The Christian Heritage HONORS
The Christian Heritage HONORS REL 1350
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This 62 page Class Notes was uploaded by Verda Kemmer V on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1350 at Baylor University taught by Richard Moseman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/217916/rel-1350-baylor-university in Religion at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Catholic Protestants 1517 Lutherans Zwinglians Calvinists Anglicans 1534 Anabaptists Puritans 7 Mennonites Amish Hulterrites Separatists V General Particular Wi an IEiaxrtlliiw quotThis alliance between Christianity and commerce characterized sixteenthcentury European expansion the results varying from heroic missionary selfsacrifice to lawless murderous plunder Tomkins 166 gJ Lxr39iikiiiiiziiu The lEliWfH S the will 1 quotOn arrival the commander would read natives a decree explaining that the Pope ruled the earth Tomkins 166 It was in Spanish DEATH Ld UUI39 Cd II p5 Disease Mercenaries God s work 1 Eg Those kidnapped as slaves can quotbeing used by Christians be converted to our faith more quickly Tomkins 167 2 Others monks were horrified at the labor camps The the iEIaintjih 39 3 iivliion 1 Dominican Antonio de Montesinos 1511 protests in sermon 2 Bartholomew de IasCasas in Hispaniola labor camp manager 9Dominican priest 1514 Protest Protestants and Catholics 1550 debate Advocate for human rights The Ends of the Earth 14921600 Portuguese Africa and India 1 Slavery in Africa 2 India A an there quotThe Europeans main response to discovering them was to try to impose Roman Catholicism on them Tomkins 169 Others converted for protection Jesuit 15421549 Xavier in India Underwear Trained them ltil they reached age of 7 1599 quotThe church of St Thomas subsumed into the global empire of St Peterquot Tomkins 170 15491552 Xavier in Japan Japanese Objections 1 God cannot be good and merciful if not known to us before you came 2 How come Chinese didn t know 1552 Xavier dies going to mainland China 1563 Jesuit missionary first baptism ofJapanese lord 1587 200000 an in Japan in 240 churches Foreign missionaries cast out More Wars 16001660 Tamkins 172 181 Missions Ricci and Nobili A Matthew Ricci Jesuit to China d 1610 missions in culture of people B 1622 based on Nobili s approach Pope est to oversee world missions C Japan stamped out D d 1656 Jesuit to India Trickery not a Rome accused him of compromising India of trickery Both forgave him To Rome teaching essentials To India not quotParangaquot applied only to Portuguese Fed communion to Christian with a stick Holland and Arminianism A Calvinism in Holland Dirk Coornhert Catholic vs Jacob Arminius d 1609 Protestant pastor and professor Arminius changes his mind 1 God saves all who become an 2 God chooses those God knows will become an Humans have as well as God B Dort led by Calvinist General Condemns Arminianism 93 canons defining Calvinism Arminians flee country C 1625 new government restores toleration England underJames 1603 1624 Elizabeth I 155816039James I son of MQoS a under English crown b No change in Church of England No Presbyterian system of Scotland but bishops c Authorized Version aka KJV new translation d Ministers had to 190 sacked 2 leave Church of England 9 Amsterdam Holland Separatists in Amsterdam9 First Baptists 1609 John Smyth and Thomas Helwys N Smyth becomes 1609 Birth of first Baptist Church Smyth renounces infant baptism baptism Reject of Calvinism Total depravity original sin born sinners Unconditional Election God chose before creation Limited Atonement Jesus died only for chosen Irresistible grace God s work without human aid humans unable to deny Perseverance of the Saints cannot fall from grace 1612 Back in England Coming and Going Helw s Back to England with 10 Baptists amp est first Baptist church on English soil at 1611 Writings 1 supports Arminianism 2 critique of 3 defends Dies in prison in 1615 Review Anglican 9 9 Separatists 9 Baptists from England to New England in 1620 England under Charles 16251649 A Issues 1 Meddled in Scottish and English churches Traditional rituals of Catholicism William Laud archbishop of Canterbury Married to French Catholic Did not help Protestants in quotThirty Years War he wanted the Catholics to win Puritan preaching banned ampArminianism allowed Purify the Puritan church 2 Taxes levied wout consent of Parliament BResponses 1 Puritans head for New England Roger Williams a separatist not Purnan 2Parliament protests 3 Charles I vs Parliament a Dismisses Parliament 9 no new taxes The Personal Rule or 11 Years of Tyranny 16291640 1637oversteps in Scotland trying to bring in English Prayer Book They respond with military b 1640Parliament restored Charles needs money c1642 English Civil War Parliament vs king m declared guilty by Parliament