American History II
American History II HIST 2020
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Hist 2 Study Guide 2 2 constitutional issues concerning reconstruction 1 Were the rebellious states in the union or not 2 Was congress or president responsible for directing reconstruction WadeDavis bill radical reconstruction 50 of voters had to take allegiance amp had to promise to emancipate slaves Lincoln used pocketveto issue unresolved Southern states to hold state convention must do 3 things 1 Amend constitution to make succession illegal 2 Reject confederate debt 3 Ratify the 13 h amendment 13 h amendment abolished slavery Joint committee of 15 composed of 6 senators amp 9 representatives to examine issue of black suffrage amp southern representation New Freemans bureau bill anyone violating civil rights of black Americans would be tried before military court Lincoln vetoed Civil Rights Act gave citizenship to all black Americans amp all people born in the US except Native Americans Lincoln vetoed Freemans Bureau took care if the vacant lands of the South helped the former slaves make the transition from slavery to freedom 14 h amendment defined citizenship to include black Americans amp guaranteed federal protection of the rights of all citizens abolished the 35 clause in the constitution for a state to return to Union must ratify this amendment Radical Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided South in 5 military districts for state to be readmitted do 3 things call for a state convention amp delegates elected by manhood suffrage convention establish state gov t guarantee black suffrage amp ratify 14 h amendment Tenure of Office Act president could not remove official whose appointment had to have approval of senate wo consent of senate 15 h amendment stated that a state could not deprive a citizen of his vote bc of race color or previous condition of servitude General Amnesty Act restored vote to all but the most prominent confederates Black Friday Sept 1869 151 scandal of Grant administration Gould amp Fisk who were stock speculators attempted to corner the gold market Ku Klux Klan 1866 First Grand wizard Nathan Bedford Forrest organized in Pulaski TN purpose to restore white supremacy amp destroy radical Republican power in South served as a cloak for lawlessness amp violence dissolved in Nashville in 1869 Credit Mobilier Scandal 2nd scandal Credit Mobilier was a construction company that bribed congressman to get the contract to build the Union Pacific Railroad gave a of congressmen stock in company billed gov t for millions of S for work it did not do Horace Greeley Liberal Republican nomination for president in 1872 went against Grant Panic of 1873 money was main issue all those debt including small farmers amp Midwestern businessmen wanted the gov t to follow a inflationary policy allowing greenbacks to remain in circulation bankers amp wealthy merchants amp intellectuals favored hard money policy Coinage Act of 1873 demonetized silver Whiskey Ring 3rd scandal gov t revenue officials conspired wwhisky distillers to defraud the fed gov t of millions of S of revenue of alcohol began in St Louis and spread to other cities many officials involved including 0 E Babcock Grant s personal secretary William Belknap started 4 h scandal was Grant s secretary of war caught selling the franchise of trading posts on Indian reservations to his friends Compromise of 187677 3 promises for Hayes to be supported 1 Remove all federal troops from South 2 Appoint at least one Southerner to Hayes cabinet 3 Federal Aide for internal improvements in the South Redeemers new type of politician to govern south after 1877 businessmen use white supremacy to gain power encourage segregation Greenback Labor Party 1877 represent labor views amp 28 states platform condemned the return of hard money called for free coinage of silver shorter work week for industrial workers restriction on Chinese immigrants James Garfield republican nomination in 1880 president campaign against Blaine won election July 1881 shot in stomach on railroad station died in September Pendleton Act provided for Civil service Reform set up 3 man board gov t could not force person to endorse campaign or fire for not doing so Grover Cleveland democratic nomination in 1884 election against Blaine won amp was first democrat to be elected since Buchanan on 1856 Small Reservation Policy attempted to remove Indians out of white migration path Dawesseveralty act passed on 1887 designed to do away wcommunal ownership of land by giving the head of each native American household a small farm Contrary to the safety valve