HPEB 502: Ch. 6 & 8
HPEB 502: Ch. 6 & 8 HPEB 502 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Barton on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HPEB 502 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Gabrielle Michelle Turner-McGrievy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Applied Aspects of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
HPEB 502 Chapter 6 amp 8 Chapter 6 Protein 339 North American diets rich in protein Can provide up to 35 of our calories High protein diets are appropriate if moderate in fat amp provide enough fiber 17 of our body weight regulates and maintains body functions fluid balance hormone amp enzyme production visual processes transport amp cell repair provides 4 kcal gram 0 contains nitrogen carbon hydrogen amp oxygen 0 provides essential form of nitrogen in form of amino acids building blocks 0 20 different amino acids make up all proteins 0 9 essential must be consumed in food 0 11 nonessentialsynthesized by body 0 bonded together by peptide bonds Protein Synthesis 0 DNA coded instructions 0 Copies of codes I Transferred to cytoplasm via mRNA 0 Amino acids added 1 at a time I With aid of tRNA 0 Requires energy Protein Organization 0 Order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape 0 Proteins final shape determines function 0 Diseases such as sickle cell anemia can occur when amino acids are incorrect on a polypeptide chain Protein Digestion 0 Starts with cooking I Denatures proteins amp softens tough connective tissue I Makes proteinrich foods safer to eat 0 In stomach I Denatured by stomach acid Gastin Pepsin o In small intestine I Cholecystokinin CCK hormone released from small intestine in response to presence of chime I Pancreatic enzymes trypsin among others into the duodenum I Peptides 9 amino acids I Ready for absorption 339 Protein Absorption 00000 O O O 90 O 90 O 90 0 Short amino acid chains absorbed by active transport into cells lining small intestine 0 Travel 9 liver via portal vein I Combined into protein I Converted to glucose I Converted to fat I Released in blood stream 339 Producing Vital Body Structures 0 Body is in a state of constant protein turnover I Rebuilding amp repairing body proteins slows down with prolonged protein inadequacy Muscles blood proteins amp vital organs decrease in size Brain resists breakdown o Maintaining fluid balance I Blood proteins attract fluids I Exert pressure attracts fluids into the blood I Levels decrease in protein deficiency I Fluids shift into tissues edema o Contributing acidbase balance I Assists in keeping blood slightly alkaline I Acts as buffers maintains pH within narrow range 0 Forming hormones amp enzymes I internal body messengers with important regulatory functions I speed chemical reactions crucial to cell function 0 Contributing to immune function I Antibodies made from protein I Malnutrition diminishes immune function 0 Forming glucose I If inadequate glucose is available to supply brain red blood cells amp nervous tissue amino acids glucose 0 Providing energy I Prolonged exercise 0 Contributes to satiety I Provide highest feeling of satisfaction after eating I Calorie control during weight loss 339 Protein Needs 0 Sufficient amount needed to balance output with intake 0 Determined by nitrogen balance 0 RDA for Protein I Kg body weight x 8 g protein I increase by 20 g day for pregnancy I increase for endurance athletes I provide about 10 of total kcal but can provide up to 35 0 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 I Increase intake of fatfree or lowfat milk amp milk products I Choose variety of protein foods seafood lean meat amp poultry eggs beans soy nuts I Increase amount amp variety of seafood consumes I Replace protein foods high in solid fats 339 HighProtein Diets 0 Low in plant foods fiber vitamins amp phytochemicals 0 High in sat fat amp cholesterol 0 Excessive intake of processed red meat linked with colon cancer metabolic syndrome amp diabetes 0 Burden on kidney 0 May increase calcium loss in urine 0 Increase urine production increase risk for dehydration 339 Protein energy Malnutrition 0 Protein deficiency is rarely an isolated condition accompanied by deficiencies of calories amp other nutrients 0 Causes in developed countries I Alcoholism I Illness or injury 0 Effects in developing countries I Stunted growth amp development I Increased susceptibility to disease 