Computers in Society
Computers in Society CSI 3101
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in ComputerScienence
This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melvin Bednar on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSI 3101 at Baylor University taught by Paul Grabow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/217931/csi-3101-baylor-university in ComputerScienence at Baylor University.
Reviews for Computers in Society
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/03/15
Virtue Dr Ethics Paul C Grabow Baylor University 342009 Outlin 10 e riticisms of rulebased ethics 2 Nature of virtue ethics 3 Cardinal virtues cime Criticisms of rulebased ethics 1 Lack a motivational component Founded on a theologicallegal model that is no longer appropriate Ignores spiritual dimension of morality Overemphasizes principle of autonomy and cime neglects communal context of morality 342009 1 Lack Motivational Component o Actionbased ethics 1 Uninspiring Fails to motivate Sometimes associated with a distorted Christian morality of the Victorian Age Often viewed as minimal morality clme 2 Model no longer appropriate o Rulebased ethics assumes Clear authority and a legal context 0 Ethics has become detached from its theological moorings Become an autonomous activity Legal model no longer appropriate 0 Virtue ethics response 1 Morality itself has intrinsic worth clme 3 Ignores spiritual dimension o Reduces all moral judgment to Judgments about actions 0 Neglects spiritual admirable qualities such as a Gratitude selfrespect sympathy etc o Virtue ethics response True goodness springs from the heart not S clme 342009 Recall Kant s ethics 0 Natural goodness is morally irrelevant o Emphasis on good will 4 Doing duty for duty s sake 0 Good Will not a question of character cime 4 Overemphasizes autonomy o Symptom of the Enlightenment Exaggerated principle of autonomy Each person arrives at their own moral code by reason alone 0 Virtue ethics response We do not make moral decisions in a vacuum Communities definefoster virtues People learn to be moral in community cime Nature of Virtue Ethics o Emphasizes being 0 Aretaic ethics From the Greek arete excellence or virtue Centers in the character of the agent o Asks A What sort of person should I become cime 342009 Nature of Virtue Ethics cont 0 Not only about action but about 4 Emotions Character Moral habit o Ethics of aspiration rather than ethics of duty Richard Taylor 0 Virtues excellences of character That result in habitual acts ctme One Classi cation Scheme o Moral virtues Honesty benevolence nonmalevolence fairness kindness conscientiousness gratitude and so on o Nonmoral virtues Courage optimism rationality selfcontrol patience endurance industry musical talent wit and so on ctme On what are virtues based 0 Examination of ideal types of person 0 Following someone who represents an ideal type ctme 342009 The Ideal Type Aristotle s Nicomachean Ethics o Virtues characteristics that enable people to live well in 0 Based on desire state of wellbeing Eudaimonia human ourishing o Moral person Cannot exist apart 39om a ourishing political setting 0 Ethics considered a branch of politics clme Nicomachean Ethics cont o Humanity has an essence orfunction at Function of humans is to use reason in pursuit of the good life eudaimonia 0 Note 1 Eudaimonia is NOT the good life as defined by the Miller Brewing Company 0 Virtues A Moralpolitical characteristics necessary for people to attain eudaimonia clme Nicomachean Ethics cont o Aristotle Moral virtues different than intellectual virtues o Moral virtues Must be lived in orderto be learned 0 Intellectual nonmoral virtues a May be taught directly clme 342009 Nicomachean Ethics cont o Moral virtues 1 Necessary but not sufficient for happiness Must also have 0 good fortunequot and o live in a ourishing civil state 0 Aristotle hardly mentions principles 0 Person of moral excellence cannot help doing good cime Ideal Individual 0 Example Father Kolbe r Polish priest sentenced to Auschwitz v Volunteered to take punishment for someone else Starved to death by Nazis Displayed moral heroism death pointing them to the Great Shepherdquot cime Ideal Individual cont o Hallmark of virtue ethics Watching ancl imitating moral giants o eg Jesus Socrates Gandhi Mother Teresa Albert Schweitzer a Inspiration from ideal types 0 Saints and moral heroes The salt by which the world is preserved cime 342009 Ideal Individual con o Moral agents who go beyond minimal morality are necessary fora society if it is to overcome