theory most people went west in times of prosperity Great migration over the plains began w Cali Gold Rush Land of west ended up in the hands of4 groups 1 Land speculators 2 Large ranchers 3 Timber companies 4 Railroads Most important obstacle to settling the west was scarcity of water Reclamation ActNew Lands act fed gov t provided money for irrigating the West Mining frontier moved from west to east Federal Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 halted Chinese immigration into the US for 10 yrs Positive Aspects of Mining Boom 1 Mining contributed millions to the economy 2 Helped finance civil war amp industrialization 3 Populated portions of the West 4 Led to early statehood for Indiana Montana amp Nevada Negative Aspects of Mining Boom 1 Invaded Indian reservations 2 Left ghost towns 3 Left scarred landscapes 5 innovations that enable American farmers to farm great plains 1 Barbed wire fencing wo wood 2 Dry farming deep plowing amp use of mulch 3 Tougher strains of wheat that would endure harsh winters 4 Scientific agriculture 5 Improved farm machinery Jay Piermont Morgan banking for 19h century 1885 owned stock in RR settled dispute quottrustquot monopoly persuaded foreign clients to sign over proxies 1912 gov t investigated his finances persuaded to reinvest in own companies US offered ideal conditions for rapid industrialization in late 19 h century 1 Abundance of cheap natural resources 2 Large pools of labor 3 Largest domestic marketing the world capital amp gov t support wo gov t regulations Industrial economy of 19 h century America based on the growth of railroads which employed thousands of people consumed huge quantities of raw materials Railroads did more than just supplement other forms of transportation 1 Ended rural isolation 2 Made possible regional economic specialization 3 Made possible mass production amp consumption 4 Led to development of modern corporation 5 Stimulated other industries Interstate commerce act Besser process of refining steel made mass production possible the use of steel brought great changes on following 4 areas 1 Transportation 2 Agriculture 3 Industry 4 architecture Andrew Carnegie ironmaster amp philanthropist 1872 entered steel business amp became its master 1901 company employed more than 20k amp produced more steel than Great Britain John D Rockefeller 1863 began to consolidate the oil business organized the Standard Oil Co of Ohio when it expanded changed name to Standard Oil Trust Sherman AntiTrust Act gave gov t legal authority to take action against trustmonopoly amp could break them up American technology is the child of the second half of 19 h century Samuel Gompers organized 151 modern labor union in 1886 called American Federation of Labor AFL AFL organized only skilled makes unions impact was weakened bc ignored women amp blacks Skyscraper became symbol of new citystreet lights amp street cars AngloSaxon protestants James NaySmith invented game of basketball bc it did not need a large playing surface John Dewey education reformant 1899 wrote llthe School amp societyquot urged children should learn by doing Booker T Washington said that black Americans would have to accept racism amp focus on a practical vocation education WEB Dubois said that black Americans should have an equal opportunity amp integrated education Henry George wrote llProgress amp Povertyquot thesis rich get richer poor get poorer solution all land to be taxed land was basis of all wealth Stanton Coit introduced the London Settlement house idea on NY city 1886 Hull house in Chicago operated by Jane Adams most famous objective to bring practice amp classical education to urban poor Main issue during election of 1896 was silver dBryan would purchase rMcKinley would not purchase Sherman Silver Purchase Act required the US Treasury to purchase 45 mill ounce of silver per month at market price Presidential campaign of 1896 was probably the most education in America history speeches 8 literature distributed by campaigns were the equivalent to college level seminar in economics Cross of Gold speech given by Bryan attacking the Gold standard Sanford B Doyle in 1893 organized a committee of safety to overthrow the Hawaiian Queen Valeriano Welyer general sent by Spanish gov t to put down Cuban revolt organized concentration camps where he put rebels sympathizers amp neutrals to include women amp children Dupuy De Lome Spanish ambassador to the Us who critized president McKinley in a letter to a friend USS Maine steel ship sent to protect Americans captain Bigsby Feb 15 1898 940 am it explodes killing 260 Spanish send rescue ships Tellar amendment came