and executed d 1648 Charles surrenders Army led by Cromwell 16491658 demands execution Commonwealth or military state Charles executed 1649 abolish monarchy amp House of Lords They call themselves a Commonwealth but Cromwell and his chronies are really in military control Baptists Religious Liberty New England England Roger Williams briefly Baptist separatism religious freedom sep of church amp state Expelled from Mass starts Rhode Island colony 1639 First Baptist Church in America Maryland leased to Catholic Lord Baltimore toleration Particular Baptistsnew Baptists in England accept Calvinism friendly with Puritans General no to Calvinism Particular yes to Calvinism Cromwell 1649 1658 Religious Liberty in England not for Catholics 1 Seekers wait for God true baptism died out Will join Quakers 2 Ranters scrapped religious and moral rules look within pantheistic God material world 3 Quakers 1646George Fox religious experience 9a quotreceive from the Lord a measure of light and that if this inner light is followed it leads surely to the light of life and to spiritual truth Walker 561 God s revelation not confined to Scripture Affirmed egualitv since all have same standing before God 1Didn t observe social graces 2 No outer rituals 3 No ministers similar idea Luther talked about people being able to minister to each other Priesthood of Believers 4 Pacifists Quakers in America 1681 Penn granted Pennsylvania from Charles II Charles II is also for religious liberty He is a closet Catholic as well 1682 Pennsylvania founded 1689 Toleration Act of 1689 passed by Parliament Freedom of worship for Protestants William amp Mary on the throne still excluded from political office and universities but not Catholics It did not extend to other nonTrinitarians such as Jews Monarchy Restored in England 1660 Charles II 16601685 reclaims the throne Anti Puritan reaction Cromwell was a Puritan Rule of bishops restored in England amp Scotland Ties together church amp state Gives King power gt King appoints Archbishop of Canturberry 6 he appoints other bishops Charles I already hanged was hanged and beheaded The Thirty Years War 1618 1648 1 Elector persecutes Lutherans who are too close to Calvinism still illegal thus allowing Catholic resurgence in empire 2 1617 Ferdinand a Catholic becomes king of Bohemia Cu rtails Protestant freedoms quotDefenestration of Prague response by Protestants Subsequent revolt puts Calvinist on throne 3 Bavaria and Spain help Ferdinand in attack to reclaim Bohemia 4 King Ferdinand becomes Emperor Ferdinand 1619 The Thirty Years War Emperor Ferdinand had quick victory in Bohemia about 25 years to restore order but went on to take Calvinist and Lutheran states thus restoring Catholicism 1629 Edict of Restitution A Return of all churches won by Protestants in last 77 years B Expels Lutherans from Catholic lands C Outlawed Calvinism throughout empire The Thirty Years War Protestants vs Catholics but also political Fought mostly in Germany Involved most of Europe at times except England Extremely destructive 1648 Peace of Westphalia series oftreaties end of war Calvinism granted right to exist in exchange Catholics gain some territory in Bohemia Effects of war Tomkins 177 1 quotReligious differences were now permanent and would have to be tolerated 2 quotThe secularization of Europe had begun quotGovernments became less inclined to consider religion as an end in itself 1608 Hans Lipperhey The Earth Moves 1609 1689 TOmkirns 182486 Galileo 15641642 1 Biotalian physicist mathematician astronomer and philosopher 2 Heliocentric universe Challenges world view Humans lose their central place The Renaissance mind had inherited from the medieval world the view that the Garden of Eden was the ofthe universe and that everything else was created around Palmer 154 Galileo 15641642 Challenges how they understood Scripture The challenge to Scripture really raises another important issue the idea of knowing How do we know what we know from observation Aristotle vs Plato In addition this will eventuate in asking not only how we know but what we know ie what is truth quotThe Christian understanding of understanding was that God has revealed all truth through his appointed authorities If learning from them was to be replaced by observing and calculating for oneself who could say what certainties would be demolished next Tomkins 183 Galileo 15641642 1630 Dialogue about the Two Major World Systems Removed from Index of Forbidden Books in 1853 since 1633 What are the Two Major World Systems Geocentric amp Heliocentric 1633 Interviewed by Inquisition book burned no more publishing public penance and house arrest for life 1638 Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences Two new sciences 1 Strength of materials amp 2 Motion of objects What was one to believe There were various responses