Hum AnatPhys I
Hum AnatPhys I BIOL 230
Popular in Course
Popular in Biology
This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Trevion Rohan on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 230 at Baton Rouge Community College taught by Clarence Elkins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/217896/biol-230-baton-rouge-community-college in Biology at Baton Rouge Community College.
Reviews for Hum AnatPhys I
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/03/15
g3 2012 Pearson Education Inc 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 5 ussell P Nolan MSEd Ef gijg 2 73 Learning Outcomes 11 and 13 Explain the importance of studying anatomy and physiology Define anatomy and physiology describe the origins of anatomical and physiological terms and explain the significance of Terminologia Anatomica International Anatomical Terminology 14 Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology and describe various specialties of each discipline 15 Identify the major levels of organization in organisms from the simplest to the most complex and identify major components of each organ system 16 and 17 Explain the concept of homeostasis and the role of negative and positive feedback in maintaining homeostasis 18 Use anatomical terms to describe body sections body regions and relative positions 19 Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions and describe the functions of each 2012 Pearson Education Inc 11 Applications ofA and P What is anatomy and physiology What are your expectations from this course Important for making common sense decisions about your own life Applications 2012 Pearson Education Inc Applications of A and P Anatomy is the oldest medical science jw V H L u JvIu 7 ME 391 Quip Maw 2012 Pearson Education Inc 13 Form Determines Function Anatomical terminology Root prefix suffix See back cover of your textbook International Anatomical Terminology Practice Anatomy Physiology Gastrointeritis Hepatic encephalopathy Tachycardia Homeostasis 2012 Pearson Education Inc 14 Form Determines Function Anatomy and Physiology All specific functions are performed by speci c structures Imagine you are asked to describe a new car What would the anatomist say What would the physiologist say Form determines functions 2012 Pearson Education Inc 14 What is Anatomy Anatomy Macroscopic gross Anatomy Surface anatomy Regional anatomy Systemic anatomy Developmental anatomy Clinical anatomy MicroscopicAnatomy Cytology Histology 2012 Pearson Education Inc 14 What is Physiology Physiology Cell physiology Organ physiology Systemic physiology Pathological physiology What questions are asked in an initial medical evaluation 2012 Pearson Education Inc 15 Levels of Organization What is the functional relationship between each level of organization 2012 Pearson Education Inc 15 Organ Systems Organs and Organ Systems Assignment Pair up and Iwill give you 1 or 2 organs Identify the organ the organ s functions and the organ system it belongs to I will call you up to place your organ in the correct area of the body You will also need to identify the organ function and organ system of the organs that are numbered in the body Turn in 1 sheet per group to me 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 11 Levels of Organization Part 5 of 6 The Organ Systems Major Organs Major Organs Major 0r ans Skin Bones Skeletal muscles Hair Cartilages and associated Sweat glands Associated tendons Nails i ame 39 3quot mam w Functions Fu I 5 Provides minim mm hazards 39 Protems Support protection and d protection for Helps regulate a3 supportforother bodytemperature 0 er 39ssugs issues information 2012 Pearson Education Inc and other minerals Forms blood cells that maintains body temperature Major Organs Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nerves Sense organs Functions Directs immediate stimuli Coordinates or moderates acti ties of other m o Provides and sensory information about xtemal e conditions Major 0r ans Pituitary gland T creas Adrenal glands Gonads Endocrinetissues In other systems Directs longterm chan es in the es of other organ systems Adjusts metabolic activi energy use by the ho Controls many development MajorOrgans Heart Blood Blood vessels Functions Distributes blood cells w er and dissolved 2 D xygen an carbon dioxide Distributes heat temperature Figure 11 Levels of Organization Part 6 of 6 Major Organs Major Organs Major Organs Major Organs Major Organs Major organs I Spleen I Nasal cavities I Teeth I Kidneys I Testes ovaries Thymus I Sinuses Tongue Ureters Epididymides urerinetubes I Lymphatic I Larynx I harynx I Urinary bladder I Ductus deferentia Uterus vessels I Trachea I Esophagus I Urethra I Seminal vesicles Vagina I Lymph nodes I Bronchi I Stomach I Prostate gland I Tonsils I ungs I Small intestine Functions I Penis quotor I Alveoll I Largeintestine aoretes waste I Scrotum Mammary giands Functions I iver products from the 39 Dafends againSt Functions 39 Gallbladder blood unctions Functions infection and Delivers airto I Pancreas I Controls water I Produces male sex I Produces female iSeaSe alveoli sites in ance by cells sperm sex cells oocytes I Returns tissue lungs where gas Functions regulating volume suspending uids and ones uids to the L a I quot J u 39 I S bloodstream Provides oxygen digests food Stores urine prior Sexual intercourse developing to bloo st am I Absorbs and to volunta embryo from con Removes carbon conserves water elimination ception to delivery dioxide from I Absorbs nutrients I Regulates blood Provides