evil and produce a high degree offlourishing Pojman cime Cardinal Virtues carginal Lann cargo rererste a ninge 0n vnicn all rmral ylnues uepenu Traditionally trern Plau Anstmle Jus1lceiprudenceilunlludeiandlemperance cieere li centurva c Pr e um rice nunur immune temperance st Augustine Temperance immune lU1lEEi pruuence Aternate Jones 97 Prudence immune temperance nurniliw cnristiantneulugieal virtues Fallh nupe luue cime Cardinal Virtues con o Prudence Practlcalwlsdum mural dlscernrnerlt vvisgurn tn gutne rignttning angtu gel ltWEll Develupegtnruugn aemlse lranv er Du lacks Wlsdumi ne snuuld ask cugi vvnu gives usvtu all vvltnuut ringing fault and it vvill be given tn nirn 7 generu Jamesl 5 o Fortitude Strengtn er enaraeter madrllfestdln unvlctlun courage and perseverance tn pursultwnat is ngnt an en Be strung and eeurageeus Du net be arraiu erternneu because at them rertne LORD yuur Gnu gees vvitn yuu ne vvill never leave yuu nurfursake yuu Deut 3i 6 cime 342009 Cardinal Virtues cont o Temperance Seirdrscrpirne To live a more ordered irre rortne glory or God and service or others God did not give us a spirit oftirnidity but a spirit or power or yl 7 love and ofSelf discipline 2 Timoth milit Mark oratrue servant v Far removed from senile seirabasemem clothe yourselves With compassion kindness humility gentleness and patience Bear With each other 7Col 3 m ctme Capital Virtues and Sins 0 Capital Virtues 0 Capital Sins Humility Pride Liberality Avarice Brth rlJ LV Meekness Chastity Temperance Dilligence ctme References o Pojman L P Ethics Discovering Right and Wrong chapter 7Thomson Wadsworth 2004 0 Jones D C Biblical Christian Ethics BakerBooks 1994 ctme Holmes Chapter 2 Dr Paul C Grabow Baylor University 142007 Reference 0 Ethics Approaching Moral Decisions Chapters 2 amp 3 Author Arthur F Holmes professor emeritus of philosophy Wheaton College x Series Contours of Christian Philosophy lnterVarsity Press mmm by Hal c Graham Situations o How should we answer these questions Is the pirating of software wrong 1 Is it wrong to hack into a company computer a Is it wrong to conduct surveillance of employees mmm pi Vaul c Graham 142007 1 Cultural Relativism ennmen e Diversity Thesis Dependency Thesis ntrlsrn Espunse re Relatlvlsrn 2 Emotivist Ethics A Dennmen The Ernutlvlst s Reasens An Appraisal 1 Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism A Definition vary with and depend on the huma and social conditions of particular cultures so that no moral elie s can be universally true n be no universal oughts39 quot p 16 0 Example but wrung m Cuunter because c untrygtlt they are different cultures ukayln u 142007 Diversity Thesis Moral practices and beliefs do in fact vary from culture to culture and at different times in history therefore none are universal mmm m m c Graham Diversity Thesis a critique 0 Assume that it is descriptiver correct Cultures do ll ldeed differ v However a descriptive statement lS nut equivalenttu a statement Therefore tne ma a lS not necessarily nurmatlve l e lL dues nutstate an n a normative o Are moral practices as diverse as the thesis implies iversal a eas of value related to human needs can readily be identi ed eg life and health marriage and amiy v Are these commonalities accidental mmm by Hal c Graham Diversity Thesis a critique co t o It falls to distinguish Diversity in particular moral practices from Diversity in the principles implicit in such concerns 0 Consequently Diversity seems more common in application practice than in principle standards mmm pl Vaul c Graham Diversity Thesis a critique cont 0 Some diversity has yielded to reasonable uasion mple ltw n D associate professor of History sev rbilt s Center for Medicine Health P and directorofvande and Society 0 If all morality were relative then what moral objection could there be to the Nazi holocaust7 mmm m m c Graham Diversity Thesis a critique co t 0 Conclusions The thesis badly overstates both the variety and extent of ethical relativity A The thesis does not imply either 0 That moral practices ought to vary as they do or 0 That moral beliefs cannot be true independently of how people actually behave mmm by Hal c Graham Dependency Thesis 0 Morality is not a matter of independent rational judgment but is causally dependent on cultural context 0 Consequently a The particular morality of a people cannot be other than it is in that culture The concept of true or false moral beliefs is not relevant ie belief is culturally determined mmm by Hal c Graham 142007 Dependency Thesis a critique o The fact that a