from Henry Tellar a CO senator claimed we had no territorial ambitions w Cuba amp when Spain withdrew we would give Cuba its freedom New Us Steel Navy was ready amp efficient 2k officers 24k men army was also big naval battles were critical battles Spanish navy consisted of old wooden ships George Dewey commander of the Adriatic squadron at the Battle of Manila Bay received secret message from Roosevelt would seek out Spanish fleet and destroy it Theodore Roosevelt quotTeddyquot led roughriders in San Juan hill Battle Treaty of Paris of 1898 Dec 10 ended Spanish American War Provisions of the Treaty of Paris 1 US gave Spain 20mill amp received the Philippines 2 Spain gave up all claims to Cuba 3 4 Spain assumed the Cuban Debt of 400 mill US received Guam amp Puerto Rico Argument of the Imperialists 1 2 3 4 National prestige Civilizing mission of US Economic amp strategic advantages f US did not acquire the Philippines another country in the arearegion would Argument of the AntiImperialists 1 2 3 Annex the territories not bordering the US inhabited by alien peoples incapable of being assimilated would be contrary to our traditional principles of isolationism Threat to Monroe Doctrine Contrary to out traditional principle of self gov t Antiimperialists are correlation of populists democrats amp few New England republicans Shurman Commission Jacob G Shurman purpose to investigate the situation in the Philippines amp report repot came out amp recommended ultimate independence for the Philippines but stated US should hold onto until ready for self gov t History 2 Study Guide 1 o Compromise of 1850 7 consists of 5 bills 1 California was entered as afree state 2 New Mexico and Utah were each allowed to use popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery In other words the people would pick whether the states would be free or slave 3 The Republic of Texas gave up lands that it claimed in present day New Mexico and received 10 million to pay its debt to Mexico The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia The Fugitive Slave Act made any federal official who did not arrest a runaway slave liable to pay afme This was the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 and caused many abolitionists to increase their efforts against slavery V He 0 Republican Party 7 first collation of free soilers northern wigs amp antislavery democrats came about b c intense dislike of KansasNebraska Act 0 New England Immigration Aid Society 7 founder Amos Lawrence 0 Know Nothings 7 American Nativists result of 2 organizations The Order of Star Spangle Banner amp Order of United American People very secretive antiCatholic anti immigrant began in New York 0 Bleeding Kansas 7 civil war in Kansas 18541863 0 John C Fremont 7 Republican nomination for presidential campaign of 1856 slogan 7 Free soil free men free speech Fremont condemned Ostend Manifesto amp Kansas Nebraska Act wanted congress to control slavery in territories wanted railroad to Paci c bring Kansas in Union as free state 0 James Buchanan 7 Democratic nomination for presidential campaign of 1856 support Compromise of 1850 won campaign of 1856 o Dred Scott Decision 7 Roger Taney chiefjustice for case 1856 St Louis courts rules him free man Mrs Emerson appeals 3 reasons was he a citizen to sue was he a free man was 30 36 min free territory Court rules slaves are not citizens living in free state does not make slave free Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional meant in theory slavery could expand anywhere 0 John Brown 7 leader of Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856 0 Cooper Union Address 7 gave by Lincoln in 1859 4 points made denounced popular sovereignty examined southern attitudes toward North amp Republican condemned radicals in North calls for sectional understanding did not take southern threats lightly slavery cannot expand debated slavery in moral view David Davis was his campaign leader 0 South Carolina 7 first state to leave Union Popular sovereignty 7 a preCivil War doctrine asserting the right of the people living in a newly organized territory to decide by vote of their territorial legislature whether or not slavery would be permitted there Free soiler 7 person who doesn t want to expand slavery Abolitionist 7 person who wants to abolish slavery David Acheson 7 Missouri senator proslavery forces in Kansas governor gave him support James Henry Lane 7 leader of the Free State Forces Stephen Douglas 7 Northern Democratic candidate in 1860 against Lincoln the little giant spoke against Lincoln in Peoria IL Copperheads 7peace Northern Democrats opposed war West Virginia 7 July 