to this time of questioning 1 Skepticism an emphasis on evidence that often deniesdoubts religious claims and beliefs 2 Pietism an emphasis on the devotional life and living life for God 3 Spiritualism Quakers an emphasis on the role of the Holy Spirit 4 Rationalism an emphasis on human reason Msome of these overlap each other Descartes 15961650 1 Bio A French mathematician developed Cartesian geometry and Cartesian coordinate system created analytical geometry theories basis for calculus of Newton and Leibniz created superscripts for exponents eg x2 B Father of modern philosophy amp the beginning ofthe age of reason 2 Contribution A context 9 what Descartes is responding to 1 church condemning Galileo and his work 2 skepticism can anything be known B Discourse on Method 1637 Descartes Discourse on Method 1637 1 Radical Doubt senses can deceive even throws math away Posits Evil genius that is trying to deceive him quotCogito ergo sum 2 Cogito ergo sum I think therefore I amexist Thus he can know that he exists 3 Idea of perfect being God means that God must exist because we as imperfect beings cannot by our own making conceive of a perfect being 4 Existence of God no evil genius math can be usedtrusted This gives a sense of certitude ThusI Descartes desired to apply the principles of math to the guest for truth But note his desire is for truth Descartes Discourse amp Context Context responding to church and to skeptics To the church Needs to look at some things differently it is okay to think freely It is just as bad not to think as it is to think differently To the skepticsThings can be known quotGalileo proved the authorities wrong Descartes offered the infectious example of denying all authority except that of one s own mind Tomkins 184 To either group he seems to be stressing the need to search for truth which may come in different forms Individualism is moving forward England under Charles II 16601685 Closet Catholicargues for universal religious freedom King Jesus instead of Charles 22 people killed 1662 new Act of Uniformity 1 Only services in revised Prayer Book permitted otherwise heavy penalties 2 Illegal to take arms against the king 3 Those who disapproved of bishops banned Presbyterians ex Baptists Quakers Effectually barred the Puritans 1665 Plague in London Puritans ministers stayed 9Parliament banned Dissenters denominations Presbyterians Congregationalists Baptists but not Catholics and Quakers 1666 Penn becomes Quaker 1681 1682 England underJames II 16851688 Charles II succeeded by his brother James II 16851688 Tories supporters ofJames defeat Whigs against James amp Catholicism Policies of James the last Catholic on the throne of England 1 Absolute monarchy rather than constitutional monarchy 2 Gave Catholics top jobs 3 Jesuit missionaries 4 Complete toleration 5 1688 Seven critical bishops arrested and tried and acquitted Parliament united James II abdicates throne after Glorious Revolution aka quotBloodless Revolution 9 William amp Mary take control England under William and Mary 1689 Parliament calls W amp M daughter of James II Protestants James flees to his cousin Louis XIV 1689 Toleration Act of 1689relieved the Quakers may not have vowed allegiance to W amp M and other dissenters of various forms of intolerance France and Louis XIV 16611715 Catholic cousin of Charles II and James II Louis XIV Important influences on him 1 Jesuits amp 2 conception of national unity 1 Unify France underJesuit Catholicism declares pope fallible and inferior to ecumenical councils but Rome cut off bishops so he compromised 2 1685revokesedict of Nantes of 1598 thus Protestantism illegal and thus migrate 3 Jansen 15851638 Augustinian bishop condemns complacent ritualism of Catholicism amp semiPalagianism free will response to God s grace position of Trent of the Jesuits Jesuits with support of king and pope will attack and eventually triumph overJansenism Not a lot of toleration in France at this time Germany JakobSpener 1635 1705 and Pietism quotThat only is genuine Christianity which shows itself in our life Spener For Spener and other Germans Lutheranism had become what Catholicism was before the reformation rigid and dogmatic Pietism spiritual rebirth and godly living quota shift of emphasis that was to work its way across every denomination of Protestantism Tomkins 186 Piadesideria1675 or Earnest Desires for a Reform of the True Evangelical Church the title giving rise to the term quotPietistsquot Spener sPiacesiceria 6 proposals for restoring life of church 1 the earnest and thorough study of the Bible in private meetings ecclesiolae in ecclesia quotlittle churches within the church quot 2 the Christian priesthood being universalaity should share in the spiritual government of the Church 3 knowledge of Xnity must be attended by the practice of it as indispensable