Chapter 5 notes
Chapter 5 notes 1230.0
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1230.0 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lynne Hewitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION DISORDERS in Language at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 5 Developmental Speech Disorders Children with developmental speech disorders produce words that sound different from the words that are produced by most other speakers of a language Severe difficulties with articulation can negatively affect the way linguistic knowledge is expressed Developmental speech disorders are among the most common types of communication disorders treated by SLPs Distinguishing between an articulation disorder and a phonological disorder is important because this distinction is critical for the assessment of speech production problems People with articulation disorders may have difficulty with the movement of the vocal folds teeth lips jaw tongue All of those articulators are necessary for the production of understandable speech A phonological disorder is considered to be a deficiency in the abstract system of knowledge that forms the rule system for sounds and sequences needed to convey messages Some children have difficulty with both articulation and phonology simultaneously Determining whether as child has difficulty with articulation alone or with both articulation and phonology is difficult Many assessment and intervention approaches are specifically designed to evaluate or treat either articulation or phonological problems refers to difficulties with producing speech refers to difficulties with using phonological rules for a language Physiological systems for producing and perceiving speech have been the focus of phonetics A speaker s knowledge of speech sounds in a language has been studied as an aspect of linguistics emphasizes the physical ability to produce speech emphasizes the acquisition of the rules for combining sounds to produce words Three major subsystems of the body are involved in producing speech Respiratory Articulatory Phonatory Speech is also served by perceptual processes of audition and discrimination Chapter 4 looks closer at the speech production process Speech is a system that is used to relate meaning with sounds that humans produce A variety of systems of analysis have been employed to describe difficulties in the sounds and sound sequences of language Distinctive features re ect the underlying units of knowledge that are used to construct sounds on words From a distinctive feature perspective an individual with a phonological disorder or delay may have difficulty retrieving and using mentally stored units that specify sounds The individual may not have figured out one or more of the important features of the language he or she speaks Phonological processes are variations in the way phonemes are combined Phonological processes are ways to describe phonological rules that operate at the level of the syllable or word There are a number of important factors to consider in understanding and treating articulation and phonological disorders Disordered or delayed is based on comparison of the child s speech to the articulation and phonological patterns of children of a comparable age who are developing typically Delayed articulation development have speech production patterns that typically occur in children who are younger Children with speech disorders do not produce speech like that of children who are developing typically The severity of a speech delay or disorder is related to several important aspects of speech production The accuracy of production The number of sounds produced accurately The ability to produce sounds accurately in different word positions The ability to produce sound sequences The ability to produce various types of words Intelligibility is the understandability of spontaneous speech and is a crucial factor for determining the need for and the effectiveness of therapy Three adjectives are often used to indicate the degree of speech delay or disorder Mild Moderate Severe Mildly involved children have problems producing only a few sounds Individuals with mild delays are generally intelligible to most listeners but their speech errors call attention to the way they speak Children with moderate impairments have more difficulty producing speech sounds correctly than the mildly involved children They often have difficulties producing all the syllables in multisyllabic words leavening sounds off the ends of words and simplifying some sounds They are mostly intelligible to familiar listeners such as parents and family but they might not be understood by unfamiliar listeners Severe level of clinical involvement is found in individuals who are unintelligible to most listeners or who may not be able to use speech consistently to communicate They do not sequence sounds consistently to produce intelligible words Their ability to use sounds to communicate effectively with others is limited They may resort to using gestures to get their message across In very severe cases an SLP may decide to use augmentative communication systems or systems in which clients press buttons or point to pictures as an alternative method for communication There is an increasing number of speakers of language whose rules for producing speech sounds and sequences of sounds don t match English rules These speakers have the same ability to produce speech sounds and sequences but they have different rules for how to produce them based on the requirements of their primary language Discerning dialectal differences from speech disorders is important A child s speech errors may be related to learning a second language However these are sound differences not articulation disorders or delays Finding a cause of a developmental speech disorder in children is often quite difficult That is why there are mostly described as having functional speech difficulties Which indicates that the cause of differences cannot be determined Behavioral description takes precedence