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Research Methods

by: Mr. Miles Leannon

Research Methods PSY 3180

Mr. Miles Leannon
GPA 3.8

Brian Hock

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Brian Hock
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Miles Leannon on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3180 at Austin Peay State University taught by Brian Hock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/217890/psy-3180-austin-peay-state-university in Psychlogy at Austin Peay State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 6 Internal validity 0 One explanation that accounts for the results of the study Threats to internal validity o Extraneous variables 7 any additional variables that were not directly controlled in the experiment amp may explain the results 0 Confounding variables 7 not controlled in the experiment amp high chance it impacted the results I Types 1 Environmental variable 7 can be between two groups or before after treatment 2 Assignment bias 7 method used to assign people to groups can have a bias 0 Threats over time before vs after 0 History 7 outside events in uence treatments differently o quot 7 I 39 39 39 39 p 39 39 39 39 maturate that is affecting the results 0 Instrumentation 7 instruments not working properly inconsistent readings calibrationbattery issues 0 Testing effects 7 previous testing period interferes with later period I Practice effect 7 person familiar with test after first one I Fatigue 7 decrease in performance bc experiencing fatigue 0 Regression to the mean 7 one score was outlier amp other was typical performance Threats to external validity o How well results generalize from sample to population 0 Generalize from sample to population 0 Selection bias 7method used to select sample has sample not representative of population I Sophomore bias I Volunteer bias I Crossspecies generalization o Generalize from one study to another 0 Novelty o Experimenter characteristics 0 Genetics time seasonal geography o Generalize from lab to real world 0 Sensitization 0 Not being able to replicate things from real world Threats to both Intemal amp External 0 Experimenter bias expectancy effects 0 Reactivity Experiments amp their validity type from book Chapter 8 Between subject design 0 Two or more groups of individuals Advantages o Faster amp less cost 0 Don t have to worry about problems of repeat testing 0 Always an option easier to switch from within to between Disadvantages 0 Need larger ofparticipants 0 Individual difference error Limit individual difference error 0 Random assignment 0 All characteristics found in pop should be represented 0 Block randominzation 0 Used if have 4 or more groups 0 Ex Aplacebo BlOmg c25mg d50mg o Matched groups 0 Match subjects as a group w one or more characteristics 0 Remove variablehold constant Variation in between subject design 0 Between g1ps variation 0 xexp vs xcont 910 want to be large 0 Within grps var 0 SD exp vs SD cont low as possible 0 How to lower w in grps var I Large sample N I Standard procedures I Limit individual diff Threats to internal validity between subjects 0 Differential attribution o Dropping out or cannot recruit enough subjects 0 Response effects Statistical tests 0 Independent T test o 2 groups 0 Oneway ANOVA o 3 groups F value P value then Post Hoc turkey Assumptions of tests 0 Equal or similar N s 0 Normal distribution 0 Homogeneity of variance SD are similar or not sig different 0 Can experience Type I error or Type II error which messes up homo Lower errors 0 Type I 0 Found sig diff but shouldn t have 0 To avoid error set p value lower p lt 01 2 tailed testhypothesis large N replicate experiment 0 Type II 0 Did not find sig diff but should have 0 To avoid error set p value higher p lt 05 l tail testhypothesis large N replicate experiment Chapter 9 Within subject design 0 Before TX After Advantages 0 Fewer subjects 0 Eliminates individual diiTerence error Disadvantages 0 Participant attrition 0 Factors w repeated testing 0 History maturation instruments testing effects regression to the mean Controlling repeated testing threats 0 Switch to between subject design 0 Counter balance I before I after I 15s IFormA IFormB I 15s IFormB IFormA Assign subject to groups 0 Complete win s design 0 Get all levels of IV more than once 0 Block randomization 0 ABBA counterbalancing o Incomplete win s design 0 Practiceanticipation effects 0 Get all levels of IV at once 0 All possible orders I Each condition of the IV must be in each ordinal position amp follow and preceed each condition an equal of times I Limited to 4 or fewer conditions 39239 N NNlN2 0 Latin square 0 Each condition appears in each ordinal position once 1 ABC 2 ACB Research Methods Chapters 15 Notes Research is always quot39 39 and causative Our paper should never have prove in it Always error involved Try to find ways to measure reliable amp accurate info 2 ways research begins 0 Theory driven 7 have theory so collect data to support or not support data I Ex Milgram s shock experiment 0 Data driven 7 explain data Scienti c Method 0 Goal guide to design an experiment amp how to communicate data 1 Theory 2 Hypothesis a Logical b Testable c Refutable 3 Identify subjects animals Participanm people a How many a power min 30 per part per group min 15 subj per group b Subject characteristics 4 operational de nition race age gender education status c Define population a sample d Sampling method I Random sample