PSYC 2011.11 Day 7 Notes - 10/1/15
PSYC 2011.11 Day 7 Notes - 10/1/15 PSYC 2011
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oona Intemann on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2011 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
NOTES TUESDAY 10115 Reading for this week Chapter 6 Stress Disorders Panic disorders 24 concordance rate in identical twins 11 in fraternal twins Means there is probably a genetic component We think it s related to norepinephrine and the locus coeruleus of the brain It doesn t help to say anything to the person who s having a panic attack Antidepressants are often used as a treatment often SSRls 0 That would be something like Prozac Paxil o The drug sometimes will suppress the panic attack but we don t yet understand how it works 0 Other times it will at least decrease the frequency of the panic attack 0 Also add Diazepam Valium seems to help restore the norepinephrine balance Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Characterized in our minds by the strange things people do to keep their anxiety low 0 Obsession persistent occupation with a thought 0 Compulsion impulse to carry out an irresistible behavior Most of the time they can tell you this is very irrational but they can t control it The diagnosis requires the involuntary behaviors cause marked distress take up time interferes with job or school or social life Most of us have experienced some obsessive thoughts 0 For OCD might be kinds of religious beliefs sexual ideas violent patterns or movement There are categories of the obsession Obsessive doubts making the wrong decision Aspect of generalized anxiety disorder Obscenities in an inappropriate place also with Tourette s Obsessive wishes that something bad will happen to someone Could be obsessive ideas your food is contaminated etc most common form fear of toxicity Obsessive thoughts in order 0 Filth contamination Orderliness Sex Violence Religion Sometimes the behavior comes out as a ritual you have to do it the same each time Sometimes checking behavior you have to always check that the door is locked 6 or 7 times 000000 0000 Counting behaviors walking into a room and counting the number of light switches or everything that s a square Ordering that means your books are not on the shelves by topic but by height Touching you might have to touch the door frame every time you walk into and our of a room Cleaning always have to wash your hands could also be of the place in which you live Changing clothes a number of times a day always have to put it on the same way These are often people who feel very insecure they have rather rigid superegos always following the rules That they re unable to relax Often they were preoccupied with issues of control before they showed the signs of OCD Sometimes are secretive about their preoccupations Can live with this though Parts of the brain that are involved Orbital gyrus helps filter out interfering stimuli Caudate nuclei perseverative behavior Also evidence for causes found in thalamus and amygdala Treatment 0 Behavior therapy has helped Flooding step on the cracks of the sidewalk if you are afraid of that Modeling after the psychologist therapist etc Use of exposure and response prevention Lots of homework for the patient to work on 0000 The increase in the serotonin seems to establish a bit more regular activity in the parts of the brain that have been noticed to have irregular movement orbital gyrus and orbital frontal cortex PET scan can see this less expensive than an fMRl Deep Brain Stimulation o 2009 FDA approved deep brain stimulation 0 Planting electrodes deep within the brain 0 This is serious surgery 0 Neurosurgeon would have to drill a hole through the skill and implant it o For a certain number of days the electric current is there and you can increase or decrease it The Boy Who Couldn t Stop Washing 1989 book about OCD O Hoarding 0 Almost always comorbid with depression 0 People can keep anything and everything often newspapers cats 0 Stuff 2010 book about hoarding 0 Also Secret Lives of Hoarders 2011 o Treatments 0 Usually behavioral treatments 0 Psychologist may come in with bags or boxes labeled keep give away throw out 0 Sometimes the city comes in and cleans everything out because they deem the apartment or home uninhabitable I This is bad people go right back to hoarding again I Some people become so upset they commit suicide Stress Disorders PTSD etc 0 Clinical condition varies from soon after the trauma to a long time after the trauma 0 The time before the onset of the disorder differentiates the acute from the post traumatic o If the onset is four weeks to 28 days then it s acute stress disorder 0 If the symptoms last more than 28 days or if the onset is much longer then it s posttraumatic stress disorder I Acute stress disorder could become PTSD I Both adults and children can have it I When experiencing the event it often takes place in slow motion 0 Yreannent 0 There are not enough people trained as therapists who can help veterans soldiers who have PTSD after a disaster first responders can have PTSD as well Antidepressants can lessen the attacks Group therapy has been found to have helped Sometimes hypnosis We don t have one single treatment that has worked OOOO EDMR Therapy eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Thought to improve symptoms of PTSD Better than no treatment at all Uses patient memory recall similar to exposure therapy Psychological Factors that Affect Medical Conditions What does stress do It can make everything worse asthma headaches heart disease colitis insomnia There are some theories about this General adaptation syndrome 0 Hans Selye Canadian 0 Lots of work in biological stress 0 Thought that anything on the body could produce stress pain humiliation blood loss fatigue 0 Most of us adjust but some can t this is what GAS is Diathesisstress model C Says that you can be in the same situation but some will respond with stress and tension and others will be different 0 Essentially some people have a predisposition to stress and others might not Type A and Type B d erences 0 Most of us have some combination of the two I Type A is very anal particular about certain things these people have a greater chance of heart attack I Type B is relaxed calm Another approach to looking at stress is looking at sociocultural environment 0 Sound music can be distressing 0 Relaxation training cognitive 0 Positive coping statements for when anxiety hits Sleep Disorders this is the last topic for the exam Two categories Dyssomm39as disturbance in amount or quality or timing of someone s sleep 0 Person may wake up frequently or earlier than desired Parasomm39as abnormal behaviors or psychological events during someone s sleep o 0000 O Narcolepsy a person who is awake may suddenly fall asleep A hypocretin deficiency is involved Sleep apnea breathing starts and stops during the night Patient would need a CPAP device continuous positive airway pressure Nightmares occur during REM sleep it is often difficult to return to sleep afterwards Sleepwalking an episode can be as short as five minutes or last up to 45 minutes If you speak with the person who is sleepwalking it will last longer it is okay to wake them up
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