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Bio 102: Ch. 28 & 29

by: Sierra Barton

Bio 102: Ch. 28 & 29 Bio 102

Sierra Barton
GPA 3.8
Biological Principles II
Dr. Mihaly Czako

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These are the notes from chapters 28 & 29! Hope they help!
Biological Principles II
Dr. Mihaly Czako
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Barton on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Mihaly Czako in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles II in Biology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Bio 102 Chapter 28 Chapter 28 Protists 0 v informal name of group of mostly unicellular eukaryotes o Constitute as polyphyletic group 0 Eukaryotes have organelles are more complex than prokaryotes Structural amp Functional Diversity in Protists Exhibit more structural amp functional diversity than any other group in eukaryotes Most diverse include 0 contain chloroplasts o absorb organic molecules or ingest larger food particles 0 combine photosynthesis amp heterotrophic nutrition 0 Some reproduce sexually some asexually Evidence shows diversity has origins in relationship between 2 species in which 1 organism lives inside the cell or cells of another organism the host 0 Mitochondria amp plastids derived from prokaryotes engulfed by ancestors of eukaryotic cells 0 Plastidbearing lineage of protists evolves into photosynthetic protists red amp green algae I On several occasions they underwent in which they were ingested by a heterotrophic eukaryote Excavates include protists with modified mitochondria amp protists with unique flagella 39 Clade characterized by cytoskeleton 0 Some members have quotexcavatedquot feeding groove 0 Often parasites 0 Includes pathogen that causes yeast infections in human females Kinetoplastids have single mitochondrion with organized Some are parasites Genus Trypanosoma causes sleeping sickness in humans Can cause Chagas disease Trypanosomes evade immune responses by switching surface proteins I Frequent changes prevent host from developing immunity OOOO Euglenids have 1 or 2 flagella that emerge from a pocket at 1 end of the cell Some autotrophic some heterotrophic quotSARquot Clade diverse monophyletic super group named for 1st letters of its 3 major clades stramenopiles alveolates amp hizarians diverse group of protists defined by DNA similarities Diatoms unicellular algae with a unique 2part glass like wall of silicon dioxide major component of phytoplankton highly diverse fossilized diatom walls compose much of sediments known as diatomaceous earth Brown Algae largest amp most complex algae all multicellular most marine seaweed have plantlike analogous structures 0 rootlike anchors algae o stemlikempports leaflike blades Alternation of Generations most complex life cycles include the the alternation of multicellular haploid amp diploid forms 0 generations structurally different 0 generations look similar diploid sporophyte produces haploid flagellated spores called 0 develop into haploid male amp female gametophytes which produce I fertilization of gametes results in diploid zygote which grows into a new sporophyte Dinoflagellates have 2 flagella amp each cell is reinforced by cellulose plates abundant components of marine amp freshwater plankton diverse group of aquatic phototrophs mixotrophs amp heterotrophs cause toxic quotred tides Apicomplexans apicomplexans parasites of animals amp can cause serious human diseases spread through host as infectious cells called one end the apex contains complex organelles specialized for penetrating host cells amp tissues most have sexual amp asexual stages that require 2 or more different host species for completion can cause malaria Ciliates large varied group of protists that are named for the use of their cilia to move amp feed genetic variation results from conjugation in which 2 individuals exchange haploid micronuclei o sexual process separate from reproduction which generally occurs by binary fission Archaeplastida super group that includes red algae green algae amp land plants land plants descended from green algae red algae amp green algae are the closest relatives of land plants reddish in color due to accessory pigment called phycoerthrin which masks the green of chlorophyll 0 color varies from greenish red to almost black 0 multicellular 0 most abundant large algae named for their grassgreen cholorplasts o paraphyletic group 0 2 main groups I charophytes most closely related to land plants I chlorphytes 0 larger size amp greater complexity evolved in chlorophytes by 0 formation of colonies from individual cells 0 formation of true multicellular bodies by cell division amp differentiation 0 repeated division of nuclei w no cytoplasmic division Unikonta supergroup that includes animals fungi amp some protists includes 2 clades amoebozoans amp opisthokonts animals fungi amp related protists Entamoebas parasites of vertebrates amp some invertebrates Protists Role found in diverse aquatic amp moist terrestrial environemtns play 2 key roles in their habitats symbiont or producer 0 symbiont I some benefit their hosts I some are parasitic o producers I photosynthetic protists producers that obtain energy from the sun I in aquatic environments photosynthetic protists amp prokaryotes are main producers I biomass has declined due to sea surface temp increasing if sea surface temp continues to warm due to global warming it could have large effects on 0 marine ecosystems o fishery yields 0 global carbon cycle Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I How Plants Colonized Land The Greening of Earth For much of Earth s history terrestrial surface was lifeless Cyanobacteria amp protists existed on land 12 billion years ago 500 million years ago small plants fungi amp animals emerged plants have diversified into 290000 living species plants supply 02 amp are ultimate source of most food eaten by land animals green algae called are the closest relatives of land plants Morphological amp Molecular Evidence many characteristics of land plants also appear in algae land plants share the following traits with charophytes 0 rings of cellulose synthesizing proteins 0 structure of flagellated sperm 0 formation of a phragmoplast Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land in charophytes a layer of durable polymer called prevents exposed zygotes from drying out 0 also found in plant spore walls movement onto land by charophyte ancestors provides 0 unfiltered sun 0 more plentiful C02 0 nutrient rich soil land challenges 0 scarcity of water 0 lack of structural support we define plants as plants with embryos o dependency of embryo on parent Derived Traits of Plants 5 key traits appear in almost all land plants but are absent in charophytes o alternation of generations I plants alternate between 2 multicellular stages a reproductive cycle called I haploid amp produces haploid gametes by mitosis I Fusion of gametes gives rise to the which produces haploid spores by meiosis o multicellular dependent embryos I diploid embryo retained within tissue of female gametophyte I nutrients transferred from parent to embryo through placental transfer cells 0 walled spores produces in sporangia I Sporophyte produce spores in organs called I Spore walls contain makes them resistant to harsh environments 0 multicellular gametangia I Gametes produces within organs called I female gametangia produce eggs amp are site of fertilization I male gametangia produce amp release sperm 0 apical meristems I where plants sustain continual growth I cells from here differentiate into various tissues additional derived traits o waxy covering of epidermis o specialized cells that allow for gas exchange between outside air amp plant 0 symbiotic associations between fungi amp land plants that may have helped plants wo true roots obtain nutrients Origin amp Diversification of Plants land plants can be grouped based on presence or absence of vascular tissue 0 vascular plants plants that have vascular tissue 0 bryophytes nonvascular plants I liverworts I mosses I hornworts I gametophytes larger amp longerliving than sporophytes I sporophytes present only part of time I spore germinates into gametophyte composed of amp gamete producing anchor gametophytes to substrate seedless vascular plants 0 ub mosses amp relatives 0 ferns amp relatives 0 do not form clade organisms grouped based on shared key biological features rather than shared ancestry can be referred to as a embryo amp nutrients surrounded by protective coat seed plants form a clade amp can be divided into 0 quotnaked seed plants 0 flowering plant


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