Explorin Environ Issues
Explorin Environ Issues ENV 1301
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Exam 2 Practice Test Chapters 611 NOT OFFICIAL CLASS STUDY GUIDE Created by Elisabeth Pabst Name Class Instructor ENV 1301 05 Dr Lynne Baker Date Instructions This consists of multiple questions regarding each chapter Some questions are separated onto separate page due to formatting Be sure to check next page if all the answer choices are not displayed This is NOT affiliated with Dr Baker I made this test up in order to thoroughly study for Exam 2 This is a PRACTICE TEST I don t recommend printing this out since it is like 40 pages This is not an optional practice test not mandatory I just wanted to provide a study guide for the entire class Chapter 6 1 In what type of countries does population growth riseincrease a Wealthy Countries b Poverty Stricken Countries c Industrial Cities 2 If the rate of growth is steady or slowing down the population size will still increase a True b False c Neither 3 What is the global growth rate a 12 b 23 c 81 4 What enhancesincreases population growth and also decreases the death rates a Medical Care Sanitation b Food Availability Technology Page 1 10 11 12 All of the above What model determines the impact on the environment IPAT Model Think Fast Model Population Model What is Demography Study of Science Study of hydrological cycle Study of human population change What are key factors in study demography Age structure sex ratios size density births deaths immigration emigration Only age structure and sex ratios Only birth and immigration and density 1 of 5 people are Chinese True False High population densities occur in temperate and tropical regions mainly near water like coasts and rivers True False Low population densities occur in desert tundra and rainforests regions mainly away from water True False What is Age Structure The ratio of females to males Average if ofchildren a female can have in her lifetime The relative if of individuals in each age class within a population None of the Above What is Sex Ratio The ratio of males to females The ratio of females to males Page 2 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Neither A amp B Only Who are more prone to death Males Females Middle Age People None of the Above What is the ratio of males to females in China amp the USA USA 100 females to 106 males China 100 females to 120 males USA 50 males to 10 females China 190 females to 65 males None of the Above All of the Above What does population growth depend on Birth and Immigration Death and Emigration Birth and Emigration Death and Immigration What does TFR stand for What does it mean Total Fertility Replica the average ofchildren a female may have in her lifetime Total Fertility Rate the average ofchildren a female may have in her lifetime Total Fertility Rate the amount of children that keeps a population size stable Total Foreign Rate the amount of children a woman wants to have in her lifetime What is Replacement Fertility The TFR that does nothing at all The TFR that declines the population size and has 2 growth The TFR that keeps a population size stable and has zero growth The TFR that increases the population size and has 5 growth Woman Empowerment Urbanization Child Care Costs Medical Care Educational Opportunities decrease the Total Fertility Rate True False What is the Global Replacement Fertility Rate 35 21 Page 3 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 08 00 How is the natural rate in population change calculated Births Deaths Births Deaths Births Deaths Immigration Emigration Births Immigration Deaths Emigration Demographic Transition is a model of economic and cultural change that explains the decrease in death and birth rates as countries industrialize True False What four stages are within Demographic Transition Pre industrial transitional industrial Post industrial Industrial Post Industrial Industrial Transitional Transitional Post Industrial Pre 190039s Post 2050 Prehistoric times Ancient history Transitional Ice Age Pre Industrial Stage had high birth and death rates True False Transitional Stage had high death rates True False Industrial Stage had low birth rates True False Post Industrial Stage had low birth and death rates True False What decrease TFR Family Planning Birth Control Educational Opportunities Page4 27 28 29 3o 31 Chapter 7 32 All of the Above When was the International Conference for Population and Development held and where 1994 Cairo Egypt 1994 United States of America 1978 Germany None of the Above Who attended the International Conference for Population and Development Why 179 nations to offer universal access to health care 156 nations to offer universal access to health care 179 nations to offer food services 156 nations to offer food services What correlates with population growth Money Food Poverty None of the Above How does wealth impact the environment High resource consumption Waste Production No resource consumption A amp B only The richest 20 of the world uses 86 of resources leaving 80 ofthe world to use 14 resources True False Food security is the guarantee of an adequate safe and reliable food supply True Page 5 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 False What is Under nutrition Receiving fewer calories than the minimum energy requirement leads to starvation Over consumption of calories which leads to diabetes and heart disease c Shortage of nutrients your body needs What is Over nutrition Receiving fewer calories than the minimum energy requirement leads to starvation Over consumption of calories which leads to diabetes and heart disease c Shortage of nutrients your body needs What is Malnutrition Receiving fewer calories than the minimum energy requirement