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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bertrand Ruecker on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 1402 at Baylor University taught by Rena Bonem in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/217927/geo-1402-baylor-university in Geology at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Study Guide A TEST 2 CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 1 Properties of water a molecular structure b dipole characteristics major salts and reasons for salinity variations Salinity values definition and measurement techniques pH definition values controls and measurement DC source of oxygen and uses minimum layer Buffering reactions carbonatesilica deposition and solution under varying conditions PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 1 Density controls values graph pycnocline stability overturns Thermal Properties a heat capacity b latent heat capacity c surface temperature distribution graph d vertical temperature distribution graph e thermocline equator f seasonal changes 3 Light and Sound speed absorption CIRCULATION 1 Surface circulation a controls b flow direction c North Atlantic Currents d rings e langmuir circulation f coriolis force g Ekman spiral h upwelling i El Nino Deep circulation a contols b water masses identity 3 Electric power generation from surface currents WAVES 1 terms crest trough celerity propagation direction period wave types 2 Progressive Waves water depthwave shape maximum development force capillary waves swells mixed seas catastrophic waves 1 tsunamis causes properties 2 others Seiches 4 refraction longshore currents 5 diffraction sedimentation 2 3 4 5 6 2 secchi disk 2 orbitals breakers duration fetch storm waves CLOUD b rip currents 6 reflection erosion EV TIDES 1 definitions a b diurnal semidiurnal mixed tides c lunar day lunar month tidal range 1 Neap Tide 2 Spring Tide Tidal forces a gravity of moon earth b gravity of sun earth c centrifugal force d unbalanced forces 1 earth 2 moon earth 3 earth sun Tidal bore a Bay of Fundy b electrical power 1 2 Coastal Processes Longshore Currents Depositional Features beach form and parts bayhead bars deltas spits baymouth bars barrier islands Erosional Features a o HmDOU39W a sea caves b sea arches c stacks d steep cliffs with notches e terraces ManArtificial Processes a sediment removal dredging channels b sediment fill beach nourishment c barriers 1 groins 2 breakwaters and jetties 3 sea walls 4 beach armoring and fences d other solutions 9 HUMAN IMPACT ON COASTAL ZONES l 2 3 4 5 Development of Coastal Areas Sediment Pollution Addition of Nutrients Garbage disposal Hydrocarbons Physical Damage a boat groundings amp anchoring b tourism c bombs Biological Damage a fishing trapping b marine specimens chemicals c collecting corals Diving Activity STUDY GUIDE FOR TEST 1 A INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY OF OCEANOGRAPHY l 71 Water 2 History a Three phases b Who39s who 1 Challenger 2 Scandinavians instrumentation 3 Beebe 4 World War II 5 The last 30 Years B Resources for the Future 1 food 2 water 3 natural resources a building materials b minerals c oil and gas 4 Alternative Energy Sources 5 Other Research Areas C ORIGINS l Universe Explanations and current theory 2 Solar System current theory 3 Atmosphere a compositions of primitive and present atmosphere b Mechanisms 3 4 Oceans a Water b Salt c Life D OCEAN BASINS 1 Distribution of Land and Water 2 Division into Major Oceans a Paci c largest and deepest b Atlantic long and narrow 6 Arctic shallow d Indian triangular wedge e Antarctic southern sea 3 Oman Basin Features a Continental Margin b Continental Terrace 1 Continental Shelf 2 Continental Slope a turbidity currents b submarine canyons 3 Continental Rise submarine fans c Deep Sea Fluor l abyssal plain 2 oceanic ridges 3 oceanic trenches d other features 1 seamounts 2 guyots 3 others E DISTRIBUTION OF OCEANS CONTINENTAL DRIFT 1 Continental Drift a Allied Wegener b Evidence for Drift l ancient climates and enVironments 2 fossil plants 3 fossil animals 4 rock age distribution 5 mountains 6 faults and other structures c Mechanism 2 Earth39s Internal Structure 3 Crust b Mantle c Outer Core d Inner Core F OCEANOGRAPHY AND PLATE TECTONIC l Support39of Plate Tectonics om Oceans IDOl a Ridges b Trenches 2 SeaFloor Spreading Hess and Dietz 3 Age distribution of oceanic crust 4 Magnetism 5 Heat Flow studies 6 Rock density gravity studies 7 Distribution of volcanic activity 8 Distribution of earthquakes G MARINE SEDIMENTS l Lithogenic Sediments a Terrigenous l elastic near shore classi cation 2 redbrown clays b Volcanic Volcanogenic c Extraterrestrial Cosmogenic 2 Biogenic a classi cation 1 calcareous a reeis b oozes 2 siliceous b distribution CCD 0 rate of