over a search for a cause in this case The SLP doesn t utilize information about possible causes to plan therapy or to predict a child s prognosis for improvement Many developmental speech disorders are considered functional Phonological perspectives provide rich descriptions if a child s pattern of differences from normal development However they cannot provide explanations of why these children are different in their development Articulation disorder or delay is more likely to have a known etiology or to be associated with a risk factor for developmental delay SLPs use the term articulation disorder or delay when the peripheral organs of speech are involved Etiologies for articulation delay or disorder fall into major categories perceptual or input related etiology structural etiology and motor or outputrelated etiology Developmental speech disorders can cooccur with other types of speech and language problems Children with expressive or receptive language problems and voice and uency disorders often show articulation or phonological impairment as well In these cases the SLP must decide whether to work on both deficits at once or work on each separately Infants children and adults form a dramatically diverse population of individuals who need assessment and remediation for developmental speech disorders Specific assessment procures and materials are needed relative to the suspected etiology the chronological and developmental age and the primary language spoken Decisions about treatment will be based on results of the assessment and analysis SLPs collect a speech sample by talking and playing with the child This spontaneous sample is analyzed to determine the child s ability to produce consonants vowels and sequences characteristic to the language spoken by the community In these cases where the children don t use vocalizations consistently the use of gestures or other ways the child has to communicate must be evaluated If the child is capable of naming pictures or objects than a singleword articulation test can be administered to assess his or her ability to produce consonants in varied word positions Very young or impaired children may not be able to participate in the naming task required by this type of test In addition individuals who are bilingual may not be tested validly on tests developed for English speakers We are interested in several measures of phonological development We consider the child s inventory of speech sounds whether they are produced accurately or not In severely impaired individuals regardless of age or etiology the SLP describes the range of behaviors used for intentional communication In children who use vocalization for communication the SLP may employ either phonetic or phonological analysis depending on the nature of the child s disorder or delay The SLP may also employ information about etiology if known to understand the nature of the client s production deficits Speech analysis consists of describing consonant and vowel sounds the child can produce and how they are used in sequences The client s skills are compared with those of his peer group to determine whether the patterns are different enough from the comparison group to warrant treatment An analysis of articulation skills focuses on how the three major peripheral body systems work together to produce speech Specific to articulation the SLP records the ways the tongue jaw and palate work together to produce sounds and sequences and describes patterns of differences from the comparison group Traditional methods of describing articulation skills may include the descriptors of substitution omission and distortion Most clients who have difficulty producing adequate breath support for speaking are more severely involved Emphasis is placed on the client s knowledge of the speech sound system rather than any deficit in behavior implied by articulation analysis Two of the most prevalent analysis systems make use of distinctive features and phonological processes The SLP may complete an oralperipheral examination to evaluate the structure and function of peripheral articulators of the child is capable A hearing test is essential to rule out sensory deficit as the cause of the speech disorder or delay Treatment for articulation and phonological disorders centers on teaching the child to use sounds and sound sequences expected for a child of his or her age The overall goal is speech that is easily understandable or intelligible relative to age expectations Articulationbased approaches focus on repetitive motor practice with feedback and attention to how the body is used to produce sounds This practice is designed to help children incorporate their new articulatory system in communication environments Phonological approaches emphasize the use of speech sounds and syllable sequences to communicate ideas Many phonological approaches deemphasize repetition and feedback on motor performance Children work on intervention activities in which they identify the target in the context of games with everyday sounds before turning their attention to speech In another phonological approach called contrast therapy children are shown pairs of pictures that differ from each other by one sound The key to the contrast approach is to select multiple contrastive pairs that demonstrate the speech pattern that is not accurate for the child The area of developmental speech disorders is one of the oldest Within the scope of practice of the SLP Service delivery for articulation and phonological disorders differs depending on the setting and the age and severity of the child s speech delay or disorder Early Intervention programs are designed to treat early signs of disorders and delays quickly Public School Settings normally have children of mild moderate and even severe disorders due to a variety of causes Medical Settings are most often for children With severe disorders and sometimes require a major commitment to intervention services to improve their speech intelligibility
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