leads to starvation Over consumption of calories which leads to diabetes and heart disease c Shortage of nutrients your body needs What are Biofuels What do they replace Fuels derived from inorganic materials that replace petroleum in engines Fuels derived from organic materials that replace petroleum in engines c Fuels derived from organic materials that replace air conditioning Ethanol derived from corn is the most used biofuel in the United States True False Agriculture is the practice of raising crops and livestock for human consumption True False What is a Cropland Land used to raise plants and crops for human consumption Page 6 4o 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Land used to raise livestock for human consumption Land used to raise crops and livestock for human consumption What is a Rangeland Land used to raise plants and crops for human consumption Land used for raising and grazing livestock Land used for selling crops What percentage of land is devoted to agriculture 10 of the Earth 76 of the Earth 38 of the Earth Traditional Agriculture uses human and animal power also simple machines True False Industrial Agriculture uses large scale machinery irrigation fertilizers and pesticides True False What is a Poly culture Different plants crops planted in one field One crop planted in one field Different plants in different fields What is a Monoculture what are drawbacks Planting ofa single crop in a field narrows human diet disease prone Planting various crops in one field narrows human diet disease prone Planting no crops in a field narrows animal diet disease prone What are Seed Banks Institutions that store seed types Institutions that store plant types None of the Above Wild crops can breed with GM crops True False What was the Green Revolution who started it when did it take place Increase of food production by Norman Borlaug in 1940s Increase of food production by Norman Borlaug in 1978 Page 7 49 5o 51 52 53 54 55 Decrease in food production by Norman Borlaug in 1940s What were key factors of the Green Revolution Technology Crop Varieties Farming Practices All of the Above What is sustainable agriculture Maintaining a healthy soi clean water and genetic diversity Maintaining a healthy soi dirty water and genetic diversity Maintaining a healthy soi clean water and biofuels Low input agriculture uses smaller amounts of pesticides and fertilizers True False Soil is A simple system made up ofdisintegrated rock organic and inorganic matter and nutrients A complex system made up of disintegrated rock organic matter water gases nutrients and microorganisms A complex system made up of inorganic matter water gases nutrients and organisms What does soil contain Living and nonliving microorganisms decaying material bacteria and fungi Fungi Bacteria Worms decaying material and fish None of the above What is Parent Material The base geologic material of soil consists of bedrock which is the solid rock of Earth39s crust The base geologic material of sand consists of bedrock which is the solid rocks of Earth39s crust The base geologic material that consists of water and topsoil What is weathering Physical chemical biological process that converts soi into ava Physical chemical biological process that converts soi into rock Physical chemical biological process that converts rock into soi Page 8 56 57 58 59 6o 61 62 63 Humus is a spongy material that is formed by decomposition of organic matter which holds moisture for plants True False A Soil profile consists of horizons True False A horizon is each layer of soil a soil profile can have up to 6 horizons True False Leaching is the movement of dissolved particles down through a horizon which can deprive plants of nutrients True False Topsoil is only organic material which is nutritive for plants and is vital for agriculture True False What is soil degradation what percentage has been lost in grain production how many acres a year do we lose of cropland Loss of quality of life and productivity 13 loss of grain 1217 million acres of cropland loss a year Loss of soil quality and productivity 13 loss of grain loss of 1217 million acres of cropland a year None of the Above Erosion is the removal of material from one place to another by wind or water True False Deposition is Arrival of nice material to a new place Arrival of eroded material to a new place Page 9 64 65 66 67 68 69 7o Arrival of water to a new place How do humans make land vulnerable to erosion Over cultivating fields excessive tilling Deforestation clearing forests Overgrazing rangelands with too many animals All of the above What is Desertification Loss of more than 10 productivity from erosion drought salinization climate change etc Loss of less than 10 productivity from erosion drought salinization climate change etc Loss ofonly 10 productivity from erosion drought salinization climate change etc What are the most prone areas for Desertification Arid and semiarid lands dry lands Tropical forests tundra Wet lands What was the Dust Bowl when and where did it take place Drought and Erosions caused by Black Blizzards of sand in Midwestern region in the 19305 Drought and Erosions caused by Black Blizzards of sand in Northeastern region in the 19305 Drought and Erosions caused by Black Blizzards of sand in South Pacific ocean in 19305 The Soil Conservation Service SCS was started by Congress in 1935 to develop conservation plans for farmers now named Natural Resource Conservation Service True False What are 6 ways to protect soils Crop rotation terracing intercropping contour farming shelterbelts conservation tillage Crop rotation terracing intercropping shelterbelts erosion conservation tillage Crop rotation terracing shelterbelts intercropping dust bowl conservation tillage Contour