Origin of the Solar System/Earth
Origin of the Solar System/Earth AST 111
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 111 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Christopher Sirola in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Astronomy in Physics 2 at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Minor Planets o In 2006 the IUA International Astronomical Union created a new category of object called minor or dwarf planets 0 Include Ceres Pluto Eris Sedna and several others EwTEg i l antmne n ihmnme PM e Jup er Filifif39ilil39i lg Diff I i z an O 0 Even the largest is smaller than the moon which itself is much smaller than the eart BUD1i I EIEl miles in Lillieimeter Qiuaoair39 Pluto Moon Ea rtlh BUD miles 1 QEIEI miles 2100 miles BEBE miles 0 0 Have a wide range of properties To big to be asteroidcomet Too small to be a planet 391ndependent 0 Just because they re minor doesn t mean they aren t planets For example Pluto has ve moons Moons natural satellites 0 Most of the planets have large objects in orbit around them 0 Orbit other objects rather than the sun 0 Many moons are formed in tandem with their planets 0 Such moons tend to orbit in the same plane in which the planet rotates EIIIIIIEIIIE 39i E 39l 5 39l h T Jupiter EurUlla i IIIIi a n 339 media I CHINE Ell Em SE E o o Other moons form elsewhere and are later captured by their planets i 3934 Au 9 l quotEl a 5 IHleptunev39 llTriton 2 Augquot i quot5 1 a O o A few moons are as large or largerthan our moon mOst are much smaller o A few moons have their own atmosphere Titan of Saturn has a thicker atmosphere than Earth 0 The surfaces of many moons show little activity instead impact craters accumulate 0 Some moons show the effects of incredibly destructive impacts 0 Other moons show geological active Several have moving ice oes Ganymede o A few even have active volcanoes and geysers lo 10 The most geologically active place in the solar system Asteroids 0 Not big enough to be considered planets 0 They are made of rock amp metal and reside close to the sun 0 Most orbit the sun in a region belt between the orbits of Mars ampJupiter Another large group follows ahead and behind Jupiter in its orbit the quotTrojansquot Others lie close to the sun The average distance between asteroids is about a million miles Planets amp stars are spherical due to their own gravity Asteroids are rarely massive enough to be round Even with low gravity some have their own moons 0 Example Ida and its moon Dactyl ax glinamr lais39ii39ei glbs 39 I i Er l i ETYlL f tquot J 39 39l Comets 0 Large quotdirty snowballsquot that grow bright when close to the sun 0 The nucleus of a comet is tiny be astronomical standards typical just a few tens of miles long 0 Ice evaporates amp spread into space when a comet nears the sun It can grow to millions of miles cross 0 Many comets are thought to originate in a space beyond the orbit of Pluto called the Kui O Origin Of the Solar System Three big physics principles at work o Gravity Acts to pull objects toget The more mass 0 The more gravity The more concentrated o More gravity 0 Gas Pressure Acts to push objects apar The smaller the object o The higher the tem The higher the temperat o Angular Momentum Spin acts to atten The more concentrated the faster the spin The faster the spin the more attening 0 History The rst modern attempt to explain the origin of the Planet Earth We examine Earth in comparison to other plan Orbital Characteristics Solar System came from Laplace 1800 Suggested the quotNebular Hypothesisquot Start with a large nebula cloud of gas and dust As gravity pulls the nebula together it begins to heat up and atten The sun forms rst at the center lrregularities within the nebula become more prominent via gravity Eventually the sun was surrounded by a group of planets and moons Objects also ten to rotate and orbit in the same plane and direction Collisions help sift the planets into their own lanes or orbits The composition make up of objects largely depends on their distances from the Sun and how hot it was back in the beginning We can look at currentlyforming systems Eitmttlr rms3 Eyes11522 a liTL39EE39 3 urnP u a a PJII EIEI FISEVILIEI39H Um n Dj o Semimajor Axis 1AU 150 Mill Km 0 Orbital period 1 year 3652422 solar days 0 Eccentricity 0017 0 Average speed 30 kms Rotational Characteristics 0 Sidereal day 23 hours 56 minutes 0 Precession Period 26000 years 0 Obliquity tilt 23 12 degrees Ranges between 220 245 degrees PLANET EARTH OVERVIEW 39 39 Physical characteristics Mass598 x 10quot24kg Radius6370km o Density554 gcc Escape speed112 kms 2 EJIIJEI 0 Team Priscacesium F39ariodl a 5 El lJ ream Atmospheric Characteristics 0 Range of temperatures 184 K to 330 K 0 Average Temperature288 k 59 o F Pressure1 atmosphere 101000 pascals Atmospheric constituents 7808 nitrogen 2095 oxygen 093 argon 0039 carbon dioxide 1 water vapor varies Surface characteristics 0 Water including ice 71 of surface 0 Land 29 of surface 0 All terrestrial objects have the same basic interior structure Core Mantle Crust 0 The Earth39s core is separated into two sections lnner core Outer core 0 Inner Core Solid IronNickel Radius of about 1200 km Temperature close to 6000 K 11000 def F eld Rotates slightly faster than rest of Earth Leads by about 12 deg each year Affects magnetic eld Outer Core Liquid IronNickel mix Slightly less dense than inner core Extends out to 3400 km from center Spinning liquid metal generate Earth s magnetic Mantle Extends from about 3400 km from center to within 50 km of surface Heavy liquid silicate rock silicon oxygen laden with iron amp magnesium Material ows at very slow speeds 12 inches per year The mantle counts for 68 of the Earth by mass and 82 byvmume Trench Crust Outermost think layer maximum 50 km Oceanic crust heavy rock like basalt Continental crust light rock like granite Cooled rack that haa risen dose to the Earth39s surface Eairth is aurfam beneath t h E seas and means II I I III E I I Thesee rocks form lair352 rang 3 Hi 11115 fro m broken rmhs i he mica sedlirm nt and debriiaa Hamill rm it rms is ill rid if real i Emmi ed from magma liquid might that has EWIEH THEE Elk hi hiquot Elip and hardened insidethE Earth to lots Eif hiigh erasure and very hm temperatures 0 The oldest mineral grains are about 44 billion years old the Earth is 455 Billion years old
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