sign and 4 supplement a sympathetic and kindly treatment of them heterodox and unbelievers 5 a reorganization of the theological training of the universities giving more prominence to the devotional life in the universities 6 a different style of preaching namely in the place of pleasing rhetoric the implanting of Christianity in the inner or new man the soul of which is faith and its effects the fruits of life 1688 Pietists invited to start University of Halle by soon to be King of Prussia Frederick I It would be a center for Pietism in Germany 1517 151819 1520 1521 152124 1522 Luther 1522 amp 23 Egg amp Sausage Zwingli beats Bishop 152425 Peasant s Revolt 1525 1527 1529 1530 1531 1532 1534 1534 1536 1538 1540 1537 1539 1541 1545 1553 Michael Servetus burned establishes Calvin as international figure 1555 Peace of Augsburg Lutherans reach settlement with emperor 1 Protestant territories okay but Catholic territories may not become Preotestant after this 2 Other reformers Pope Paul IV Pope Paul IV 15551559 formerly the Cardinal Carafa leader of Roman Inquisition A Abandons Trent wants all control IN HIS HANDS B Roman Inquisition Purged Italy of Protestantism Took control of Society of Jesuits Moral demands from Romans Fig leaves on Sistine Chapel Index of Forbidden Books Protestant offenders Petrarch Machiavelli Jewish and Muslim writings Works of Erasmus most Bibles in translation did corrupt quotinterpretationsquot of the Bible C Hated Protestants humanists Jews and Spaniards fought Philip of Spain When he died the people destroved buildings of inqu tion released its prisonersI burnt its lesI ancl dismembered the Pope s statue Council of Trent 15451563 A Authority fundamental question Scripture and Tradition B Affirmed 7 sacraments transubstantiation purgatory amp indulgences eliminated abuses like selling them C Affirmed original sin against Anabaptists amp condemned Calvin s total depravity negates free will D Condemned justification by faith one is not saved by one s own efforts which Luther did not claim anyway saved by grace and by works E Vulgateonly authentic version not to be called into question denial of humanist scholarly principles applied to translation Catholics no longer hold this position F Clergy 1 Celibacy to be enforced 2 No absenteeism bishop has to live in area where he is bishop of amp pluralism owning multiple 3 Bishop empowered G Sacrifice of the Mass 9 Emphasis that Christ was SACRIFICED Wars of Religions 15581598 Sort of Tomkins 160165 1 Henry VIII a Tudor 14911547 A Defender of the Faith 1521 The Assertion of the Seven Sacraments in response to Luther s Babylonian Captivity B Divorce Catherine of Aragon C English Reformation 1533 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1534 Supremacy Act 9Church of England 1539 Miles Coverdale commissioned for Bible England cont under Henry s Children 2 Edward 15471553 sole male heir of Henry Protestant Greatly influenced by Cranmer 3 Mary 15531558 daughter of Catherine amp Henry Restored Catholicism she s Catholic Protestantism tore her family apart what allowed her father to divorce her mother Burned 300 Protestants aka quotBloody Mary amp quotMary Mary Quite Contrary Marries Philip of Spain a Catholic foreigner People are mad seen as a Spanish invasion that only strengthens Catholicism England wanted to be Protestant quotChuch of England Nationalism England The Elizabethan Period 15581603 4 Elizabeth l illegitimate and a heretic A Removed many of Mary s changes B Anglicanism quota third way between Rome and Geneva Tomkins 160 A hybrid religion trying to please both groups Pro and Cath to prevent revolt keep throne 1555 Peace of Augs didn t settle everything Puritans vs Anglicans Protestants vs England The Elizabethan Period 15581603 1559 Treaty of CateauCambresis Ends N 70 years of war over control of Italy Spain or France Spain prevailed Significance Possible invasion of England Protestants by Catholics Spain and France Consequences 1 Elizabeth and marriage talk 2 Mary Queen of Scots Scotland claims she s rightful queen not quotBloody Maryquot why Her mother was Henry VIII s sister more important Eliz is illegitimate and a hereitc hopefully citizens will rally to take her out 3 Elizabeth tolerates Puritan complaints Anglican Church too Catholic Puritans vs Anglicans Protestants vs Protestants England The Elizabethan Period 15581603 1586Mary Queen of Scots executed names Philip of Spain previously married to Bloody Married SUCCESSOF consort of Queen Mary of England predecessor of Elizabeth I 1588 Philip launches Spanish Armada Aramada fleet of Spanish ships to take England to prohibit English help to Dutch protestants who are rebelling against Spain Elizabeth previously sending help to Dutch protestants The Titanic the unsinkable ship aka The Armada that sank Protestants Divine Intervention 9 God