farming is when you plow perpendicular across a hill slows runoff and captures soil True False Page 10 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 Crop rotation is when you rotate crops from one year to year returns nutrients to soil and prevents erosion as well as reduces pests True False Terracing is when you have level platforms that cut into steep hillsides looks like staircase True False lntercropping is when you plant different crops in alternating bands decreases pests and diseases replenishes soil True False Shelterbelts are like windbreaks planting of trees along edges of fields to slow wind True False Conservation tillage saves soil reduces amount of lling stores carbon in soil uses green manure dead plants as fertilizer True False Overgrazing is Too many animals eat too much ofcrops and impede on plant regrowth soil becomes degraded 70 of rangeland in world is degraded Not enough animals eat crops and increases plant growth soil becomes productive None of the above What is a subsidy in agriculture Money given by government that protects farmers from uncertain weather Money given by universities that protects farmers from uncertain weather All of the Above What is the Conservation Reserve Program Established in 1985 Conservation Reserve Program pays farmers to put highly erodible land in conservation reserves Page 11 79 so 81 82 s3 s4 85 0quot 0quot 0quot Established in 1985 Conservation Reserve Program pays companies to reserve forests Established in 1985 Conservation Reserve Program pays people to reserve land that is nice The 2008 Farm Bill limits protection to million acres and funds programs 32 14 56 3 12 17 Irrigation is Buildup of salt in surface soil layers Artificially providing water to support agriculture Over saturation of soil by water water suffocates roots in over irrigated soils Waterlogging is Buildup of salt in surface soil layers Artificially providing water to support agriculture Over saturation of soil by water water suffocates roots in over irrigated soils Salinization is Buildup of salt in surface soil layers Artificially providing water to support agriculture Over saturation of soil by water water suffocates roots in over irrigated soils Drip irrigation is Delivers water directly to plants Sprays water indirectly to plants None of the Above What are Fertilizers what are the 2 types Substances that contain essential nutrients to enhance crop production organic inorganic Substances that contain essential nutrients to stabilize crop production organic inorganic Substances that contain essential nutrients to reduce crop production organic inorganic Inorganic fertilizers are lll 39 mineral Remains or wastes of organisms All of the Above Page 12 86 87 88 89 9o 91 92 93 Organic fertilizers are lll 39 mineral Remains or wastes of organisms All of the Above Green manure is crop residue fresh vegetation and organism wastes True False Compost is produced when decomposers break down organic matter True False Inorganic fertilizers cause problems such as Groundwater Contamination Dead Zones in water systems Air pollution from evaporated nitrates All of the above What is a pest Any organism that damages valuable crops Any organism that helps produce crops None of the above What is a weed Any plant that competes with crops Any plant that harms crops Any plant that eats crops What is a pesticide what are 3 types Poison that targets a pest organisms insecticides herbicides fungicides Poison that targets a non pest organisms insecticides herbicides fungicides None of the above What percentages of pesticides are applied to agricultural land 81 15 75 Page 13 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 What is a pesticide treadmill Increase in toxicity of pesticide to compete with resistant pests Decrease in toxicity of pesticide to compete with resistant pests No toxicity in pesticide so will not compete with pests What two species have evolved resistance to multiple chemicals Green Peach Aphid Diamondback Moth Bees Bears Tiger Lion What is Bio Control Example of bio control gone wrong Use of a pests predator or disease to control the pest Cane Toads in Australia Use of a pests prey or disease to control the pest Cane Toads in Australia Use of pesticides to control pests Cane Toads in Australia Integrated Pest Management IPM does what Creates techniques to suppress pests Creates techniques to produce pests None of the Above What is Pollination Male plant sex cells fertilize female sex cells Female sex cells fertilize male sex cells Neither Colony collapse disorder affected what species Bees Tigers Moths Type question hereGenetic Engineering is Manipulation of genetic material by adding deleting or modifying DNA Manipulation of soil by adding deleting or modifying DNA Manipulation ofanimals by adding deleting or modifying DNA Genetically Modified organisms are Organisms that have been genetically engineered using recombinant DNA Organisms that have been genetically engineered using plant DNA Organisms that have never been modified Page 14 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 Recombinant DNA is created from multiple organisms True b False Transgenic Organisms are organisms that contains DNA from another species True False Transgenes are the genes moved between organisms True False Bio technology is Application of biological science to create products derived from organisms drugsmedicines Application of science to create food for people None of the above Selective breeding Genetic Engineering Uses genes of organisms with same or similar species mixes genes from different species Uses plant genes uses animal genes only Use of various genes in both experiments Most GM crops in USA Corn Soybeans Cotton All of the Above Problems with GM food crops Expensive