culture influences the beliefs of its people does not by itself indicate whether those beliefs are morally right or wrong 0 Example gambling may be unrestricted in a country but that does not indicate that it is morally right or wrong the moral issue is independent of the culture mmm m m c Graham 1 142007 Dependency Thesis a critique o If beliefs in general are culturally determined then so is belief in the dependency thesis another Therefore the thesis is not universally true mmm by Hal c Graham u Dependency Thesis a critique cont 0 Conclusions The thesis is overstated if it claims that all moral beliefs are completely dependent on cultural conditions If all moral beliefs were completel dependent on cultural conditions then 0 No society could have independently minded moral dissidents o No prophets could arise to preach social justice mmm pl Vaul c Graham 15 Dependency Thesis a critique cont 0 What is at stake Freedom and determinism ie wh w can transcend cultural in uences on our beliefs using critical and imaginative thinking 0 Classical views of freedom assume rational selfexamination as a prerequisite to freedom from cultural influences It is hard to believe that even primitive cultures age in re ective selfscrutiny or that their re ection in no way affects behavior patternsquot p 19 mmm m Vaul c Giabwv Ethnocentrism 0 Some would claim lfyou do not believe in relativism then you are ethnocentric 0 Consequently Your intolerance is the issue 0 Problems with this argument defend universal norms without defending my own culture The relativist cannot consistently reject all into erance He must tolerate tne intolerance ofanother t aall iSt intolerance mmm by Hal 2 Giabwv A Response to Relativism 0 Diversity thesis and dependency thesis Both appear irrelevant to truth or falsity of moral beliefs Both are often overstated 0 Consequently the case for ethical relativism is weak at best mmm p Hal 2 Gvabwv 142007 142007 Situations Version 1 o What would the cultural relativist say Is the pirating of software wrong Is it wrong to hack into a company computer Is it wrong to conduct surveillance of employees mmm m m c Giabwu 1s CSI 3101 Holmes Chapters 2 amp 3 Dr Paul C Grabow Baylor University 952006 Reference Ethics Approaching Moral Decisions Chapters 2 amp 3 7 Author Arthur F Holmes professor emeritus of philosophy Wheaton College 7 Series Contours ofChristian Philosophy InterVarsity Press aiaiznne Di Paul c Giabuw Situations How should we answer these questions 7 Is the pirating ofso ware wrong 7 Is it wrong to hack into a company computer 7 Is it wrong to conduct surveillance of employees aiaiznne Di Paul c Giabuw CSI 3101 952006 Outline ADelmmun a TheDlvelsltyThesls e TheDependencyThesls a Bhnucenlvlsm a AR espunsetuR elatlvlsm 2 EmutlvlStEthlES ADelmmun a TheEmutlvlsl sR easuns e AnApplalsal mum Dr me Gmbaw 1 Cultural Relativism mum Cultural Relativism A Definition me VlEWthat mural bellefs anu practlces vary Wlm and depend unme umarl needs and suelal undltluns ur uameular culture sun that nu mural bellefs ean ue AJan rsallytrue There ean ue nu unlversal uughts u 16 Example ukayln CuunllyX but Wlung m CuuntlyV ueeause they are ulllerem eullures mum Dr me Gmbaw CSI 3101 952006 Diversity Thesis Moral practices and beliefs do in fact vary from culture to culture and at different times in history therefore none are universal Dr Paul c Grabuw sl lZEIEIB Diversity Thesis a critique 0 Assume thatlt ls descnptlvel correct 7 Cultures dd indeed dirrer e Huvvever a descn ive staternentis ndt Equivalenttu a nurmanve statement 7 Tnererdre tnetnesis is riut necessarily ndnnanve i e itddes ndt state an Dughf o Are rnorai practices as diverse as tne tnesis implies 7 Universal areas ofvalue related to ndrnan needs can readily be lde tlfled e g i iire and neaitni rnarnage and family 7 Are these commonalities accidental sl lZEIEIB Dr Paul c Grabuw Diversity Thesis a critique cont lt fails to distinguish 7 Diversity in particular moral practices from 7 Diversity in the principles implicit in such concerns Consequently 7 Diversity seems more common in application practice than in principle standards sl lZEIEIB Dr Paul c Grabuw CSI 3101 952006 Diversity Thesis a critique cont 0 Some diversity has yielded to reasonable persuasionquot Example it was common practice ii i early modern Europe rorrheoical practitioners to prescribe preparations made from human arts for a variety orrheoical COi lditiOi lS such as using bits ofmumml ed flesh to heal Wounds See Web si e 7 Matthew Ramse Ph D associate proressor or History and director