deposition 3 Hydrogenic Precipitates a evaporites salt gypsum b reducing conditions pyrite glauconite c cold upwelling phosphates d manganese nodules e hydrothermal deposits 4 Distribution of Sediments Diagram Study Guide World Oceans TEST 3 A INTRODUCTION TO MARINE BIOLOGY 1 Adaptation to an Environment a Physical Controls b Chemical Controls c Biological controls 2 Mode of Life a Plankton b Nekton c Benthos sessile amp mobile 3 Habitat a neritic b oceanic c pelagic d infaunal e epifaunal 4 Feeding Types a autotrophs photosynthesis chemosynthesis b heterotrophs herbivores omnivores carnivores 1 filter feeders 2 deposit feeders 3 capturersswallowers 5 Feeding Relationships chains pyramids and webs B CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE LIFE 1 Introduction Classification a Kingdom b Phylum c Class d Order e Family f Genus species 2 Kingdom Monera prokaryotic no nucleus a bacteria b bluegreen algae Cyanobacteria 3 Kingdom Fungi marine fungi and yeasts fouling 4 Kingdom Protista onecelled eukaryotic with nucleus plants amp animals a Phylum Chrysophyta golden algae 1 Diatoms silica 2 Coccolithophores calcite 3 Dinoflagellates organic test b Phylum Protozoa onecelled animals 1 Order Foraminifera calcareous 2 Order Radiolaria silica test 5 Kingdom Plantae a Algae multicelled types 1 red algae Rhodophyta 2 brown algae Phaeophyta kelp sargassum 3 green algae Chlorophyta 4 grasses turtle grass amp salt marsh grass 5 trees mangroves 6 Kingdom Animalia multicelled animals a Phylum Porifera sponges 3 different cell types pinacocytes choanocytes amoeboid cells 1 body plan 2 skeleton 3 classification Phylum Cnidaria Coelenterata 1 general characteristics cell layers medusa amp polyp nematocysts 2 classification a Hydrozoa portuguese man o39war fire corals hydroids polyp with medusa reproduction b Scyphozoa jellyfish medusa with polyp reproduction c Cubozoa sea wasps cube jellies medusa only d Anthozoa hard amp soft corals sea anemone polyp only Worm Phyla Phylum Annelida segmented worms bristle worms Christmas tree worms feather dusters 2 Phylum Phoronida horseshoe tube worms related to brachiopods and bryozoans Phylum Pogonophora vent worms no digestive 1 3 system chemotrophic Phylum Bryozoa moss animals small colonial Phylum Brachiopoda lamp shells solitary bivalved Phylum Mollusca highly developed critters speciallized for different life styles 1 Gastropoda snails grazing herbivore coiling body and shell secondary carnivore Bivalvia pelecypoda clams scallops oysters mussels 2 valves lost head for burrowing some swim scallops some attached oysters mussels Class Cephalopoda octopus squid cuttlefish chambered nautilus swimmers good eyes Phylum Arthropoda paired jointed appendages exoskeleton copepods krill barnacles shrimp crabs lobsters horseshoe crabs Phylum Echinodermata internal skeleton radial symmetry water vascular system 2 3 1 Crinoids sea lilies 2 Asteroids star fish 3 Ophiuroids brittle stars 4 Echinoids sea urchins and sand dollars 5 Holothurians sea cucumbers Phylum Chordata notochord and gill slits a tunicates larva like tadpole sea squirts b cephalochordates lanceolets amphioxi c vertebrates 1 Agnatha jawless fish lampreys hagfish 2 Chondrichthyes jawed cartilaginous fish sharks rays skates 3 Osteichthyes bony fish 4 Amphibia 5 Reptilia 6 Aves 7 Mammalia E 1 MARINE COMMUNITIES Definition of Community a recognizable b mappable c recurring Rocky Shore a harsh environment b dominated by vagrant benthos starfish sea urchins cucumbers crabs lobsters snails chitins octopus anemones hydroids Soft Bottom low energy lagoon marsh grass beds a plants stabilize substrate b deposit feeders crabs worms urchins nudibranchs cucumbers shrimp snails c few filter feeders hydroids anemones Deep Ocean a cold less food required less light low sedimentation some vertical migration b fish luminous large teeth lures c squid copepods food d crinoids brittle stars Hydrothermal vents a hard substrate depths to 3000 meters H25 b primary producers bacteria chemosynthesis c worms clams mussels crabs eel like fish Coral Reefs a Definition of a reef 1 biological accumulation 2 wave resistance Reef components 1 framework 2 cement 3 sediment amp landscape components 4 open spaces Reef classification 1 fringing reefs 2 barrier reefs 3 atolls 4 patch reefs Natural controls on reef growth temperature light depth salinity water circulation oxygen nutrients sediments 9 substrate 10stability llemersion Zonation 1 lagoon patch reefs grass beds sand 2 reef crest elkhorn coral breaker zone 3 forereef terrace staghorn spurs and grooves 4 forereef escarpment finger corals variety 5forereef slope plate corals sand channels 6 deep forereef fragile plates sponges f Reef Destruction 1 Natural a physical b biological c balance sponges worms b
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