Not applicable for small scale farmers Both A ampB What is the precautionary principle What country uses this Harmful until proven harmless Europe Harmful until proven harmless USA Harmless until proven harmful Europe What percentage of energy is lost from moving to each trophic level 10 50 Page 15 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 90 Eggs and chicken require least land and water to be raised beef production requires the most land and water True False What are Feedlots also known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Huge warehouses that deliver food to animals living in high densities Small shack that delivers food to animals living in low densities None of the Above Pros and Cons of Feedlots Pros reduce grazing impacts Cons pollute water disease prone endangering food security Pros pollute water disease prone endangering food security Cons reduce grazing impact All of the Above What is Aquaculture where is it mainly practiced Raising aquatic organisms in controlledenvironment Asia Raising aquatic organisms in controlled environment USA Raising aquatic organisms in open environment Asia Organic Agriculture uses no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides True False Organic Food Production Act of 1990 established national standards for organic products True False Farmers Markets provide fresh locally grown food True False Community Supported Agriculture CSA pay farmers in advance for crops fresh food farmers are guaranteed income True False Page 16 Chapter 8 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 0quot 0 What is Biodiversity Varieties of life across all levels of organization Varieties of life across 2 levels of organization only Varieties of plants across all levels of organization What are the three levels of organization within biodiversity Species Ecosystem Genetic Species Environment Genetic Species Ecosystem Genre What is Species diversity Species Richness Species Evenness Species Richness Species Evenness Species Richness Species Equality What are Species Richness and Species Evenness of Species of Plants of Species Relative Abundance of Species Relative Plants What do Taxonomists do Classify animals only Classify plants only Classify all species Species grouped together are genera genera s grouped together are families True False Each species has three parts to classify their name a sub species has two parts True False What is a Sub Species A species that occurs in one location and slightly differ from one another Page 17 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 T m 0 m 0quot m A species that occurs in different locations and slightly differ from one another A species that occurs in no locations and is extinct from the world What is Genetic diversity Differences among plant DNA only Differences among animal DNA only Differences among DNA within all species Inbreeding Depression is when similar species mate and produce a defective offspring True False What is Ecosystem Diversity Number and Varieties of ecosystems Number and Varieties of genes Number and Varieties of plants What species is predominating Insects Tigers Llamas What percentage of insects are beetles 10 20 40 Latitudinal gradient is the increase of species richness near the south pole True False Extinction is When the last member of a species ceases to exist in one area When the last member of a species ceases to exist in the world When the last member of a species produces offspring Extirpation is When the last member of a species ceases to exist in one area but not everywhere When the last member of a species ceases to exist in the world What is the background extinction rate The average extinction rate typically one species goes extinct at a time Page 18 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 The average extinction rate typically 10 species goes extinct at a time None of the Above The Red List is an updated assessment ofthreatened species and subspecies created by the World Conservation Union IUCN True False What is Biodiversity loss What are 4 causes of biodiversity loss Population decline and species extinction habitat loss pollution overharvesting invasive species Population decline and species extinction habitat loss poverty overharvesting invasive species Population decline and species extinction habitat loss fragmentation pollution keystone species Climate change is now the 5th cause of biodiversity loss True False Habitat Loss is The greatest cause of the loss in biodiversity The only cause of the loss in biodiversity The greatest cause of increase in biodiversity What is Habitat Fragmentation Gradual loss of habitat piece by piece Gradual increase in habitat piece by piece Gradual loss of habitat clear cut Sharks are hunted for what To make what Fins Soup Teeth Souvenirs Eyes Soup Hunters usually hunt for what specific type of species K Selected Species Long lived large species R Selected Species Short live small species All of the above Page 19 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 Humans benefit from biodiversity by ecosystem services True b False What species if become extinct can lead to other species becoming extinct Keystone Species Umbrella Species All of the Above What ratio of crops to livestock species to humans depend on 158 37 125 How much money comes in a year in sales from organisms that provide medicine drugs 125 billion 105 billion 150 billion Ecotourism creates economic opportunities to corporations from people visiting natural areas True False Biophilia is The love and fascination of nature by humans The love and fascination of animals by humans The love and fascination of nature by animals Nature deficit disorder is Alienation from biodiversity and nature which damages adulthood development