or yahuer lit s Center ror Medicine Health and Society o lfall morality were relative then what moral objection could there be to the Nazi holocaust sismus Di Paul c Glabuw Diversity Thesis a critique cont Conclusions 7 The thesis badly overstates both the variety and extent of ethical relativity a The thesis does not imply either 0 That moral practices ought to vary as they do or o That moral beliefs cahhotoe true independently or how people actually oehaye sismus Di Paul c Glabuw Dependency Thesis Morality is not a matter of independent rational judgment but is causally dependent on cultural context Consequentl a he particular morality ofa people cannot be other than it is in that culture a The concept oftrue orfalse moral beliefs is not relevant ie belief is culturally determined sismus Di Paul c Glabuw CSI 3101 952006 Dependency Thesis a critique The fact that a culture influences the beliefs of its people does not by itself indicate whetherthose beliefs are morally right or wrong Example gambling ay be unrestricted in a country but that does not indicate that it is morally right or wrong 7 the moral issue is independent ofthe culture alalznne Dy Paul c Glabuw Dependency Thesis a critique lf beliefs in general are culturally determined then so is belief in the dependency thesis 7 eg it may be true in one culture but not in another 7 Therefore the thesis is not universally true alalznne Dy Paul c Glabuw Dependency Thesis a critique cont Conclusions 7 The thesis is overstated if it claims that all moral beliefs are completely dependent on cultural conditions 7 If all moral beliefs were completely dependent on cultural conditions hen o No soclety could have ll39ldepel39ldel39ltly ynynded moral dlssld o No prophets could arlse to preach soclal lustlce alalznne Dy Paul c Glabuw CSI 3101 952006 Dependency Thesis a critique cont o What is at stake edorn arid determinism e i e l whethervve can transcend cultural influences on our beliefs using critical and irnaginative thinking 0 Classical views of 39eedom assume rational self examination as a prerequisite to freedom 39om cultural in uences 7 it is naro to believe tnat even primitive cultures neve engage in reiiective selfescrutinv ortnat tneir reflection in no way affects oenavior patterns slalzuue or Paul 0 GYabDW Ethnocentrism 0 Some would claim e lfyou do not believe in relativism thei i you are etnnocentric Consequently e Yourlntolerance is the iss Problems with this argume t e i can defend universal norrns Witnout defending my own culture 7 The relativist cannot consistently 0 He musttulerate the intolerance 0 Yet he in reiect all intolerance of anuthef as crime nut against intolerance slalzuue or Paul 0 GYabDW A Response to Relativism Diversity thesis and dependency thesis 7 Both appearin39elevant to truth orfalsity ofmoral beliefs 7 Both are o en overstated Consequently the case for ethical relativism is weak at best slalzuue or Paul 0 GYabDW CSI 3101 Situations Version 1 What would the cultural relativist say 7 Is the pirating ofso ware wrong 7 Is it wrong to hack into a company computer 7 Is it wrong to conduct surveillance of employees alaznne Dy Paul c Giabuw 952006 2 Emotivist Ethics alaznne Dy Paul c Giabuw Emotivist Ethics A Definition the view that moral language simply expresses and perhaps arouses emotion so that nothing we say in moral terms is either true orfalse about anything p 23 Example John s moral beliefs are 7 nothing more than positive or negative attitudes alaznne Dy Paul c Giabuw CSI 3101 The Emotivist s Reasoning o here nvunresolve none ofthern mus 0 AH attem pt to Settle moral ethical intuition did not t e g de nitiuns tautulugies ments that can be iricaiiytested araznne Dr Paul c Grabuw d moral arguments theref r the superior disputes by appealing to a universal seem to Work Logical positivism r e onlytvvo kinds ofcognitive language are possibleseern5 reasonable Since mural judgments are neither then they cannut be Eugmtive Emotivist Ethics An Appraisal Observation ral issues are otten emotionally charged and ethical language carries emotional weight wever the issue is notwhether moral language is emotionally charged 7 The issue is whether discerning right and wrong n be a cognitive exercise free of emotion araznne Dr Paul c Grabuw What is a cognitive exercise A willful use of reason to draw conclusions Ethical theories are cognitive theories 7 eg egoism or utilitarianism araznne Dr Paul c Grabuw 952006 CSI 3101 Situations Version 2 What would the emotivist say 7 Is the pirating ofso ware wrong 7 Is it wrong to hack into