Potential Energy is determined by the position of the object or its chemical composition Calculating specific heat heat or mass from the specific heat equationWHEN FINDING Q MULTIPLY ALL when solving for sh get c by itself 1500j12kg 5celsius2500 jkg celisus c qm delta t c Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule atom or ion reduction of chromosomes A decrease in positive valence or an increase in negative valence by the gaining of electrons over 17ionio bond over 5 is polar under is5 is unpolar Chap 4 A molecule that is ionic A metal bonded with a nonmetal Cation with anion molecular oompund two non metals Element Group 1 metals Group 2 metals Oxygen Hydrogen Fluorine Chlorine Usual oxidation state Always 1 Always 2 Usually 2 Usually 1 Always 1 usually 1 Exoep ons Peroxides and F20 see below Metal hydrides 1 see below Compounds with O or F see below


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