is on our side Elizabeth I Defeat of the Spanish Armada No More Toleration Bad News for Puritans Puritans Separatist no longer believed Church of England was true church Gathering for worship a matter of choice not a state mandate Worshipping freely as described the Bible Electing own ministers this is fa rrrouttt previously ministers were openly appointed by Pope primarily Archbishop secondarily Congregationalismeach congregation makes its own decisions Similar to Anabaptists in above but maintained infant baptism and Calvinist beliefs 1593 two leaders of separatists beheaded Many will emigrate to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots Protestants vs Catholics Scotland 1559 1 Treaty of CateauCambresis claim throne of England 2 Uprising led by and troops involved but desist Parliament accepts Calvinist creed Knox applies elders who meet at national synod 1560 Husband king of France dies 1567 Mary Queen of Scots and her 1 yearold 1586 by Elizabeth I France 1559 Treaty of king dies at celebration 1560Mary Queen of Scot s husband dies in 1960 queen mother Civil unrest brink of Civil WarNobility vs Monarchy French Protestants vs Catholics quotThe perfect opportunity for aristocrats wanting to reduce royal power to join forces with the Protestant middle classes of French towns Tomkins 162 France 2 1562 Edict of seeking to avoid civil war Allowed for worship in certain locales led to 3 conflicts over 9 years Protestants granted places of worship and control of 4 cities 1572 Massacre of shot Henry of Navarre Protestant becomes King and joins church Edict of Nantes Catholicity of Paris amp Huguenots freedom to worship in certain cities Troops ensured this freedom Holland and Belgium Dutch war of independence against Spain Eventually United Provinces in north 15805 in South The Age of Reason Tomkins 187 192 Isaac Newton 16431727 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosopy Newton s laws of motion Law of universal gravitation 1 Challenged common thinking that God directly dictated every event 2 Later he said quotI feign no hypotheses In other words I don t guess Thus we see the age of reason or enlightenment apace already Remember Descartes 1637 quotI think therefore I am John Locke 16321704 1 1690 Treatises on Civil Government justifying the overthrow ofJames Thumbs down Points 1 Govt not designed and decreed by God contract between ruler and ruled 2 The ruled may depose and choose new ones 3 People have duties amp rights borrowed from Thomas Hobbes 1588 1679 and his social contract theory Locke 1632 1704 2 Empiricist quottabula rasaquot blank slate Knowledge is observation interpreted by reason Aristotle contra innate ideas of Descartes Plato A quotreasonable Christianityquot 1 stripped of mystery amp blind faith in authority probably doubtedTrinity 2 allowed for teachings amp miracles ofJesus emphasis ethical living amp life after death For Locke MORALITY was the prime content of religion Walker 579 B Religious freedom quotIf truth is self evident it needs no coercion if not it justifies nonequot quotWith Locke s ideas the Enlightenment the quest to remake the world according toreason was launchedquot Tomkins 188 Missions 169OS China Christians banned from China Emperor is offended because Pope forbade 1 veneration amp Society for the Propagation of 2 Christian use of Confucian ChriStian KnOWIEdge terminology formed by Anglicans 1st interdenominational missions SPCK helpsLutheran pietists Decline of the Trinity Two Expressions of Rationalism Unitarianism Deism and the Decline of the Trinity Deism natural religion antimiraculous absentee God i 1 1 Reason and true religion are the same thing 2 God is creator sets universe in order and in motion and then lets it run 4 Scripture is authoritative affirrrfs God as creatorhand it n oral and ethical eachings are valuable and not authoritative Jesus not God a 5 Trinitvfalls by the wayside poorly attested in Scripture amp droppe Unitarianism amp the Decline of the Trinity Unitarianism does not affirm the Trinity but the unity or single personhood of God Unlike Deism God is present Jesus is the example but is not God hence the religiong Jesus not the Religion about Jesus Revival and German Pietism Dead Catholicism and Protestantism Pietism ALIVE a rahH 1 3amp German Pietism Hussite persecution on Mora And Boh 9 influx of Moravians and Bohemians in 1722 in Germany Zinzendorf the elector allowed them to establish a village Herrnhut Herrnhut quotThe Watch of the Lord Daily worship strict discipline though without vows or celibacy Arranged marriages children raised away from their parents Missions hard places Greenland Guiana Egypt and S Africa England amp N America patient and devoted Ignored racial distinctions 1742 Moravian Church recognized in Prussia 1749 recognized in England 1749 part of state church in Germany