a company computer 7 Is it wrong to conduct surveillance of employees aiaiznne Di Paul 0 GYabDW 952006 Final Comments The real issue 7 What do ethical terms convey Do ethical terms convey 7 Subjective attitudes ofsocial groups 7 Something external and universal An ethical theory attempts to answer such quest39ons aiaiznne Di Paul 0 GYabDW You should be able to o D 7 Ethical relativism 7 Emotivistemics 0 Explain the shortcomings of 7 Ethical relativism 7 Emotlvlst ethics aiaiznne Di Paul 0 GYabDW CSI 3101 What s next Ethical egoism utilitarianism aaznne Dv Pam c Gvabuw 952006 142007 Holmes Chapter 4 Dr Paul C Grabow Baylor University References 0 Holmes Arthur F Ethics Approaching Moral Decisions Chapter 4 Series Contours of Christian Philosophy lnterVarsity Press 1984 o Pojman L P Ethics Discovering Right and Wrong chapter 6Thomson Wadsworth 2004 mmm by Hal 2 Graham 2 Outline Review Threefold moral evaluation Prominent Ethical Theories Ethical Egoism amp Utilitarianism Egoism mmm pi Hal 2 Graham 142007 What is ethics o Moral philosophy 0 Seeks to analyze in their moral contexts Right wrong permissible ought good and evil o Seeks to establish behavioral norms Principles of right behaviorto serve as action guidesquot for individuals and groups How should I live my lifequot 0 Investigatesidentifies Which values and virtues are worthwhile for life or society mmm m m c Giabwv Purpose of ethics o To keep society from falling apart o To ameliorate human suffering o To promote human flourishing o To resolve conflicts of interest in just and orderly ways mmm by Hal c Giabwv Some ethics questions m o What goals ought lwe to pursue in life o What sort of persons ought lvve to be o What practices ought lwe to follow mmm pl Vaul c Giabwv 142007 Threefold Moral Evaluationm l Are the ends sought by the agent good and intrinsically worthy of human pursuit Is the agent s motive good Are the means to the end good conforming m Vaul c Graham Prominent Ethical Theories 0 Ethical Egoism Standard self interest 0 Conventional morality v Standard current views of society 0 Utilitarianism 39 Standard greatest bene t for most people 0 Duty Ethics Standard for sake of duty 0 Virtue Ethics Standard virtues eg wisdom temperance ence mmm by Hal c Graham Ethical Egoism amp Utilitarianism ll 0 Both evaluate choices based on consequences ie end result A Ethical Egoism consequences for oneself gt Utilitarianism consequences for people in ral 0 Both attempt to maximize benefits In terms of good end results o But what constitutes a good result mmm p Vaul c Graham Illustrations o Ethical Egoism John eoaehes a 7quotLgrade basketball team HlS soh plays oh the team He has his soh startrnustgarnes eveh though there are better players oh the team who sit oh the beheh What is the good end result tor Johh7 o utilitarianism Fred eoaehes ahother 7quotLgrade basketball team and he also has a sari uri the team However Fred rutatesthe players Ell so his son does h heeessarily start Fred realizesthat the klds are still lEarrllrlg and that itis bettertu allovv all the players to start some games duran the season What is the good erid result iri Fred s Eyes Amen Di mi e Graham 1 142007 Egoism a Realization r We are all motivated to some extent by our OWl l selririterest a Psychological Egoism Claims that all people are coritiriuall motivated by selr iriterest Descriptive 0 Ethical Egoism Recognizes claim ofpsychologlcal egoism r Therefore people Mum pursue their OWl l good as deliberately and as effectively as they can Normative mmm Di mi e Graham 11 Some Questions 0 Can you draw a normative conclusion 39om a descriptive premise alone Does psychological egoism tell the whole story Is the pursuit ofpleasure by itselfvery satisfying ls selflove necessarily a bad thing 0 Was Bishop Joseph Butler too much ofan Enlightenment optimistquot Amen Di mi e Graham 12 142007 Egoism A Critique m o Psychological egoism seems mistaken Not all people drive by egoism Human motivation more complex than egoism allows Selfinterest not the whole story Egotistical motives do not always override everything else 0 Psychological egoism 1 Fails as a steppingstone to ethical egoism mmm m m c Giabwv ls ethical egoism viable m 0 See text 0 Please answer this question for yourself based on the arguments ofthe author mmm by Hal c Giabwv Situation o A web ad I m a firm believer if you want something badly enough you make it happen Advertising efforts of Ford s women s racing team efforts to end breast cancer mmm pi Vaul c Giabwv
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'