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by: Jettie Cole


Jettie Cole
GPA 3.92

Wendy Wolfe

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About this Document

Wendy Wolfe
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jettie Cole on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Armstrong Atlantic State University taught by Wendy Wolfe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/217871/psyc-1101-armstrong-atlantic-state-university in Psychlogy at Armstrong Atlantic State University.




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Date Created: 10/03/15
E gt U PSYC1101 First Exam Study Guide What is Psychology and what makes it unique as a eld of study 0 The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physical state mental state and external environment What is empiricism and the scienti c method 0 Empiricismis a theory of how we acquire knowledge We acquire knowledge through direct experience Knowledge is acquired through the senses 0 Scienti c method i Careful Observation ii De ne variables in operational terms iii Variable anything that varies weight temperature ratings on a stress survey iv Measurement v Variables have to be measured so that statistical tests can be used vi Hypothesis Formation vi1 Hypotheses are stated in such a way that they can be disproven principal of falsi ability viii Experimentationuse this to test hypothesissometimes x Evaluationin all cases you will evaluate your results What were Hippocrates Gall Wundt and James known for and why are they important to the history of Psychology 0 Hippocratesfather of medicine 4 humors theory Believed we were comprised by 4 humors uids blood phleym black bile yellow bile Ifthe amt of uids are uneven then they might experience mood swings and such Gall Phrenologist argued that different brain areas accounted for speci c character and personality traits Some of these traits can be read from bumps on the skull Advanced theory of brain by feeling the outside and comparing to a map ofthe scull False science Fails principle of false ability Wunt of cially established the rst psychological laboratory Wunt initiated the movement to make psychology a science birth of psychology 1879 used scienti c method in Lepsig Germany Studied sensation and perception Is a structuralistbreak down into smallest component In trained introspection he would have them introspect everything they thought and felt and write it down James a functionalistsstudy purpose of behavior who asked how various actions help a person or animal adapt to the environment Interested in why not what Does it serve a function Be familiar with the predominant perspectives in the field of Psychology today eg biological cognitive learning and be able to identify examples of eac I Biological perspectivefocuses on how bodily events affect behavior feelings and thoughts course through the bloodstream telling internal organs to slow down or spee up Learning perspectiveconcerned with how the environment and experience affect a persons actions Ex do you have trouble focusing on what your studying A behaviorist would analyze the environmental factors that are rewarding your giving into distractions Cognitive perspectiveemphasizes what goes on in peoples headsihow people reason remember understand language ect They are designing computer programs that model how humans perform complex tasks How do the basic and applied areas of Psychology differ from one another What are some different types of applied Psychologists and how do they differ from other mental health professionals 0 Basic psychologyinterested in learning and understanding Wants to understand memory loss Ex hormones 0 Applied psychologythese are the ones that practice and apply it Uses the info from above to test early signs and see who is at risk 1 Clinical counseling school psychologists 6 What training is required to become a Psychologist Phd or PsyD 7 Be familiar with the steps for critical thinking and be able to critique examples of noncritical 9 D c D ID I LAN J thinking 0 Ask Questions 7 be curious Define Your Terms 7 frame your question in concrete measurable terms operationalize Examine the Evidence 7 ask what evidence supports d refutes your hypothesis conduct research or read about others who have tested your hypothesis take into account the quality of the research Analyze Assumptions and Biases 7 what assumptions might you be making or what biases do you have that narrows your view acknowledge these and force yourselfto expand your view Avoid Emotional Reasoning 7 try to take your emotions out of your thinking ie if you feel passionately that your view is correct it may cloud your judgment Don t Oversimplify 7 don t generalize from a single or a few cases or events Consider Other Interpretations 7 force yourself to consider and test other explanationshypotheses that are contrary to your own but would also explain your observations Tolerate Uncertainty 7 avoid drawing firm conclusions unless others have replicated your findings Be familiar with the types of research methodologies used in the field of psychology including different nonexperimental methods for gathering information experimental research quasi experimental research and hereditability research Know the advantages and limitations of each 0 In nonexperimental research there is often careful observation and measurement and evaluating but in experimental research there is also random assignment and manipulation of a variable 0 What are the differences between experimental and nonexperimental research Be familiar with the following research terms operational definition reliability validity normative reference group representative sample independent variable dependent variable experimental versus control conditions random assignment placebo condition single and double blind research designs Know how to interpret correlational statistics what the sign means and what the number means Be familiar with the types of descriptive statistics and know when researchers would use inferential statistics What is a metaanalysis What is the trait factor analysis approach to personality and how does it differ from the other theoretical perspectives on personality we discussed What are the Big 5 personality traits Be familiar with Freud s theory of personality development and more recent psychodynamic approaches Jungian Theory and Object Relations What are defense mechanisms in general and what are the specific defense mechanisms we discussed in class be able to identify examples What is the nature versus nurture debate in psychology How much of our personality appears to be due to nature versus nurture How does behaviorism differ from the social learning perspective when it comes to explaining how people develop their personality How do collective vs individualistic cultures in uence personality Which appears to contribute more to personality variability after factoring out the in uence of genetics the shared or the unshared environment What does the humanistic view of personality consist of Who were the contributors in this movement that we discussed in class and what were their ideas about free will congruence between the inner and outer self selfactualization and existential crisesultimate concerns What are infant re exes discussed in class What is attachment and how does this aid in survival Be familiar with the research on attachment discussed in class Ainsworth s research using the strange situation test and Harlow s research with rhesus monkeys How does language develop Be familiar with chomsky s ideas about language development and Piaget s ideas about cognitive development including Piagets stages of cognitive development theory Be familiar with brain development in adolescence as well as the following concepts related to I 39 39 1 p 1 early vs late onset of puberty adolescent egocentrism imaginary audience personal fable Be familiar with Piaget s and Erikson s stages of development along with theories of moral development How does aging during adulthood affect cognition


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