Alienation from biodiversity and nature which damages childhood development Alienation from Biophilia and nature which damages childhood development What is Conservation Biology Study that investigates factors that influence loss protection and restoration of biodiversity they search for solutions Study that investigates factors that influence increase of species protection and restoration of biodiversity search for problems None of the Above Page 20 152 153 154 155 156 157 What Act was put in action to protect endangered species and their habitats Endangered Species Act 1925 Endangered Species Act 1973 Endangered Service Act 1973 Captive Breeding breeds and raises species in zoos and botanical gardens with intent to reintroduce into the wild True False Forensic science is The analysis of evidence to identify and or answer questions relating to crimes or accidents guided to protect species and help detect illegal activity and enforce laws The analysis of evidence to create problems relating to crimes or accidents guided to protect species and help detect illegally and enforce laws None of the above Flagship species appeal to the public and promote conservation the World Wildlife Fund uses a Panda to appeal to the public True False What percent of land in the world is protected parks or wilderness areas 15 31 12 A Biodiversity hotspot is an area that supports low numbers of species usually endemic species Page 21 158 159 160 Chapter 9 161 162 163 164 True b False To be considered a hotspot the area has to have At least 3000 plant species and 70 habitat loss due to humans At least 1500 plant species and 70 habitat loss due to humans At least 1500 endemic plant species and 70 habitat loss due to humans There are a total of 34 biodiversity hotspots globally True False Community based conservation actively engage local people in protecting land and wildlife True False What percent of Earth is covered in forests 25 45 31 What to forests provide Habitat air and water quality woodfuel Maintain soil All of the Above A forest is an ecosystem with low densities of trees True False A Forest type is a predominant tree species the USA has 23 forest types True Page 22 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 False Forests provide medicine food shelter fuel and paper True False Deforestation is Clearing or loss of one forest Clearing or loss of forests Clearing or loss of land Deforestation degrades soil reduces biodiversity and Alters ecosystems ruins civilizations Adds carbon dioxide to air Both A ampB According to who 128 million acres are lost a year due to deforestation FAO 2012 Global Forest Resource Assessment FAO 2010 Global Forest Resource Assessment Endangered Species Act in 1973 What two continents do we suffer from the most deforestation Latin America Asia Latin America Africa Latin America Antarctica A Primary forest remains uncut and a Secondaryforest has been cut down and has regrown from once being a primary forest True False What led to severe forest loss Eastward expansion Westward expansion Dust Bowl Palm oil Plantation replaces what type of forests Tropical forests Temperate Forests Boreal Forests Page 23 173 174 175 176 177 POTICO stands for what Palm Oil Timber Carbon Offsets Palm Oil Timber Conservation Observations Palm Oil Timber Creation Organization Palm Oil is used in what products Snacks food Soap Cosmetics Both A ampB What institute steers palm oil companies to use land that has already been logged and degrade World Resource Corporation World Resource Institute World Reinforcement Institute What is REDD what does it stand for Wealthy nations pay poor nations to conserve forests Reserve Emission from Degradation and Deforestation Poor nations pay wealthy nations to conserve forests Reducing Emission from Degradation and Deforestation Wealthy nations pay poor nations to conserve forests Reducing Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation What is forestry Professional management of forests balance importance of plants as species and demand for animals Professional management of forests balance importance of forests as forests and demand for wood products Professional management of forests balance importance of forests as ecosystems and demand for wood products Page 24 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 Resource management is a strategic decision process about who should extract resources and how so that resources are used wisely True False Three types of resource management Max sustainable yield ecosystem based adaptive Min sustainable yield max sustainable yield adaptive Max sustainable yield ecosystem based animals based At what percent does population grow the fastest 10 50 23 Maximum sustainable yield refers to maximum extraction of resources before depletion occurs True False Ecosystem based management refers to minimal impact on ecosystems while extracting resources True False Adaptive management refers to a mixture of methods which changes and improves over time fuses science and management True False What are national forests how many acres percent are national forests in the USA Public lands set aside to produce timber for future supplies 191 million acres 8 Private lands set aside to produce timber for future supplies 191 million acres 8 None of the above When was the US Forest Service established why by whom 1905 manage forests by Gifford Pinchot 1905 provide food supplies by Gifford Pinchot Page 25 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 All of the Above Logging occurs only on public lands True False Three types of timber harvesting are Clear cutting seed tree shelter wood selection Clear cutting seed tree shelter wood Clear cutting selection deforestation What was the National Forest Management Act in 1976 