Psych 7 Week 2
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Debbie Chen on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 7 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by PROTZKO in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
Week 2 Measurement 0 Behavior or Mental review 0 Bridge study 0 Almost all mental variables are latent I Constructs an idea 0 Latent Variables o I am always sad 0 I have trouble getting out of bed 0 I feel that life is not worthwhile I These three questions correlated all measuring the same thing I Positive correlation 0 Construct Validity o Validity refers to the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of rest scores entailed by proposed uses of tests 0 Do the rest scores re ect the construct or latent variable 0 In short 0 The construct is just what it is intelligence depression literalmindness o The test is what measure it 0 Validity is not a yes no distinction something is either more valid or invalid 0 Evidence I Content 0 Is your construct appropriately de ned 0 Are your items relevant to some facet of the construct 0 Are all facets of your construct measured I Process 0 Does scoring re ect constructprocess 0 Example 1 solution to a creativity problem I Internal relations Reliability 0 Restretest reliability if an individual is tested at two different times will the scores be the same 0 Pearson productmoment correlation coef cient r can range from 1 to 1 0 Example IQ generally does not deviate more than about 5 over an individual s lifetime 0 Internal consistency reliability 0 Split half reliability if you divide the items of a test in half would both halves have the same score 0 InterIntra reliability O 0 If you are accurately measuring something everyone scoring should get the same response Same rater should get same score both times 0 How many constructs do the items measure 0 OOOOO O 1 I am always sad 2 I have trouble getting out of bed 3 I feel that life is not worthwhile 4 What is the de nition of hispid 5 What is the de nition of alter 6 What is the de nition of expedite If these are all on 1 test is the test measuring just 1 thing o External Relations how your scores correlate with other scores I Convergence are the scores related in a predictable way to other scores that are supposed to measure the same thing I Divergence are the scores not related to variables that it is not supposed to measure I Best Method Multitrait Multimethod 0 Who is Betsy Ross 0 Make block pictures 0 Tests same thing but with underling ways not learned school o Consequence controversial inclusion I Put to death allowed to die brain damage I Should this be included in validity up for argument I Test is valid but sometimes there are wrong diagnosis error I Error 0 Random Error 0 O O O Extraneous and uncontrolled variables that averages out over people Example sleepiness and IQ Testing conditions For groups assumed to average out over everyone to o 0 Systematic Error 0 Validity Error caused by extraneous variables that tend to in uence all scores for a subset of participants in a predictable way Using words that no one else would know bias Should be empirically tested not just make up a story o So if you have a highly valid test does this mean the test score is the construct score 0 No o Is the brain dead Just gives us an idea there is no 100 points in our mind as an IQ test 0 Construct intelligence test IQ test Question is this valid Types of Variable 0 Quantitative o IQ 0 Categorical 0 Has disease 0 Level of education Measurement Scales 0 Ordinal Scale rank order of the levels of a variable 0 Example what is the most desirable characteristic in a sig other favorite things 0 Likert Scale 0 Interval is not necessarily equal 0 Interval Scale intervals between the numbers are equal and there is no absolute zero point 0 Example IQ score Depression Height 0 Ratio Scale intervals between the numbers are also equal in size 0 Example Length weight and time 0 Nominal Scales categorical variable no numerical or quantitative properties 0 Example Ethnicity Lecture 2 Hypotheses Theories and Falsi ability 0 If the DV is highly valid we can start asking questions Hypotheses 0 A statement concerning your variables 0 Doing crossword puzzles prevents Alzheimers 0 Most people turn to the right when kissing 0 Giving antiarrhythmia drugs after a heart attack helps stabilize the heart 0 These are statements about what is out there in the world 0 A hypothesis must be falsi able 0 Beer Card example Falsi ability in Science 0 Inferiority Complex 0 Theory people feel inferior and need to overcome or it leads to bad behavior 0 Pushing people into the lake saving people o Cannot be disproven o Con rmation Bias 0 Falsi able hypothesis must be able to be proven wrong o October births are smarter people o Test the hypothesis directly I Give women pineapple o Test implications of the hypothesis I Singapore eats a lot of pineapple spicy food I Shouldn t the women give birth earlier than any other women o Are often grounded in theory Theory 0 A theory is a general statement about the state of the world and relations in it It is made up of multiple falsi able hypotheses that have already survived testing and potential falsi able hypotheses o It is not a guess o Evaluation o Attachment o Meaning Maintenance 0 Must also be falsi able o Test directly o Test implications Hypotheses lead to Predictions 0 A Prediction is what will happen to YOUR data 0 Have a hypothesis o People turn their heads to the right when they kiss o Drinking wine is good for you Leads to a prediction o Observe couples kissing predict they will turn their head to the right more often than to the left o Observe wine drinkers they will have better health than beer or liquor drinkers Example o Theory People turn their heads to the right when kissing o Hypothesis People have a rightward bias in headturning when kissing o Method watch What are possible causes of wine effect o Wine intake itself reduces risk of death I Antioxidants in wine may be protective against heart disease cancer o Direction of causality o Confounding variables I Authors statistically controlled for age income education BMI smoking I If a variable such as physical activity were a confounder then there should be an increase in physical activity by increased wine intake decreased activity by increased spirits intake and no change in relation to beer 0 Correlation I Drinking wine causes better health I Being in better health causes people to drink wine I Something else causes people to both drink wine and be in better health 0 What are possible confounds Null Hypotheses 0 When we test a hypothesis in psychological science we are actually testing the null hypothesis Ho 0 Null hypothesis states there is no effect Theory 9 Hypothesis 9 Prediction 9 Data Observations sometimes goes back to hypothesis andor theory 9 Conclusions
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