20 1863 50 counties of West Virginia did not want to accept succession elected Francis H Piermont as governor George B McClellan 7 Commander of Union gets Lee s copy of battle plan takes out one column of his army removed after Battle of Antietam 1864 candidate against Lincoln KansasNebraska Act 7proposed by Stephen Douglas 1854 started Republican Party contained Democratic amp Wig Party caused Bleeding Kansas in Lawrence named after Amos Lawrence bloodiest war 65k known dead 300k MIA David Wilmont 7 founded of Wimont Proviso James Barker Constitutional Union Party 7 combination on formal Wigs amp Know Nothings John Bell 7 Constitutional Union Party candidate favored constitution the union amp the enforcement of law Doe Face 7 northern man w southern principles Hinton R Helper 7 wrote Impending crisis of the South amp How to meet it spokesperson against slavery southemer from North Carolina Peculiar Institution 7 slave system in south Domestic Institution 7 slave system in specific state Wilmont Proviso attempt by opponents of slavery to prevent its introduction in the territories purchased from Mexico following the Mexican War Jefferson Davis 7 Davis resolution 7 an ironclad guarantee slavery for the territories resolutions set off an extensive debate in senate over Constitution amp political aspects of slavery controversy widened gap between North amp South Democrats President of Confederacy his Vice President was Alexander Stevens Richmond VA 7 Confederate capital Recruiting system in equable 39 month enlistment Jan 1863 1St draft occurred possible to pay 300 to get out of first draft or hire a substitute ages 1835 4 drafts in North which led to NY draft rights training camp like prisons with guards and who shot people who tried to escape sides experienced 10 desertion o Sherman s March 7 from Atlanta to Savannah classical example of campaign b c it destroyed will of white south to resist amp made them realize they had to reject succession o 3 reason South Carolina gave for secession l North s long attack on slavery 2 coming to power of an antislavery political party 3 election of a president whose opinion amp purposes are a threat to slavery o 7 innovations that made the Civil War the first modern war 1 Mass production of weapons 2 Rif ed weapons 3 Use oftelegraph 4 Use of railroads 5 Iron clad warships 6 Trench warfare 7 Joint military amp naval tactics 0 Name the 11 states that comprised the confederacy 1 South Carolina 2 Mississippi 3 Florida 4 Alabama 5 Georgia 6 Texas 7 Virginia 8 North Carolina 9 Tennessee 10 Arkansas 11 Louisiana 0 Name the 4 slave states that remained in the Union 1 Maryland 2 Pennsylvania 3 Kentucky 4 Missouri 0 List 4 important consequences of the battle of Antietam Sharpsburg fought Sept 17 1862 l Slowed Confederate Army s momentum 2 Increased Union amp citizen morale needed this victory 3 Prevented foreign recognition for Confederate gov t 4 Enabled Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proclamation o 3 consequences of Battle of First Bull Run N E 1 N 3 Alerted North to seriousness of war Lincoln realized that the green troops needed more training Alerted North the serious situation that Washington was surrounded by Confederate states Balance Sheet Northern Strengths Pop of 22 mill in 23 Northern amp border states 7 heavy European immigration into North eX 400k foreign served Balanced economy I Advanced industry Prosperous agriculture Strong banking capital Superior railroad system 4 Merchant marine 5 Naval supremacy 0 Southern Weakness 1 Pop of9 mill in 11 states 35 mill were slaves 2 Agriculture economy Poorly developed industry Weak banking capital 3 Poorly developed railroad system that wore out by 1863 4 No merchant marine 5 No navy 6 Great valley of VA amp Miss amp TN valleys offered excellent avenues of invasion by Union troops 7 For the South the war was a calculated risk 8 South overestimated its own strength amp underestimated the North 9 South did not believe North would ght to save Union 10 North did ght Great Britain depended on Southern cotton South though they would come to their aid 11 South optimistic 7 males trained in arms amp outdoor living amp predisposed military service did not have to win to win it could ght on the defensive it could lose battles amp even campaigns if it could wear down the North in the process 0 Northern War Aims 1 Went to war to preserve Union after 1863 freeing slaves was secondary aim 2 Lincoln said no state was in rebellion only individuals 3 Union army was large sheriff posy 4 Lincoln was refusing to recognize the legitimacy of Confederate gov t Southern War Aims 1 Wanted independence 