established for Each national forest had to have a plan for resource management Each national forest had to have money to start a resource conservation plan Each national forest had to undergo various activities to ensure they were a national park Prescribed burns also known as controlled burns serve what purpose Mimic natural fires improve ecosystem health Reduce fuel load Both A ampB Sustainable forest certification are companies that produce products which were created by using sustainable methods True False What is an example of a company that uses sustainable methods Forest Stewardship Council Forest Service Conservation Forest Service Council What are protected from resource extraction and development but open to recreation and appreciation administered by the National Park Service in 1916 National Parks National Monuments Both A ampB Page 26 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 What is a National Wildlife refuge Encourages hunting fishing recreation photography and environmental education Encourages development of land Encourages deforestation clear cutting seed tree selection A Wilderness area is an area off limits to development and extraction but available to low impact recreation such as hiking True False What is a Land Trust who is the largest land trust in the world A land trust is land purchased privately or by organizations that want to protect land from extraction and development Nature Conservancy A land trust is purchased solely by the government to develop and extract resources Nature Conservancy A land trust is a trust of land that is bought and sold through auctions Approximately how many acres of land in the USA are land trusts 96 million acres 102 million acres 218 million acres Paper parks are protected parks on paper but no practiced True False A Biosphere reserve is protected land that combines preservation with sustainable development to benefit local people True False What are the three zone in a Biosphere reserve Core Buffer Transitional Core Buffer Environment Core Buffer Ocean What is an edge effect An edge effect is when the edge of a habitat differs from the interior of the habitat due to habitat fragmentation An edge effect is when the edge of a habitat is the same as the interior of the habitat Page 27 201 202 Chapter 1 0 203 204 205 206 m 0quot An edge effect is when the edge of a habitat differs from the exterior of the habitat due to habitat fragmentation What does SLOSS Dilemma stand for designed to find out best way to design a reserve to protect species depends on species Single Large or Several Small Single Large or Single Small Several Larger or Single Small Corridors are protected land that allows animals to travel between island of protected habitat True False What is environmental health A field of study that assess environmental factors that impact human health and quality of life A field of study that assess environmental factors that impact animal life and quality of health A field of study that assess environmental factors that impact plats and quality of life What are the four major types of environmental hazards Physical Chemical Biological Cultural Lifestyle Physical Chemical Climate Biological Biological Chemical Physical Economical What are Physical hazards They occur naturally such as earthquakes floods tornadoes UV radiation from sun They occur from synthetic fertilizers pesticides and disinfectants They occur when there is interaction between organisms pathogen and host such as viruses What are Chemical Hazards They occur naturally such as earthquakes floods tornadoes UV radiation from sun They occur from synthetic fertilizers pesticides and disinfectants They occur when there is an interaction among organisms pathogen and host such as viruses Page 28 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 What is Biological Hazard They occur naturally such as earthquakes floods tornadoes UV radiation from sun They occur from synthetic fertilizers pesticides and disinfectants They occur when there is an interaction among organisms pathogen and host such as viruses What are CulturalLifestyle Hazards They occur naturally such as earthquakes floods tornadoes UV radiation from sun They result from where we live job socioeconomic status diet and choices such as smoking diet transportation They occur when there is an interaction among organisms pathogen and host such as viruses What is an infectious disease When a pathogen attacks a host resulting in malaria the flu or TB a biological hazard When a pathogen attacks a host resulting in malaria cancer or TB a cultural hazard When a pathogen eats a host resulting in malaria the flu TB a biological hazard A Vector is an organism that transfers pathogens to hosts such as mosquitos True False What causes an expansion in the range of diseases Climate Change habitat alteration Distribution and movement of vectors All of the above Where do people spend 90 of their time and consists hazards such as smoking asbestos exposure radon exposure phthalates and PBDE s exposure Outdoors Indoors In Water What is toxicology Study of the effects of toxic substances on humans and other organisms Study of the effects of toxic substances on plants and animals Both A ampB Page 29 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 What is Toxicity The degree of harm that a toxic substance may cause The degree of harm that toxic substance will not cause Both A amp B A toxicant is any toxic substance the dose makes the poison True False Environmental Toxicology is the study of toxicants that come from or are discharged into the environment True False What does PBDE stand for that is used computers and plastics which act as a hormone disruptor Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Polybrominated