milk to bloodstream I Stores energy ion concentrations nourish newborn Produces sounds reserves and pH infant for communication I Sexual intercourse 2012 Pearson Education Inc 19 Body Cavities Body Cavities Internal divisions of the body contain the viscera May relate to a region in the body or an actual chamber enclosed by a watery serous membrane Dorsal body cavity Cranium and spinal cord Ventral Thoracic Pleural and Pericardial chambers Abdominopelvic abdominal and pelvic Peritoneal chamber 2012 Pearson Education Inc 19 Serous Membranes Serous Membranes Double layered membrane Parietal layer lines the body wall Visceral layer covers the internal organs Two layers are usually in very close contact Between the layers is serous fluid Coats and moistens opposing surfaces Reduces friction between moving internal organs Pleuritis pericarditis peritonitis 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 19 Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Ventral Body Cavity 13 Provides protection I Allows or L an movement Linings prevent friction Subdivides during development into Surrounded by chest wall and diaphragm Right Pleural Cavity Medistinum Left Pleural Cavity trachea esophagus an major vessels N Surrounds right lung Contains the Surrounds left lung iuuimiuij Contains many Contains urinary i Pericardial Cavity digEStive giands and organs reproductive bla er Surrounds heart organs last portion of estive tract 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 19 Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Ventral Body Cavity Part 1 of 2 3 Provides protection oAllows organ movement inin s revent friction L g p Subdivides during developmentinto Su rrou nded by chest Wall and diaphragm Right Pleural Cavity Mediastinum Left Pleural Cavity Surrounds right lung Contains the Surrounds left lung trachea esophagus and major vessels Pericardial Cavity Surrounds heart 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 19 Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Ventral Body Cavity Part 2 of 2 2012 Pearson Education Inc Ventral Body Cavity Provides protection oAllows organ movement Linings prevent friction Subdivides during development into Abdominopelvic Cavity Extends throughout abdominal cavity and into superior portion of pelvic cavny Contains many Contains urinary digestive glands bladder and organs reproductive organs last portion of digestive tract Figure 110 The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions Pleural cavity Parietal pericardium l Thoracic 7 I l I The heart projects into the pericardial cavity like a st cavity r quot quot39 balloon quot39quot 39 39 the wrist ofthe hand lies at the connection between the heart and major blood vessels The Width of the pericardial caVIty Is exaggerated here normally the Visceral and parietal layers are separated only by athin layer of pericardial uid 7 A 7 w ANTERIOR A e r V 39 Diaphragm Pericardial cavity Pemoneal Pleural caVIty Vi Parietal Abdominal cavity Spinal cord Pelvic cavity POSTERIOR a Alateral View sho Ing th ventral body cavity which is v39ded by the a A transverse section through the thoracic cavity showing the muscular diaphra m a superior central location of the pericardial cavity Notice how the thoracic chest cavity and an inferior mediastinum divides the thoracic cavity into two pleural cavities abdominopelvic cavity Three of the 39 quot 39 view39 39 quot four adult body cavities are shown and outlined in red only one ofthe two pleural cavities can be shown in a sagittal section 2012 Pearson Education Inc though the observer were standing at the subject s feet and looking toward the subject s head This is the standard presentation for clinical images and unless otherwise noted sectional views in this text use this same orientation Figure 110a The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions POSTERIOR ANTERIOR Pleural cavity Peri cardi al cavity two pleural caVIties can be shown in a sagittal section 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 110b The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions Visceral pericardium Pericardial Aquot Space cav y Balloon Parietal pericardium D The heart projects into the pericardial cavity like a fist pushed into a balloon The attachment site corresponding to the wrist of the hand lies at the connection between the heart and major blood vessels The width of the pericardial cavity is exaggerated here normally the visceral and parietal layers are separated only by a thin layer of pericardial fluid 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 110c The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions l ANTERIOR r or Pkg Pericardial cav y Pleural cavity Parietal pleura Mediastinum Spinal cord POSTERIOR E A transverse section through the thoracic cavity showing the central location of the pericardial cavity Notice how the mediastinum divides the thoracic cavity into two pleural cavities Note that this transverse or crosssectional view is oriented as though the observer were standing at the subject s feet and looking toward the subject s head This is the standard presentation for clinical images and unless otherwise noted sectional views in this text use this same orientation 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 242 Peritoneal cavity 2012 Pearson Educauon In 16 Homeostasis What is homeostasis Absolutely vital to an organism s survival in an ever changing environment Two descriptions of homeostatic regulation Autoregulation intrinsic local Extrinsic regulation Involves neural