2 Wanted to be left alone go on own way 0 4 points of Union Strategy Blockade Southern coastline amp starve South April 191861 Send army to capture Richmond VA 3 Army in west aided by river gun boats to seize control of Miss amp TN River subdiVing the South 4 2 armies would crush what was left of South 301 0 Southern Strategy 1 Wanted to capture Washington DC send army to Maryland amp Penn cutting NE to NW tried twice amp never worked 2 Strategy ght on defense 0 2 principle theaters of operation 1 East of Appalachian Mtns primarily fought between Richmond amp Washington DC 2 Western slopes of Appalachian Mtns To Miss heartland of Confederacy HISTORY 2020 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 18th Amendment Prohibition laws Pragmatist Said that the value of an idea was measured by the action it inspired also believed that there were no laws governing society that could not be changed strongest in urban areas 17111 Amendment provided for the popular or direct election of the senators Americans had 3 choicesroads 1 Go back to the past 2 Led to socialist future 3 Pioneered by modern trade unit one they chose Muckraking Investigative journalism bene ted from a new phenomenon in American literature it was the magazine revolution in the later pa1t of 19111 century bene ted from the accident of fortunate timing it won public approval because it continued the tradition of self education that had been so strong in l9Lh century America it has always been and will always be popular Hepburn Act reinforced the interstate commerce commission increased 57 members set up a uniform accountingbookkeeping system for commission gave jurisdiction over expresssleeping car companies oil pipe lines terminals bridges ferry s Pure Food and Drug Act prohibited the manufacture sale and transport of fraudulently labeled and adulterated food and drugs through interstate commerce Meat Inspection Act aimed at the J and 139 packing industry it provided for the enforcement of sanitary regulations in meat packaging plants and federal inspection of all companies selling meat through interstate J39 I I J39 in the meat commerce Upton SinclairTHE JUNGLE promoted the act above AldrichVreeland Act 7 provided for a national monetary commission investigate the banking amp currency systems in Europe 7 the Us its report which came out in 1912 provided the basis for the passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913 The MannElkins Act put all telephone telegram cable and wireless companies under the control of the interstate commerce commission New Nationalism Speech Roosevelt government had the right to control businessprivate property if it was in the public interest to do so 16111 amendment income tax federal under Taft 1912 Progressives amp RooseveltBull Moose PartyProgressive party 0 Reps The New Nationalism the government would actively regulate and stimulate the economy and wasteful competition would be replaced by efficiency DemsThe New Freedom big business and gov t would be restrained allowing 0 the individual to forge ahead on his own Federal Reserve Act reformed nations banking system amp gave US stable exible currency Clayton AntiTrust Act outlawed an unfair number of trade practiced and limited court justices against labor FTC federal trade commission set up to supervise business Reasons Wilson retreated from Reformation l Preoccupied with outbreak of WW1 2 Headed the support in congress of southern conservative democrats 3 Reps were beginning to make political gains by attacking Wilson s progressive legislation Plattsburg Idea military training camps for civilians kind of like a summer camp Oscar 11 Henry Ford s Ship National Defense act provided for an expanded army during peace and wartime purposedraw blueprints for national defense established ROTC programs in colleges Creel Committee Committee on public information headed by George Creel newspaper editor purpose unite public opinion behind the warfront Liberty Lone Act war frnance measure authorized sale of war bombs to the public us could make loans to allies to buy food and supplies Selective Service Act registrationclassi cation of all males 1845 Espionage Act aimed at treasonabledisloyal activities severe penalties 10000 ne 20 year prison anyone caught aiding enemy obstructing or recruiting disloyalty in the armed service aimed at pacifrsts and socialists who opposed war War Industrialist Boardcoordinate industrialist war activity War RevenueFinance Actmade income tax the chief source of revenue during the war increase tax on corporations postal rates sharp increase in excise tax Trading With the Enemy Act prevented trade