diptounge ethers Polybroncium diphenyl ethers Toxins are toxic chemicals made in the tissues of living organisms usually in plants to prevent plant from being eaten True False Silent Spring was written by who when to do what Rachel Taylor 1962 inform people of risks of pesticides led to ban of DDT in 1973 Rachel Carson 1962 inform people of risks of pesticides led to ban of DDT in 1973 Rachel Baker 1962 inform people of risks of pesticides led to ban DDT in 1973 Carcinogens cause Cancer Page 30 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 DNA mutations Affects the nervous systems Mutagens cause Cancer Birth Defects DNA mutations Teratogens in the drug thalidomide cause Affect Nervous System Cancer Birth Defects Neurotoxins affect The nervous system The immune system The lungs Allergens cause Over actions in the respiratory systems causing unwanted responses Over actions in the nervous systems causing unwanted responses Over actions in the immune system causing an unwanted response Pathway inhibitors Interrupt biochemical processes Interrupt cultural processes Interrupt physical processes Endocrine disruptors such as PBDE BPA ad Phthalates do what Interfere with endocrine system by mimicking or blocking normal hormone functions Causes a cell to react as if it encountered a hormone Both A amp B Who wrote about male frogs being feminized due to endocrine disruptors when and what was the book called Theo Coburn 1996 Our Stolen Future Theo Coburn 1996 Our Future Stolen Theo Coburn 1996 Where did the future go BPA binds to estrogen receptors causes neurological problems to birth defects Page 31 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 phthalates are found in toys perfumes and makeup can cause birth defects and cancer True b False What percentage of BPA is found in Americans bodies 78 26 93 BPA mimics what female hormone Estrogen Diphenyl Polybrominated ethers What are the two types of exposure Chronic Acute Acute Exponential Exponential Logistic Chronic is when you have low exposure to a hazard for a long period of time smoking leads to cancer tough to detect usually True False Acute is when you have high exposure to a hazard for a short period oftime oil spills ingestion True False Toxicants can travel by air and water True False Pesticide drift is When chemicals are carried by air to a different site When chemicals are carried by water to a different site When chemicals are carried by land to a different site Global distillation is When toxicants are transported by water ocean currents and result in pollution in the polar regions When toxicants are transported by air and result in pollution in the polar regions Both A ampB Page 32 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 Breakdown products are simpler compounds of toxicants after they have been degraded that become less harmful only True False DDE is an example of a breakdown product which is still as toxic as DDT True False Bioaccumulation is when toxicants build up in animal tissues True False Bio magnification is when toxicants travel through the trophic levels as predators consume prey and result in extinction of top predators because the toxicity is magnified True False Fat or oilsoluble toxicants are stored where Fatty tissues The Lungs The Stomach What are Epidemiological studies Large scales comparisons between animals and plants that were exposed to hazards only last for years does not show how they were caused Large scales comparisons between humans that were exposed to hazards and those that were not exposed to hazards lasts for years does not show how they were caused Both A amp B Dose response curves are the correlation of the dose against the response True False A dose is an amount of toxicant that an animal receives True False Page 33 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 A response is the type or magnitude of negative effects which results from the dose given True b False mm is the amount that kills 50 of animals used EDsu is the amount that affects 50 of the animals used True False Threshold dose is Amount of toxicant given where it begins to have an effect level where response begins to occur Amount of toxicant given where it begins to decrease in the effect level where response begins to occur None of the Above An unconventional dose response curve results from LDso EDSU Endocrine disruptors What are synergistic effects Mixture of toxicants that has one effects only cancels out results in a new impact Mixture of toxicants that has different effects cancel out sum multiply results in new impacts All of the Above A risk is the mathematical probability that a harmful outcome will result from a given action or substance True False Risk assessment is the measurement of risks and comparison of risks involved in different activities or substances that outlines problems and determines which substances are threats to humans and wildlife True Page 34 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 False Risk management is designed to make decisions and design strategies to minimize risk True b False Two approaches to Risk Management are Innocent until proven guilty guilty no matter what Innocent until proven guilty precautionary principle Both A ampB The US uses what approach Europe uses what approach Innocent until guilty innocent until guilty Innocent until guilty precautionary principle Precautionary principle innocent until guilty FDA regulates food drugs cosmetics and medical devices hazards EPA regulates pesticides hazards OSHA regulates workplace hazards True False Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 TSCA even though they are too weak does what Monitors imported and manufactured chemicals in the USA Regulates chemicals in Europe Monitors the usage of chemicals used