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Comparative Politics

by: Kacie Littel

Comparative Politics PSC 3304

Kacie Littel
Baylor University
GPA 3.82

Ivy Hamerly

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Ivy Hamerly
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kacie Littel on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 3304 at Baylor University taught by Ivy Hamerly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/217922/psc-3304-baylor-university in Political Science at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
MID TERM REVIEW htt enwiki ediaor wiki Securit dilemma o THEORETICAL DIFFERENCES O Realism 0 Human nature and what predisposed to do rationally 0 Concern over power 0 Focuses on how they fundamentally are 0 Selfish O Waltz way to reduce conflict is to change the organizing principle or distribution of capabilities Structure determines action 0 Domestic structurehierarchy specialize bc not self help Internationalhorizontal take care of self 0 NeoRealism 0 Looking at systemic causes of action amp not highlow politics wartrade 0 anarchy is the cause 0 anarchy is fueled by states main concern Security 0 in anarchic society politics is an extremely competitive zerosum environmentones gainothers loss 0 relative vs actual gains 0 Don t want actual Concerned with how much a state has RELATIVE to another 0 Don t go far into human nature just need to know that anarchy is what drives decisions of states desire to stay alive 0 Liberalism o Recognizes anarchy and conflict but human nature can make things betterable to cooperate 0 bc of human reason 0 interdependence self destructive to go into warfare 0 variable sum 0 when states work together pie gets bigger not ones loss 0 security is ensured through cooperation O NeoLiberalism 0 System level approach 0 Focus on international institutions great powers 0 International institutions mediate anarchy 0 bc states specialize in a topic and become better at it than the others 0 states not acting statetostate but with institutions 0 facilitate trust bc all states working on same standards easier to trust bc know what they re doing 0 own set of interest want to continue to exist O Constructivism 0 Challenges others 0 Neoreal 0 Neolib both take interests securitywealth as given PRIOR to action of individuals 0 Direct consequence 0 States by virtue of how they ve interacted determines how they will act 0 International anarchy is not static but dynamic and changing bc its based on past behaviors o COUNTER FORCE VS COUNTER VALUE 0 Usesstrategies of Nuclear Weapons can be pursued simultaneously 0 Counter Force 0 targets military capabilities weapons and the storage ofmeans to use m 1 Bombers 2 ICBM Intercontinental ballistic missiles 3 SLBM Submarine launched ballistic missiles o Targets controlcommand centers Pentagon 0 Counter Value 0 Targeting that which a country values 0 People and civilian centers World Trade Center Hiroshima o ECONOMIC lNTERDEPENDENCE 828 notes 0 Keohane quotInternational Institutions Can Interdependence Workquot 0 Institutions can reduce consequences of anarchy because they act a buffer and reflect intentions They develop easier patterns of reactions bc states aren t busying calculating Very neo lib bc focus on aligning similar norms in the name of cooperation o 3 forms of institutions 0 Formal UN 0 Internationaltreaties o Conventions Geneva 0 Rosecrance quotA New Kind of Nationquot 0 Looks at the history of states to try to figure out how to ensure goodpeaceful democratic states Need good economic systems in harmony which have evolved over time 0 Trading state comparative advantage 0 Started after WWII when changed to commerce over territory 1 States began to specialize comparative advantage 0 New virtual state 0 Outsourcing manufacturing and focuses on ideaslabor source 1 as value of land decreases and manufacturing decreases greater returns are in finance tech edu o The next step in interdependence and specializations 1 Interdependence is possible because ofdifferent specializations o Dependences of states in 2 forms 0 Heads and bodies 0 Summary Specialization changesgtstates dissimilargtdependence is in their interest 0 STATE OF NATURE realist liberal constructivist O O O Realist power o WALTZMEARSHEIMER States are rational and want to be as independent as possible MEARSHEIMER States power actual and latent is threatened and they pursue hegemony WALTZ States pursue to keep independence based off of 2 things power and anarchy Concerned with security above all other interests Self help Statusquo concerned with keeping what have diff between the 2 is M does not agree with statusquo Says states are very threatened Liberal reason over power Rationality is quotself evident o LOCKE Natural law is marked through human reason which reveals that man has rights prior to govt The govt is formed to protect these rights lrights gt 2 govt o 3 primary rights 0 Self preservation rightto life 0 Happiness no sufferinga comfortable life 0 Property means of comfort Constructivist ideologies ldeas constitute what power security and wealth mean Anarchy is not static always changing o WENDT