339 Protein Food Sources 0 Animal protein I 70 of our protein intake I top 5 contributors beef poultry we consume 8 billion chickens each year in the US milk white bread cheese I worldwide 35 comes from animal sources 0 Plant Proteins need to increase I Heart healthy I Cancer fighting I Bone health I Better glucose control I Contain no cholesterol I Limited sat fats I High fiber Chapter 8 Part 1 Fat Soluble Vitamins O 99 O O O 0 000000 0 Essential organic substances Produce deficiency symptoms when missing from diet Yields no energy Basic functions 39 Facilitate energy yielding chemical reactions 39 Function as coenzymes Fat soluble amp water soluble Named in order of discovery Vitamins found nonessential were dropped Bvitamin is notjust 1 vitamin it is many Plant amp animal foods provide vitamins most synthesized vitamins work equally well in body as found in foods scientist believe they have discovered them all Storage of vitamins in the body 0 O 0 Fat soluble 39 Not readily excreted except vitamin K Water soluble 39 generally lost from body except B6 amp B12 vitamins should be consumed daily 39 occasional lapse is harmless Vitamin toxicity 0 O 0 Fat soluble 39 Can accumulate in body water soluble 39 some can cause toxicity 39 don t usually accumulate in body toxicity due to excessive supplementation Preservation of Vitamins O O O O Decreased vitamin content in foods can occur Eat foods soon after harvest freeze foods not consumed within a few days blanching destroys enzymes Fat soluble Vitamins Overview 0 O O 0 Not readily excretedca uses toxicity Absorbed with fat Fat malabsorption can cause deficiency of fat soluble vitamins Transported with fat in lipoproteins Vitamin A 0 Narrow optimal intake range O Preformed 39 Retinoids 39 Found in animal products 0 Proformed 39 Carotenoids 39 Found in plant animals 0 Functions I Promote vision I Promote growth I Prevent drying of skin amp eyes I Promote immune function amp resistance to bacterial infection I Cardiovascular disease prevention I Cancer prevention I Acne medication 0 Deficiency I Leading causes of blindness 0 Recommendations I 900 ug REA for men I 700 ug REA for women I DV is 1000 pg REA or 5000 IU I UL is 3000 pg REA or 10000 IU o Toxicity 0 Large intake of vitamin A preformed 0 Signs amp symptoms I Bone muscle pain loss of appetite skin disorders headache dry skin hair loss increased liver size vomiting I Fetal malformation I Possible permanent damage 339 Vitamin D o Prohormone Derived from cholesterol Synthesized from sun exposure Activated by enzymes in liver amp kidneys Deficiency can cause disease Functions I Regulates blood calcium I Influences normal cell development I Aids in bone formation 0 Food sources I Fatty fish salmon herring I Fortified milk 0 Deficiency I Rickets result of low vitamin D 00000 gt Breastfed infants w little sun exposure I Osteomalacia soft bones gt Bones lose minerals amp become porous 0 Recommendations I Based on amount needed to maintain bone health amp normal calcium metabolism I 15 ug day for ages 170 I 20 ug day for adults over 70 o toxicity I common in infants amp children I UL is 100 ug day for people over age of 9 I Over absorption of calcium I Calcium deposits in organs amp blood vessels 339 Vitamin E 0 Fat soluble antioxidant o Resides mostly on cell membranes 0 Functions I Protects double bonds in unsaturated fats I Improves vitamin A absorption 0 Deficiency I Breakdown of cell membranes I Hemolysis I Nerve degeneration 0 Recommendations I 15 mgday I most adults don t meet this 0 Toxicity I UL is 1000 mgday supplements I UL is 1500 IU natural sources I Inhibit vitamin K metabolism amp anticoagulants I Possible hemorrhage I Muscle weakness headaches nausea 339 Vitamin K quotKoagulationquot o Synthesized by bacteria in colon amp absorbed 0 Role in coagulation process blood clotting 0 Role in calciumbinging potential I Poor intake associated w hip fractures 0 Food sources I Liver I Leafy greens I Broccoli I Pear I Green beans 0 Recommendations I 90 ugday for women I 120 ugday for men I newborns routinely injected with vitamin K o Toxicity I Excess vitamin A amp E interferes with vitamin K gt Can cause hemorrhage amp fractures I Toxicity unlikely readily excreted 339 Summary Fat soluble vitamins include A D E amp K Not readily excreted Absorbed along with fat Transported in body with fat OOOO
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