and endocrine systems 2012 Pearson Education Inc 16 Homeostasis Three components of the homeostatic mechanism Receptor Control center Effector Responses are regulated according to the system s set point Ex Temperature regulation in your house 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 12 The Control of Room Temperature l RECEPTOR l N 1 Information Magma Thermometer affects con IUD disturbed STIMULUS Room temperature ri es HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature CONTROL CENTER Thermostat IR RESPONSE Room temperature 20quot 30quot 40quot I drops T V Normal l condition E FFECTOR Sends resmred Air conditioner commands turns on E In response to input from a receptor a thermometer a thermostat the control center triggers an effector response either an air condi tioner or a heater that restores normal temperature In this case when room temperature rises above the set point the thermostat turns on the air conditioner and the temperature returns to normal 2012 Pearson Education Inc How is the response related to the stimulus i conditioner conditioner turns on turns off Normal 22 range Room tem peratu re quot C Time gt u With this regulatory system room temperature fluctuates around the set point 17 Homeostasis Negative feedback vs Positive feedback Which one is vital to homeostasis Physiological examples of each 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 13 Negative Feedback in the Control of Body Temperature l RECEPTORS Tem perature sensors in skin a and hypothalamus Norm temperature disturbed STIMULUS Body tem perature rises OM EOSTASI 5 Normal body temperature RESPONSE Increased heat loss body tem perature drops Normal l EFFECTORS requot39Per 39ture 30 Sweat glands restored in skin increase secretion 0 Blood vessels in skin dilate 5 Events in the regulation of body temperature which are comparable to those shown in Figure 1 2 A control center in the brain the hypothalamus functions as a thermostat with a set point of 3739 C If body temperature exceeds 372 C heat loss is increased through enhanced blood flow to the skin and increased sweating 2012 Pearson Education Inc Information affects Sends 4 commands to Thennoregulatory center in brain vessels Vessels dilate constrict sweating sweating increases de 39 Normal 37 i ii FF range Body temperature quot C on m l Time4gt 3 The thermoregulatory center keeps body temperature fluctuating within an acceptable range usually between 367 and 372 C Figure 14 Positive Feedback Blood Clotting Positive Chemicals i Chemicals Blood clot is t W N f K r f amp 4amp3 x 39 Damage to cells in the The chemicals start chain As clotting continues This escalating process blood vessel wall releases reactions in which cells each step rele es is a positive feedback chemicals that begin the cell fragments and chemicals that further loop thatends with the process of blood clotting soluble proteins in the accelerate the process formation of a blood clot blood begin to form a clot which patches the vessel wall and stops the bleeding 2012 Pearson Education Inc 17 Homeostasis Your body wants to be in a state of equilibrium Dynamic not static What happens when your body cannot maintain homeostasis 2012 Pearson Education Inc Table 11 The Roles of Organ Systems in Homeostatic Regulation Table 1 1 The Roles of Organ Systems In Homeostatic Regulation Internal Stimulus Primary Organ Systems Involved Functions of the Organ Systems Body tempera ure Integumentary system Heat loss Musculars stem Heat production Cardiovascular system Heat distribution Nervous system Coordination of blood ow heat production and heat loss Body uid composition Nutrient concentration Digestive system Nutrient absorption storage and release Cardiovascular system Nutrient distribution Urinary system Control of nutrient loss in the urine Skeletal system Mineral storage and release Oxygen carbon dioxide levels Respiratory system Absorption ofoxygen elimination of carbon dioxide Cardiovascular system Internal transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide Levels of toxins and pathogens Lymphatic system Removal destruction or inactivation oftoxins and pathogens Body uid volume Urinary system Elimination or conservation ofwater from the blood Digestive system Absorption of water loss of water in feces Integumentary system Loss ofwaterthrough perspiration Cardiovascular system and lymphatic Distribution of waterthroughout body tissues system Waste product concentration Urinary system Elimination of waste products from the blood Digestive s stem Elimination of waste products by the liver in feces Cardiovascular system Transport of waste products to sites of excretion Blood pressure Cardiovascular system in ugu 1 u l 39 A 39 39 39 39 quot39 can raise or lower blood pressure 2012 Pearson Education Inc 18 Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Terms Superficial anatomy Anatomical landmarks palpable structures Anatomical regions Abdominopelvic quadrants Abdominopelvic regions Anatomical directions Anatomical position 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 15 Anatomical Landmarks Frontal he d Nasal or nose Dcuiar orbital oreye Dtic or ear Cephalic Buccal or cheek Acromlai or shoulder Cervical Cenncai or neck or neck Dorsal or back Cephalic or head Drai ormouth Mental or chin Thoracic or 39 thorax chest Axillary or armpit Mammary or breast Abdominal Trunk Diecranai Upper abdomen or b ofelbo Antebrachlai orrorearm Carpal orwrist Paimar or palm I 7 Manual or hand Gluteal or buttock Pollex Digits inguinal orthumb phalanges or groin