with Germany and its Allies set up of ce known as the office of alien property custodian US Railroad Administration congress passed to avoid strikes government controlled railroad during the war socialism act War Finance Cooperation loan money at reasonable rates to industries involved in war effort Sedition Act amendment to Espionage Act made illegal to criticize Army govt etc if you did subject to inditement Eugine Debbs sentenced Wilson s war effort Wilson Progressive 0 DRAFT makes an angency staffed by civilians o Believed he had to sell the war Incorporated territory expected to become state one day full constitutional rights Unincorporated territory not expected to become state no constitutional rights depends Commonwealth name of all US territories never use word colony Foraker Act permanent civilian government for Puerto Rico unincorporated Gov General and council appointed by pres great Britain gov t colonies Boxer Rebellion 7 antiforeign Chinese revolutionaries rose up amp went after Europeans lst missionaries ee to Peking Boxers attack goes 55 days Platt amendment 7 Cuba had to add their constitution o 4 provisions Cuba would not enter into a treaty with any foreign power that would threaten its independence Had to promise they would not go into debt beyond ability to pay US reserved right to intervene in order to preserve Cuban independence or law 9 and order 4 Cuba promised to lease us land that could be used as a Naval base HayPounchefote Treaty does away with Clayton Bullwom Treaty John Hay US rights to buildcontrol canal US guarantees canals neutrality Walker Commission 7 determine on buying canal on Panama or Nicaragua leaning towards Nicaragua till Panama lowered price from 110 mill to 40 mill Spooner Act 7 if we could work out between Colombia to buy Panama Canal for 40 mill we would for sure buy HayHerran Treaty 7 agree to pay Colombia 10 mill up front and annual fee of 250k for 99 year lease US Senate ratify Colombia refused b c wanted 25 mill upfront HayBuenau Varilla Treaty 7 1903 Panama declared independence from Colombia Philippe Buenau Varilla Panama ambassador signed HayHerran Treaty we get canal forever 10 miles wide got rights to Panama Canal guarantee Panama independence William Gorgas 7 headed the Health amp Sanitation Campaign to stop disease so the canal could be built George Goethals 7 chief engineer of canal made it a lock canal 406 miles long cost 365 mill opened 8151914 Portsmouth Peace Treaty 7 Russo Japanese War between Russia and Japan US sent out paper saying China was neutral Japan had upper hand amp went to Roosevelt to mediate the treaty Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize b c of this TaftKatshura Agreement 7 between US and Japan Japan respected US interest in Philippines amp US respected Japan interest in Korea Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 7 announced no European country could take over a country in the Western hemisphere bc of collecting debt US will intervene military to prevent it Dollar Diplomacy 7 restated our support for the Open Door Policy in China amp called for increase in US trade by supporting business abroad made by Taft Perfio Diaz 7 dictator of Mexico from 1877 to 1910 challenged by Fransico Idaerio and lost Victorinao Huerta 7killed Democratic president Fransico Idaerio of Mexico turned ruling back to dictatorship Vera Cruz Port city in Mexico ABC Conference 7 called by Argentina Brazil amp Chile held at Niagara Falls May 1914 US amp Mexico calls for Huerta to resign amp gov t be changed Doctrine of Strict Accountability 7 any US shipslives lost on sea as a result of German attacks would be in violation of neutral rights amp Germany would be held accountable Lucitian 7 captain William Turner sail from New York to England Germany put warning on dock blew it up First Lucitian Note 7 drafted by Wilson signed by WJ Bryan restated Doctrine of Strict Accountability 1 Demanded Germany abandon un restricted warfare 2 Demanded Germany apologize publically for sinking ship 3 Demanded Germany make reparations to the families who lost relations on ship Arabic Pledge 7 Arabic ocean liner sank by Germany stated Germany would not sink ocean liners even ying enemy ag wo fist warning amp making safety precautions if they did not run pay American families for lives lost in effect till 1915 Pancho Villa 7 executed American miners raids on both sides of border TX amp Mexico John J Pershing 7 led troops to attack Villa amp commander of American Expeditionary Force GoreMcLemore Resolution 7 introduced by Jeff McLemore required president to issue a warning to not travel abroad Senator Thomas Gore