I Convenience sample 4 Methology Research Strategy a Interval vs external validity b Quasiindependentdependent variable how does IV cause DV c lExperimenta l Comment M1 124 I Highest internal lowest external d Quasiexperimental e Non experimental past test only design I Lacks controlcomparison group I Lacks base line data f Correlational I Cannot prove causation I Trying to find relationship between 2 variables I Doesn t have lVDV g Descriptive 5 Research Design a Between subjects crosssectional I Between 2 or more separate groups of subjects b Within subjects I 1 group testing twice or more c Factorial I 2 or more IV 6 Stam a Descriptive I Central tendencies 39239 Mean median mode I Variability 39239 error SD b lnferential I Compare different performance of 2 groups 39239 Ttest AN OVA correlation 7 Interpretations Conclusions Observationl Methods l Comment M3 131 0 Naturalistic 7 observing individuals amp behaviors in natural environments it is important to remain unobtrusive bc participanmsubjecm will behave differently a Hawthorne Effect people act differently when they know they are being watched o SurveyCorrelational 7 no actual observing of behavior or manipulations being done you may also be working w a data base amp have no actual participants 0 quot i ed 7 typical lab 39 sterile 39 w manipulations being done participanm know they are involved in a studyexperiment researcher sets up everything in the environment 0 Field Experiment 7 everything is done in a natural setting you may manipulate the IV or something in the environment it usually involves an actor or confederate but not always participant often doesn t know the heshe is involved in an experiment 0 Participant 7typically in a natural setting the researcher acts as aparticipant amp does everything other participanm do can be disguised or not disguised a Rosenhand Experiment 7 grand students were admitted to mental institution to study conditions they could later not be released bc doctors thought they showed signs of schizophrenia Scales of Measurement to Record Behavior 0 Qualitative data 7 narrative account of behavior no numbers involved it is often used in a new area of study where no other research is done one problem is how truthful the participanm are 0 Quantitative data 7 numbers obj ectively quantitated a Scales of Measurement I Nominal 7 naming or categorizing 39239 EX gender race if they have disease or not I Ordinal 7 putting in order of ranking highest to lowest there are unequal intervals between ranks gaps between 1 amp 2 are larger than between 3 amp 4 39239 EX top 5 movies I Interval 7 an equal interval or distance between values but no true zero 39239 EX degrees in temperature IQ Ratio 7 also an equal interval but has true zero you can make ratio comparisons between data points 39239 EX height weight time distance gt Participant 1 50 lbs Participant 2 100 lbs Participant 2 is twice as heavy If you cannot say this then it is interval b IV is usually nominal DV is always between interval or ratio Reliability i Comment M4 22 0 Measuring consistency in an outcomediagnosis l Interrater observer reliability a Two people observing the same behavior amp using the same criteria to come up w the same outcome 2 Testretest Reliability a Have participanm take test then take same participanm amp retake the test if the testretest reliability is high the two scores will be very close 3 Internal consistency a Split half reliability I Coopersmith SelfEsteem Test 10 questions compare 15 vs 610 Validity 1 Measuring truthfulness or what it says it s measuring 1 Face validity a Ask if the participant if heshe is happy afterduring treatment 2 Concurrent a Newly developed test amp compare to an established test 3 Construct a Comparing variable w similar methods based on past studies 4 Convergent a Show similar scores from different measures of the same construct 5 Divergent a 2 different measures that are measuring 2 different construcm amp want to show not related I Ex aggression i activity In uences on which test to use 1 Cost 2 Time to complete amp score Biases l Experimenter Bias a Set up experiment so trying to disprove hypothesis I Expectancy effecm start unconsciously seeing behaviors that put someone in the group I lDemand characteri tic 39 participant led to re nondin a way favorable to the experiment 2 Reactivity a Respond in a way that s favorable for the experiment or in fashion that makes themselves look better do what they can to mess up experiment b Deception 4 debrief I Population a Sample 1 Probability sampling 0 Each person has an equal chance of being selected for sample a Simple Random sample I Random number generatortable b Systematic rs I Choose random number amp use that number I Ex every 53911 person c Stratified rs I Means putting population in subgroups I Ex malefemale freshmansophomore then randomly choosing from each group d Proportionate stratified rs I Select subgroups sample will equal proportion of population e Cluster rs I Selecting groups of participanm randomly at a time 2 Non probability sampling 0 Not everyone has an equal chance of being selected for sample a Convenience I Take what s available at that time b Quota I Identify subgroups amp conveniently grab individuals Biased sample 0 Sample no longer represenm population 1 Selection Bias a Method used to select sample is bias b Sophomore bias generalizing a psych class to US population is it represented


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