or ngers digital or phalangeai bzgfu fefrquot Patellar orkneecap or calr Caicaneal or heel of root Digits phalanges ortoes digital or phalangeai Pedal gt orfoot Piantaror soleoffoot H Posterior View a Anterior view 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 15a Anatomical Landmarks Part1 of 2 Frontal or forehead Nasal or nose Ocular orbital or eye Cranial Otic or ear orskuH Cephalic 0quot head Buccal or cheek Facial or face Oral or mouth Cervical or neck Mental or chin Thoracic or thorax chest Axillary or arm pit Mammary or breast Brachial or arm V Abdominal Trunk Antecubital quot abdomen or front of Umbilical elbow or navel El Anterior view 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 15a Anatomical Landmarks Part 2 of 2 Antebrachial or forearm Pelvic Trunk pelvis Carpal or wrist Palmar or palm Manual or hand Pollex Digits Inguinal or thumb phalanges or groin or fingers digital or phalangeal Pubic Patellar pubis or kneecap Femqal Crural or thigh or leg Tarsal or ankle Digits phalanges or toes digital or phalangeal Hallux or great toe b Pedal or foot H Anterior view 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 15b Anatomical Landmarks Part1 of 2 Cephalic or head Acromial or shoulder CerVIcal Dorsal or 0quot quoteCk back Olecranal or back of elbow Upper limb D Posterior view 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 15b Anatomical Landmarks Part 2 of 2 Lumbar or loin Gluteal or buttock Lower Popliteal or limb back of knee Sural or calf Calcaneal or heel of foot Plantar or sole of foot H Posterior View 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 16a Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Left Upper Quadrant LUQ Left Lower Quad rant LLQ Right Upper Quadrant RUQ Right Lower 39 Quadrant A v 7 RLQ r V a Abdominopelvic quadrants The four abdominopelvic quadrants are formed by two perpendicular lines that intersect at the navel The terms for these quadrants or their abbreviations are most often used in clinical discussions 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 16b Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Left hypochondriac region Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar Left lumbar region region Right Left inguinal inguinal region region I3 Abdominopelvic regions The nine abdominopelvic regions provide more precise regional descriptions 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 16c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Label the abdominopelvic organs Anatomical relationships The relationship between the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and the locations of the internal organs are shown here 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 17 Directional References Superior A V Inferior I An anterior View Arrows indicate important directional terms used in this text definitions and descriptions are given in Table 1 2 H A lateral view 2012 Pearson Education Inc Table 12 Directional Terms Table 1 2 Term Directional Terms Region or Relerence Example Anterior The front surface The navel is on the anterior surface of the trunk Ventral L 39 quot 394 39 when quot the trunk referring to human body Posterior or The back surface The shoulder blade is located posteriurto the rib cage dorsal Cranial or The head The cranial or quothrIi u 39 ulnn iuwaiu ephalic high Superior quotL L39 L 39 39 39 In human L 39 u wwemigu toward the head caudal The tail cocch in humans The hips are caudalto the waist Inferior Below at a lower level The knees are inferiorto the hips Medial L L 39 u u y 39 the midsagittal plane chest surface brings you to the sternum Lamral nu L L r 1 L L from the midsagittal plane you to the cheeks Proximal Toward an attached base 7L 39 39 U me elbow Distal Away from an attached base Tb 3 39 39 Super cial Atv near Ln 39 39 L J L Deep Farther from the body surface The bone of the high is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles 2012 Pearson Education Inc 18 Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Terms Sectional anatomy Important for understanding anatomical images and relationships Relates to describing a three dimensional object in two dimension Plane consists of two axes extending infinitely Section or slice a single view within a plane Transverse o Frontal Sagittal 2012 Pearson Education Inc Table 13 Terms That Indicate Sectional Planes Table 13 Terms That Indicate Sectional Planes Plane Orientation of Plane Directional Reference Description Transverse or horizontal Perpendicularto long aXiS Transverser or horizontally A transverse or horizontal section separates superior and inferior p onions ofthe body A cut in this plane IS called a cross section Sagittal Parallel to long axis Sagittally A sagittalsectlon separates right and left portions Vou examine a sagittal section but you section sagittally Midsagittal 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 L L the midline dividing the body into right and left sides Parasagittal A 39 39 39 L r 39 r 1 l Frontal or coronal Frontally or oronally A frontal or coronal section separates anterior and posterior portions ufthe body coronal usually refers to sections passing through the skulL 2012 Pearson Education Inc Figure 18 sectional Planes Q012Pears on Educatmn Inc Figure 141 Se lnnzl Plants PznZ 173 m 12 Peusan Educaan In Figure 18 Sectional Planes Part 3 of 3 2012 Pearson Education Inc A Figure 18 Sectional Planes Part 1 of 3 2012 Pearson Education Inc Chapter Review 2012 Pearson Education Inc
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'