Descriptive Astronomy PHY 1455
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Walter Kshlerin on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 1455 at Baylor University taught by Dwight Russell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/217953/phy-1455-baylor-university in Physics 2 at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
1 475 E 195 S 466 W 237 S 2 North Alaska South Hawaii East Maine Alaska West Alaska 3 77 239 114quotW 38 5339 492quot N 4 A All along the top It39s a long at line B At the top It39s a small round point C They are different because the flat map requires distortion rolling out ofthe earth39s sphere which results in the north pole being across the whole top Whereas the globe explorer can realistically depict the pole as a point 5 Only the globe explorer accurately represents Greenland and Australia relative size The at map explorer makes Greenland look as big as Australia because Greenland is closer to a pole than Australia and therefore requires more distortion stretching expanding when depicted on a at map Review for Final Aristotle most associated with the ancient Greek world view Aristarchus rejected the geocentric world view Eratosthenes accurately determined the size of the Earth Ptolemy Almagest Geocentric model ofthe Universe Heliocentric model Copernicus Heliocentric world view Tycho Brahe Last astronomer without a telescope Provided Kepler with the data needed in order to develop his three Laws J Kepler Three Laws of Planetary Motionknow the Laws Galileo Used a telescope and challenged the conventional wisdom ofthe motion of objects And the nature of the heavens Telescope observations a Phases of Venus b Moons of Jupiter c Sunspots d Mountains on the Moon Newton Three Laws of Motion and universal Law of GravityKnow the Laws Wave nature of Light Frequency wavelength velocity of light Light is one type of Electromagnetic wave Long wavelength to short Radio infrared visible ultraviolet xray gammaray Blackbody Wien39s Law Stefan39s Law Continuous spectrum Emission line spectrum Adsorption line spectrum Kirchhoff39s Laws Doppler effect Earth Average Density 5500kgm3 Interior Core Hot6000K lron Rich Highest Density Surface Oceans and Continents Atmosphere Nitrogen 78 Oxygen 21 Natural satellite Moon Moon Density 3300 Kgms Unusual Motion synchronous rotation Interior cool relative to Earth39s core not iron rich Crust thicker on far side thinner on Earth side Major geologic activity impact cratering Main features of the surface of the Moon Maria Highlands Mercury Density 5400 Kgms Unusual motion resonance rotation Interior cool iron rich core Surface features Caloris Basin large impact crater Jumbled terrain unusual formation on opposite side of the planet from Caloris Basin lntercrater plains smoothed surface regions possibly from lava flow covering the craters in that region Scarps Huge cliffs thought to have form as the planet cooled and contracted No atmosphere No Moons Venus Density 5300 kgm3 Unusual motion retrograde rotation Surface Specific features 1 Maxwell Montes largest mountain on Venus 2 Aphrodite Terra largest highlands 3 lsthar Terra Alpha Regio Beta Regio other highland regions 4 Beta regio has two Shield volcanoes Atmosphere Weather Temperature Constant cloud cover VERY HOT 730K Sulfuric acid clouds at 50 km Pressure about 90 times Earth39s Chemical Comp C02 953 Nitrogen 35 No Moons Mars 39Unusual39 Motion Period of a day is 246 hours similar to Earth39s Tilt angle of rotation axis 240 degrees again similar to Earth39s This means Mars has seasons Density 3900 kgm3 Interior small cool slightly iron rich core Surface Specific features 1 Olympus Mons Shield volcano largest mountain in the solar system 2 Valles Mariners Enormous Valley that runs along the equator of Mars 3 Polar lcecaps Frozen water and carbon dioxide 4 Evidence of water flow in the past 5 Red dust on the surface is Iron Oxide rust In terms of plate tectonics Mars is described as having starting the formation of plate Valles Marineris is a huge rift valley The planet cooled too rapidly and the process stopped Atmosphere Weather Global dust storms Temperature About 50K cooler than on Earth Pressure 1100 of Earth39s Chemical comp COZ 953 Nitrogen 27 Two moons Phobos and Deimos small irregular shapes not like our moon more like captured asteroids Jupiter Unusual motion Fast Differential rotation density 1330kgm3 Interior rocky core metallic hydrogen currents here produce the magnetic field 39surface39 actually the upper cloud layers The fast rotation causes the clouds to form bands around the planet Other features of the cloud layers typical colors are bright yellow orange and red the great red spot a 39hurricane39 on Jupiter that is stable and always present Saturn Unusual Motion Similar to Jupiter39s density 700 kgm3 Interior Similar to Jupiter39s 39Surface39 actually upper cloud layer again very similar to Jupiter but more subdued Not 39hurricane39 like the Great Red Spot is observed Unique feature about Saturn is a mechanism for internal heating In addition to the heat remaining from the planet39s formation heat is also generated by Helium precipitation Ring System All the Jovian Planets have ring systems but Saturn39s is by far the most spectacular Vocabulary associated with the rings39 Cassini division Roche limit shepherd satellites Uranus and Neptune Similar in properties BlueGreen color due to methane The temeperatures are too cold for the chemicals they freeze that give Jupiter and Saturn their OrangeYellow colors Unique feature of Uranus tilt of rotation axis is about 90 degrees Unique features of Neptune Great dark spot like great Red spot on Jupiter Pluto Pluto is a dwarf planet density 2000 kgm3 Unusual motion due to its elliptical orbit Pluto is sometimes closer to the Sun than is Neptune Physical properties are most like those ofthe ice moons around the Jovian planets Hertzsprung Russell diagrams Hertzsprung Russell diagrams Hertzsprung Russell diagramsllll Identify Regions of the Hertzsprung Russell Diagram Main Sequence Yellow GiantHorizontal Branch Red Giant Region White Dwarf Region Be able to identify the position of a star on the HR diagram with its properties like mass radiusluminosity temperature length of 39life39 long lifetime vs short lifetime Be able to place the Sun on the HR diagram Study in detail the Evolution of a Sunlike star Be sure to be able to identify a star39s location on the HR diagram with the processes occurring in the interior of the star Hydrogen fusion Helium Fusion etc Mass of main sequence star Low Mass is defined as lt 100 Solar masses Low Mass SunLike gt planetary nebula gtwhite dwarf High Mass gt 10 solar masses gt supernovaType II gt neutron star or black hole