in the USA What is the EU Reach program Registration Evaluation Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals that registers chemicals in Europe started in 2007 Registration Evaluation Administration and Restriction of Chemicals that registers chemicals in Europe started in 2007 None of the Above The Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants does what who is involved when did it start Sets guidelines for phasing out chemicals to find safer alternatives Sets guidelines for encouraging the production of toxic chemicals Both A ampB What does POP stand for Persistent On Pollution Page 35 260 261 Chapter 1 1 262 263 264 265 266 Persistent Organic Pollutants Pesticide Observance and Poverty What are the 12 most dangerous POP s called dirty dangerous dirty dozen None of the Above Where are Persistent Organic Pollutants found In polar bears after bioaccumulation and bio magnification n fish after bioaccumulation and bio magnification Both A ampB What is geology The study of Earth s water system process and history The study of Earth s physical features process and history The study of wildlife within the Earth s environment A Mineral is A naturally occurring mineral or inorganic compound formed by geological processes has crystal structure specific chemical compound and distinct physical properties A naturally occurring liquid element or inorganic compound formed by geological processes has crystal structure specific chemical compound and distinct physical properties A naturally occurring solid element or inorganic compound formed by geological processes has crystal structure specific chemical compound and distinct physical properties A rock is any solid aggregation of minerals with a specific chemical composition affects soils and influences plant communities True False What is the hardest type of mineral Gold Silver Diamond How do we obtain minerals Page 36 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 Mining Dynamite Digging pits Mining is The extraction of any nonrenewable resource The systematic removal of rock soil or any other material in order to extract minerals of economic interest Both A ampB An ore is a mineral or a group of minerals where humans extract metals True False A metal is A chemical element that is lustrous opaque malleable and can conduct heat or electricity A physical element that is lustrous opaque malleable and can conduct heat or electricity Both a amp B An alloy is a metal that has been melted mixed or fused with another metal or nonmetal substance Ex carbon and iron makes steel True False What is smelting Freezing a metal ore beyond its freezing point then combining it with other metals or chemicals to modify strength malleability etc Heating a metal ore beyond its freezing point then combining it with other metals or chemicals to modify strength malleability etc Heating a metal ore beyond its melting point then combining it with other metals or chemicals to modify strength malleability etc Tantalum comes from what ore being mined and processed and is used in what Tantalite cellphones laptops computer chips Columbite cellphones laptops computer chips Tantalum cellphones laptops computer chips Coltan is the compound of what ore and mineral Tantalite and Columbite Page 37 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 Tantalum and Columbite Tantalite and Carbon Where in the world is Coltan a controversy causing wars and deaths when did it begin Congo 1989 Congo 1998 America 1935 How many methods of mining are there 2 6 5 Which is not a method of mining Strip mining Subsurface mining Surface mining Strip mining subsurface mining open pit mining placer mining and mountain top removal mining are the 5 methods of mining True False Strip mining occurs at the shallow and surface rock and soiloverburden is removed to expose minerals leads to soil erosion True False Subsurface mining is when resources are deep underground where the Earth allows safe tunneling most dangerous type of mining because tunnels may collapse and toxic fumes may lead to acid drainage and polluted groundwater True False The deepest mine is how many miles deep 12 miles 25 miles 83 miles Page 38 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 Acid drainage is Sulfuric acid that forms and causes environmental runoff which is not toxic provides groundwater that is used in irrigation and drinking Sulfuric acid that forms and causes physical runoff which are toxic pollutes groundwater that is used for drinking and irrigation kills aquatic life Sulfuric acid that forms and causes chemical runoff which are toxic pollutes groundwater that is used for drinking and irrigation kills aquatic life Open pit mining is effective when resources are spread widely and evenly in rock formation terraced access typically removal of a lot of waste rock to obtain small amount of minerals if abandoned can fill up with acidic water habitat loss and acid drainage are results True False Placer mining is when you use running water to sift through material usually in ancient riverbeds disturbs stream banks erosion occurs and harms plant communities debris are washed into streams True False Mountaintop removal mining is when you blast offthe top of a mountain resulting in waste dumped in valleys cost efficient leads to deforestation degrades areas pollutes water erosion and mudslidesflashfloods can cause lung cancer True False Reclamation is Restoration of mined sites planting of trees grass replaced wetlands formed Polluted water restored to normal PH by removing heavy metals Both A amp B What can we do in order to use minerals sustainably Use everything now Recycle Cut down forests Minerals are a renewable resource Page 39 True b False Page 40
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