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Principles of Life

by: Enoch Runte

Principles of Life BIOL 1010

Enoch Runte
GPA 3.83

Sallie Noel

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Sallie Noel
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Enoch Runte on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Austin Peay State University taught by Sallie Noel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/217888/biol-1010-austin-peay-state-university in Biology at Austin Peay State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Biology 1010 Final Exam Study Guide Genome 7 set of genes 0 Human Genome Project 7 massive scienti c endeavor to determine the nucleotide sequence of all the DNA in the human genome and to identify the location and sequence of every gene DNA fingerprinting analysis of DNA samples to determine whether they come from the same individual Genetically modi ed GM organisms 7organisms that have acquired one or more genes by arti cial means 0 transgenic organisms an recombinant organism that has a newly acquired gene from another organism typically from another species 0 pharm animals 7 transgenic animals all carrying a recombinant human gene serving as a grazing pharmaceutical factory o Humulin7 human insulin produced by genetically modi ed bacteria Recombinant DNA Technology results when scientists combine nucleotide sequences pieces of DNA from two different sources 7 often from different species 7 to form a single DNA molecule 0 Biotechnology the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products 0 Plasmids small circular DNA molecules that replicate duplicate separately from the much larger bacterial chromosome Restriction enzymes 7 cutting tools used for making recombinant DNA 0 Used 7 to recognize a particular short DNA sequence DNARNA probes nucleic acid probe used to nd a speci c gene or other nucleotide sequence within a mass of DNA Forensic science the scienti c analysis of evidence for crime science investigations and other legal proceedings 0 Genetic markers sequences in the genome that vary from person to person more likely to match between relatives than between unrelated individuals Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR technique by which a speci c segment of DNA can be targeted and copied quickly and precisely Lamarck 0 Suggested that the best explanation for this relationship of fossils to current organisms is that life evolves Explained evolution as the re nement of traits that equip organisms to perform 0 successfully in their environment 0 Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics 7 by using or not using its body parts an individual may develop certain traits that it passes on to its offspring Cuvier o Uniformitarianism same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe inthe past and apply everywhere inthe universe 0 Catatrophism theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden shortlived violent events possibly worldwide in scope Darwin 0 Natural selection 7 process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other traits 0 Fitness 7 contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contribution of other individuals in the population Comparative Anatomy comparison of body structures in different species certain anatomical similarities among species are signs of evolutionary history 0 Homology similarity in structure due to common ancestry forelimbs of diverse mammals known as homologous structures 0 Fossil record ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in the rock layers marking the passage of geologic time Bottleneck 7 severe reduction in population size causes pronounced drift usually reduces the overall genetic variability in a population because at least some alleles are likely to be lost from the gene pool Endangered species 7 become endangered because of bottleneck have low genetic variability so less adaptable to environmental changes Founder effect 7type of genetic drift resulting from the establishment of small new population whose gene pools differs from that of the parent population Gene ow 7 population may gain or lose alleles when fertile individuals move into or out of the population or gametes plant pollen are transferred between populations provides variation generally considered to be beneficial to population Gene pool 7 total collection of alleles in a population at any one time Population 7 a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time Hardy Weinberg Analysis 7 state that will exist if there is no mutation mfmitely large population mating is random and all individuals survive and produce equally 0 Equation p2 2pq q2 1 Genetic Equilibrium 7 hypothetical state of population in which allele frequencies for a trait remain stable through generations Microevolution generationtogeneration change in a population s frequencies of alleles on the smallest scale Mutation random changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Allopatric Speciation 7 initial block to gene ow is a geographic barrier that psychically isolates the splinter population speciation in geographically isolated populations probably most common mechanism some sort of barrier arises and prevents gene ow effectiveness of barrier varies with species Sympatric Speciation 7 origin of new species without geographic isolation species forms within the home range of the parent species Cladistics scienti c search for clades o Clades consist of an ancestral species and all its descendants 7 a distinct branch in the tree of life Systematics discipline of biology that focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships 0 Taxonomy 7 eld of biology concerned with identifying naming and classifying species 0 Binomial system of classi cation devised by Carl Linnaeus each species has a twopart Latin name rst part is generic genusamp second part is speci c name genus is capitalized and complete name is italicized ex Homo sapiens Plate tectonics 7 earth s crust is fractured into plates movement of plates is driven by upwelling of molten rock at midoceanic ridges as sea oor spread older rock is forced down into trenches Archeopteryx7 ancient wing animal loved near tropical lagoons in central Europe about 150 million years ago not considered an ancestor of today s birds but probably represents an extinct side branch of the bird lineage Sexual dimorphism secondary sexual traits noticeable difference not directly associated with reproduction or survival often manifested in a size difference Convergence convergent evolution species from different evolutionary branches may have certain structures that are super cially similar if natural selection had shaped analogous adaptations o Analogy similarity due to convergence Fixity of species Aristotle thought species were fixed or permanent and did not evolve Genotype genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype expressed traits of an organism Evolutionary adaptation a population s increase in the frequency of traits suited to the environment Cheddar Man DNA from 9000 year old skeleton found in English cave suggested that he was direct ancestor to local school teacher


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