There is no fixed nature of a state it s situational and depends on the initial meeting This created an identity formation with intersubjective knowledge All states have the desire for security so there are no status guo states Desire occurs because of discrepancy of interactionsrelations How you perceive is how you determine what it means and why they pursue the type of security they do moderate w or severe m 0 HUMAN NATURE realist liberal constructivist O O O Realist survivalrationality Liberal wealth and relationships interdependence Constructivist relations identities and direct consequences of actionsclash of civilizations and conflicting civilizational interests o ANARCHY 0 Lack of govt o the basis of the international system 0 Hobbes 0 State of nature 0 All human being equal and pursing self 0 conflict evolves from idea of equality it drives individuals to become as strong as possible 0 Waltz llThe Anarchic Structure of World Politicsquot 0 Anarchy and self help idea that focuses on protectionpreservation of what have 0 Anarchy determines state behavior which based off of a system 0 SECURITY DILEMMA 0 When distrust runs so high between states that when each seeks to increase its defensive capabilities the other perceives that as a threat and increases its own creating an arms race 0 According to Wendt llSecurity dilemmas are not given by anarchy or nature but rather are lla social structure J of39 3939 39 39 quot U in which states are so distrustful that they make worstcase assumptions about each other39s intentions o OFFENSIVE VS DEFENSIVE DOMINANCE Jervis o Jervis llOffense Defense and the Security Dilemma 0 Each individuals pursuit of security makes other less safe relative gains 0 Happens for a couple reasons 0 It s rational o A selfhelp system 1 Don t know neighbors intentions cant trust their actions 0 It s easier to take land than to defend OFFENSE 0 Status quo states are incentivized to take land bc its easier fight on own terms 0 It s easier to keep what you have than take DEFENSE 0 War is costly o Smaller states can have an advantage 0 HEGEMONIC WAR THEORY Gilpin o Gilpin llHegemonic War and International Change 0 Explains the historic and persistent occurrences of war 0 Over time the cost of dominance beings to increase bc of imitation and the margin of dominance beings to decrease 0 Control of a hegemony becomes more difficult as others immerge o A war that changes the local intl system in accordance to 4 characteristics 0 4 characteristics 1 Conflict between declining amp rising power 2 Rapidly spreads through entire system 3 The legitimacystatus quo is brought into question 4 The motivation on behalf of the declining powerhegemon o Minimize ones loses vs maximize ones gains o Occurs o risings powerscosts 0 Fix 0 Increase efficiency 0 Reduce costs associated with being in the position 0 Eliminate source of higher costs 1 Destroy challenger 0 Expand to cheapereasier to defend positions 1 Move 0 Retrenchment Reduce cost by reducing commitments 2 Seek alliances w other substantial states in system to share cost amp benefits 3 Go directly to rising power and make a compromise o bandwagoning o HARD POWER VS SOFT POWER 0 Hard Power 0 4 different types 0 Military 0 Number and type of armed forces run by economy 0 Diplomacy 0 4 functions A mechanism for advancing state interests Negotiation and appeasement Maintaining alliances International organizations PPN 0 Economics Pursue interests foreign aid 2 Access to markets 0 Ex china large domestic large relations 0 Geography 0 Can make less vulnerable to attack 1 Protection 2 Trade 0 Soft Power 0 3 different sourcestypes used to impose interests onto another either by forcing or incentivizing shape the desiresamp interests of a state 0 Shared culture movies music food 0 Political valuesamp Institutions 0 Ex Great Britain shaped llfree trade idea US adopted after WWII even though other states didn t originally Institutions changed their perceptions and they started liking what we wanted them to like 0 Policies their legitimacyamp morality rhetoric o BALANCE OF POWER 0 O O O O O O the result of several states in the system either trying to maintain or over throw the status quo may emerge bc of 2 interests 1 Stability 2 Preservation of all states There is a fear of one state gaining so much power and over throwing the balance 0 as one state gains power another increases to balance a selfinterested principle 0 concerned with sovereignty 0 bc don t want bigger states to take over smaller amp become more powerful upsets the balance 3 methods for maintaining Balance of Power 1 Individual increase in military power as a response 2 Alliances to upset the sudden rise 3 The balancer state that is not involved to act as a quottipping scale Collective security 0 A permanent alliance an attack on one state is an attack on all United Nations Collective is difficult bc balance of power involves determining power of a state and collective quothides that o Uncertainty of power leads to miscalculation l o UNIPOLARITY vs BIPOLARITY vs MULTIPOLARITY O Waltz and balance of power and capabilities o Unipolar an international structure dominated by