withhold any passport of a person wanting to travel abroad House Grey Memorandum 7 when Britain amp France believe time is right they would call for a peace conference if Germany refused to attend US would probably join Allies Sussex Affair 7 Sussex French canal passenger shipsunk by Germany said had an authority to sink a ship used to send troops Peace wo Victory Speech 7 called for Nat l organization with peace League of Nations wo victory Zimmerman Telegram 7 Arthur Zimmerman German Foreign Secretary sent secret coded message to Mexican ambassador In the event that US amp Germany go to war together Mexican ambassador would get Mexico to join Germany American Expeditionary Force 7 led by Pershing push for independent command was a well trained army Fourteen Points 1 Open covenants of peace openly arrived at 2 Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas outside territorial waters alike in peace and in war except as the seas may be closed 3 The removal of all economic barriers and establishment of equality of trade 4 Guarantees that national armaments will be reduced 5 Adjustment of colonial claims that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the people concerned must have equal weight with the claims of the government whose title is to be determined 6 Russian territory should be evacuated and Russia welcomed into the society of free nations 7 Belgium should be evacuated and restored 8 All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored 9 The frontiers of Italy should be readjusted along clearly recognizable lines of nationality 10 The peoples of AustriaHungary should have the freest opportunity to independent development 11 Romania Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated and restored Serbia should have free and secure access to the sea and the relations of the several Balkan states to each other should be determined by friendly counsel and political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be internationally guaranteed The Turkish portion of the Ottoman Empire should have a secure sovereignty but the other nationalities which are under Turkish rule should have an undoubted security of life and an opportunity of 39 J r J and the D J quot should be permanently opened as passage to the ships and commerce of all nations An independent Polish state should be erected including the territories inhabited by Polish populations which should have free access to the sea 14 The League of Nations should be formed Treaty of Versailles 7 if US ratified then automatically joined the League of Nations US never signed required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war and to disarm make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Allies Wilson made peace efforts a partisan effort discovered Allies wanted to punish N dev 39 LA Germany did succeed in creating League of Nations SaccoVanzetti trial convicted for radical views executed Henry Mencken 7 dominate social amp literary critic of decade of 20 s Automobile assembly line amp city became dominant feature of 20 s Flappers 7 young woman who exercise individual freedom short dresses curly hair dranldsmoke demanded sex like men Biggest change in family was discover of adolescence no longer had to work Volstead Act 7 provided enforcement of machinery for the 18th amendment Red Scare 7 Abe Palmer picked up aliens amp deported them Jan 1920 largest roundup Ku Klux Klan 7 revived hated immigrantsJ ews Catholics favored prohibition offered sanctuary of traditional American views for people afraid of new world had political power in TX OK amp IN 20 s appeared to be dominated by Republicans but beneath the surface Democratic urban wing was becoming single biggest 3 Republicans of 20 s 1 Warren Harding 2 Calvin Coolidge 3 Hubert Hoover Presidential election 1920 Socialist Eugine Debb Republican Warren G Harding Ohio Gang 7 group of self seeking politicians that surrounded Hardy Teapot Dome Scandal7 two fields for Navy use only Hardy transferred oil fields to Albert Fall who secretly leases it to oil men received bribes and cows found guilty Albert Fall 7 Secretary of Interior part of Teapot Dome Scandal 4 reasons for 192021 severe economic recession 1 Very tight credit 2 Heavy inventories 3 Glutted domestic market 4 Decline in American exports 191h amendment 7 women suffrage Robert LaFollette s Wisconsin Idea close cooperation between the state government and the University of Wisconsin in the development of progressive policy goals of his policy included the recall referendum direct primary and initiative all of these were aimed at giving citizens a more direct role in government