Week 6: Cells
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Johnson on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Cells I Cell 0 v Simplest collection of living material 339 All living things are made of cells 339 All cells are related to earlier cells Not sprung from rocks or dust as per earlier beliefs How Cells Are Studied 339 Two major techniques Cell fractionation Allows the study of individual cell components Involves Homogenization Centrifugation Spins down the heaviest components Mitochondrion are the smallest things that can be spun down Forms a pellet and a supernatant Supernatant liquid on top Microscopy seeing is believing Resolution the ability to see something inversely related to the wavelength of the light or electrons used to create the image Measuring ability Light microscopy LM Uses photons of light Electron microscopy EM Uses electrons Scanning EM SEM Used to view the cell s surface Usually requires the surface to be coated The image is a re ection of the cell Transmission EM TEM Used to view the inside of the cell Problem with EM Electrons don t travel well through things ie air Have to use a vacuum chamber to view things technique can t be used for living things Cell Types 339 Eukaryotic true kernel Nucleus the kernel and other membrane bound organelles Includes plants animals fungi and protists 339 Prokaryotic before kernel No membrane bound organelles no nucleus Not completely devoid of structure however Includes bacteria and archaea 339 Common features Plasma membrane Cytosol Chromosomes Ribosomes and many others 339 Differing features Prokaryotes No membrane bound organelles DNA in nucleoid region functions like a nucleus Possession of a cell wall Eukaryotes Membrane bound organelles DNA in nucleus Don t always possess a cell wall Animal Lysosomes Centrosomes Flagella Plant Chloroplasts Central vacuole Cell wall Plasmodesmata Organelles 0 v Unique to eukaryotic cells 339 Allow the cell to compartmentalize and specialize functions 0 v Nucleus Houses chromatin DNA bound to protein Includes nucleoli assemble ribosomes Surrounded by the nuclear envelope Nuclear envelope Has a double membrane structure Lipid membrane bi layer of phospholipids with the heads on the outside and the hydrophobic tails on the inside Lined with nuclear lamina for support Perforated with nuclear pore complexes Regulates trafficking and signaling between the cytoplasm and the genome Cells II Membranes 339 Not just a barrier between the cell and the environment also where the cell can interact with things on the outside 339 Proteins are important factors for outside interaction 339 Proteins on opposite sides of the membrane can be biologically and physically different Endomembrane System 339 Parts Nuclear envelope ER Golgi Lysosomes Vacuoles Plasma membrane Trafficking vesicles 339 Connectivity allow traffic Traffic movement of proteins and other molecules through the system Necessary for hormones antibodies etc 339 Traffic occurs via vesicles Small packages surrounded by membrane Targeted to certain parts of the cell 339 Functions Protein synthesis and transport Has its own set of proteins Lipid metabolism and transport Membrane repair Detoxification of poisons and drugs This determines dosages for medication 339 Endoplasmic Reticulum ER vascular system of the cell Has its own ribosomes to create its own proteins Physically connected to the nuclear envelope perinuclear around the nucleus Has the most central location Made up of cisternae Connected tubules and attened sacs Storage for liquid material Reticular relating to or forming a network Types Smooth Lacks ribosomes Functions Lipid synthesis Drug detoxification lots of enzymes involved Calcium storage Rough Bound by ribosomes Functions Proteins Synthesized through ER membrane not actually inside Folding protein is unwound When pulled into the ER through a pore Glycosylation involved with blood types AB etc Vesicular transport Secreted proteins are produced and packaged Also involved in membrane synthesis to a minor extent Golgi 339 Located near the nucleus attached to the cytoskeleton system juxtanulcear 0 v Comprised of cisternae 0 v 2 faces Cis receiving Trans shipping to downstream destinations 339 Vesicles Fuse With Golgi to bring materials from ER cis Bud off Golgi to transfer materials to other locations trans 339 Functions Protein Modification Storage Sorting Carbohydrate synthesis Lysosome downstream of Golgi 0 v Membranous sac of enzymes produced by the ER and modified by the Golgi Acidic compartment pHl 0 v 2 major functions Phagocytosis digesting food Autophagy breaking down damaged organelles Cells III Vacuoles Maintenance Compartments 0 v Large vesicles derived from the ER and Golgi 339 Perform a variety of functions in different kinds of cells Food vacuoles formed by phagocytosis and fusion with lysosomes Contractile vacuoles found in many freshwater protists pumps excess water out of the cell Central vacuoles found in many mature plant cells stores organic compounds and water Endosymbiotic Theory v Mitochondria and chloroplasts arose from the engulfment of prokaryotes Extra cellular origin ate cells the produced ATP and then transformed into mitochondria chloroplasts Not a part of the endomembrane system Organelles have structures similar to prokaryotes 339 Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have Double membranes Unique to mitochondria nucleus and chloroplasts DNA Ribosomes Mitochondria O 9 Has a double membrane system 339 Inner membrane is extensively folded into cristae Provides surface area for ATP synthesis enzymes Mitochondrial matrix inside the inner membrane Function important for cellular respiration O O 90 90 ATP production Programmed cell death apoptosis Cancer cells have a mutation that prevents programed death Chloroplasts 0 v Double membrane system 339 Key features Thylakoids photosynthesis Granum stacks of thylakoids Stroma the matrix of the chloroplast 339 Function important for photosynthesis Sugar production from carbon dioxide and water using light energy Peroxisomes 0 v Single membrane structure 0 v Functions Degrade fatty acids Detoxify harmful compounds Neutralize oxidative radicals through oxidation converts them to hydrogen peroxide and then to water Cytoskeleton 339 Functions Provides cell shape and organelle support Facilitates cell motility and vesicular transport 0 v 3 major types of fibers Microtubules MT Subunit tubulin dimers Structure small hollow tubes Functions Maintenance of the cell shape Cell motility Chromosome movement during cell division Scaffolding for ER structure Microfilaments MF Subunit actin Structure 2 intertwined strands of actin Functions Define cell size Maintenance of cell shape Changes in cell shape Muscle contraction Cytoplasmic streaming Cell motility Cell division Intermediate filaments Subunit varies One example is keratin Size in between microtubules and microfilaments Functions Maintenance of cell shape Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles Formation of nuclear lamina
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