a single power 0 Bipolar an international structure dominated by two super powers 0 Ideal for defensive neorealists 0 Only one competing state less uncertainty 0 Multipolar an international structure dominated by several great powers 0 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Individual Unit System 0 O 0 Individual 0 The leaders of the states determine what they re going to do Unitdomestic 0 What s going on inside the states political systems religious beliefs etc 0 Foreign policy is result of states being unitary actors and looking after themselves 0 Democratic peace theory democratic states won t fight each other System 0 International system as a whole looking at states system 0 Anarchy 0 The lack of authority 0 States are own authority sovereignty 0 Unitary actors 0 each has own interest primary is security 0 same body of responsibilities functionally similar laws taxes 0 Assumed rationality 0 Do what makes sense and best for their interests o CHAINGANGING 0 Like a reallife chain gang the states joined together in a chaingang according to bound obligation have no option to refuse to follow along with the intent of the others 0 A problem that results from being in a multi polar system Multipolar causes stabilitymiscalculation issues with allies can get sucked into ally s problems in order to appease 0 If the partner does not participate in the war fully it will endanger the security of its ally 0 Ex WWI AustriaHungary amp Germany 0 BAN DWAGONING 0 Type of alliance behavior alternative to balancing o a weaker state ally themselves with a rising power to take advantage of their strength 0 implication o chainganing o SELF HELP 0 When there is no higher authority to which to appeal 0 DETERRENCE o The attempts to prevent war by discouraging a potential aggressor The primary goal of the defender is to convince the challenger that the probable cost of attacking will far exceed any anticipated gain bargainingchip For deterrence to function effectively the defender must demonstrate the credibility of the deterrent threat through both capability and resolve aka retaliation is the main component Verses 0 Defense 0 Compellence Components 1 What behavior will not be tolerated retaliation 2 Commitment capabilities 3 Credibility 4 Assumption that states value peace over war 0 4 types 1 General Deterrence I Functions at all times A policy statement 2 Immediate Deterrence I Occurs after general failsamp attack is underway I Intended to get attacker to stopamp not go any further by using threat if no threat defense 3 Primary Deterrence I Limited to ones specific territory boarders Immediate sovereignty 4 Extended Deterrence I Deterrence extended outside boardersamp to allies ex nuclear umbrella O O o DEFENSE O A strategy that attempts to reduce and enemy s capability to damage or take something away from the defender The purpose is to resist an attack and minimize losses after deterrence has failed 0 COMPELLENCE O A strategy again Nuclear Weapons that attempts to force an adversary to reverse some actions that has already been taken o GRAND STRATEGY lsolationism Selective Engagement Primacy 0 States consider national interest security interest and resources when making their grand strategy policy Isolationism o The country has few to no alliances Pros Geography in us makes us prone to isolationism Prevents against terrorism Fewer conflicts Cons Provides opportunities for rival powers to step in and take control Can t spread your values Proliferation of nuclear weapons no llnuclear umbrella they ll protect themselves bc isolated country won t Selective Engagement 0 55 Primacy Pros Emphasis on economics strong recognition of economic ampmilitary strength Looks at the world and designates most important economicindustrial areas and selects those to get involved with The wealth of an area determines interest bc shows military power and this security Cons Still have a relatively limited commitment to allies Very egoistic need based relationship Don t ally bc of valuesinterests SELF INTERESTED Allies are skeptical about commitment bc need based and self interested and this will encourage rival power Difficulty of determining economic powers 0 To pursue all 3 interests simultaneously national security resources the US does this Pros US dominance promotes international stability allows for increases international cooperation ex formation of EU US is better able to keep a lot of states in check allows for international security ex waltz and balance of power w super power US primacy promotes international trade globalism wouldn t have taken form it did without US ex protect the sea lanes and manage oceans ex Bretton Woods World Bank IMF Marshall Plan Cons Increased defense resistance means US will suffer more casualties Will also be involved in more interventions than otherwise would be Have to go to other ally s defense or else questioned balancing other states may band together and balance against US nuclear umbrella increases chances of nuclear war never permanent Hegemonic War Theory means it s dangerous ifwhen change in the power occurs


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