Organizational Behavior MGT 3305
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Date Created: 10/03/15
CHAPTER 2 Challenges 0 Differences Are Assets 51 o Combating prejudice and discrimination is a challenge in managing diversity Whereas prejudice is an attitude discrimination is behavior People work best when they are valued and when diversity is taken into account When people feel valued they build relationships and work together as a team Organizations should be responsible to ensure that good workers are compensated and promoted fairly As the workforce becomes increasingly diverse the potential for unfair treatment also increases 0 Diversity Benefits and Problems 5 2 0 Benefits I Attracts and retains the best human talent I Improves marketing efforts I Promotes creativity and innovation I Results in a better problem solving I Enhances organizational exibility 0 Problems I Resistance to change I Lack of cohesiveness I Communication problems I Interpersonal con icts I Slowed decision making 0 Ethics Character and Personal Integrity 545 6 0 Employee theft environmental issues comparable worth of employees con icts of interest and sexual harassment 0 Ethical theories help us understand evaluate and classify moral arguments make decisions and then defend conclusions about what is right and wrong I Consequential Theory Right and wrong are determined by the results of action An ethical theory that emphasizes the consequences or results ofbehavior Rulebased Theory emphasizes the character of the act itself rather than its effects in arriving at universal moral rights and wrongs o Corporations and business enterprises are more prone to subscribe to consequential ethics rather than rulebased ethics Character Theory quotVirtue Ethics emphasizes the character personal virtues and integrity of the individual Centers on the individual within the corporation thus emphasizing both corportate role and personal virtues O O O O I Cultural relativism contends that there are no universal ethical principles and that people should not impose their own ethical standards on others Chapter 3 Personality Perception Attribution 0 Big Five Personality Model82 o Openness to EXperience the person is creative curious and cultured I Rather than practical with narrow interests 0 Contentiousness The person is hardworking organized and dependable Motivated usually high performers I Tough on others not likely to be absent I As opposed to lazy disorganized and unreliable o Emotional Stability The person is calm selfconfident and cool I As opposed to insecure anxious and depressed o Agreeableness The person is cooperative warm and agreeable also lenient on others I Rather than cold disagreeable and antagonistic o EXtraversion the person is gregarious assertive and sociable Tend to have the highest salaries and promotions I As opposed to reserved timid and quiet o Criticism not enough but must take into count that personality is dynamic and not completely stable 0 AttributionalBiases102 o Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on other s behaviors I quotSomeone lacks effort or ability 0 SelfServing Bias the tendency to attribute one s own success to internal causes and one s failure to external causes I We blame others for our failures and take credit for success 0 Managerial Implications Using personality perception and attribution at work Chapter 4 Attitudes Emotions Ethics 0 The ABC Model or CAB 116 o Cognition thought perceptions or beliefs measured by attitude scales or by asking about thoughts I quotI believe my boss plays favorites Affect the emotional component of an attitude feelings measured by physiological indicators I quotI don t like my boss Behavior measured by observing behavior or by asking a person about behavior or intentions I quot I want to transfer to another department 0 O 0 Instrumental and Terminal Values135 0 Terminal and instrumental values work in concert to provide individuals with goals to strive for and acceptable ways to achieve the goals Instrumental Values Represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state ambition honesty selfsufficiency and courage Terminal Values represent the goals ot be achieved or the end states of existence happiness love pleasure selfrespect and freedom Age also can affect Values I Baby Boomers emphasis on achievement value driven work oriented live to work Gen X value selfreliance individualism balance between work and family Gen Y value freedom in scheduling often hold parttime jobs work to live 0 O 0 Chapter 5 Motivation at Work 0 Expectancy Theory of Motivation 0 Focuses on personal perceptions of the performance process Founded on the basic notions that people desire certain outcomes ofbehavior and performance 0 There is a relationship between the effort they put forth and the performance they achieve and the outcome they receive 0 Expectancy theory is a cognitive process theory ofmotivation 0 Key Constructs of Expectancy Theory of Motivation I Valence the value or importance one places on a particular reward I Expectancy the belief that effort leads to performance I Instrumentality the belief that performance is related to rewards o Motivational Problems 0 Three basic causes I Disbeliefin a relationship between work and performance I Disbeliefin a relationship between performance and rewards I A lack of desire for the rewards 0 Motivation and Moral Maturity o Moral Maturity the measure of a person s cognitive moral development 0 Morally mature people act and behave based on universal ethical principles 0 Morally immature people act and behave based on egocentric motivations Cultural Differences in Motivation 0 O 0 Most motivation theories have been developed by Americans on Americans Other cultures do not value achievement as much Greece and Japan value certainty Expectancy Theory holds up well in countries that value individualism Collectivism values more cooperative effort Chapter 6 Learning and Performance Management Goal Setting at Work 0 The process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior 0 Goals help crystallize the sense of purpose and mission that is essential to success at work Characteristics of Effective Goals 0 SMART Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic and TimeBound Characteristics Specific challenging measurable timebound prioritized Specific and challenging goals serve to cue or focus the person s attention on exactly what is to be accomplished and to arouse the person to peak performance Measurable quantitative goals are useful as a basis for feedback about goal progress Timebound goals enhance measurability The time limit should be explicitly stated The priority ordering of goals allows for effective decision making about resource allocation It helps direct a person s efforts and behavior Goal setting serves one or more of three functions 0 It can increase work motivation and task performance 0 It can reduce the role stress that is associated with con icting or confusing expectations 0 It can improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation Aggressive Goal Setting 0 Talks ab out Hyundai and the quotrags to riches story 0 They set aggressive construction deadlines 0 They set demanding production targets 0 They succeeded by learning from failures localizing production internally transferring experience staff and codifying previous experience Increasing Work Motivation and Task Performance 0 Goals are often used to increase employee effort and motivation which in turn improve task performance 0 Three important behavioral aspects of enhancing performance motivation through goal setting are I Employee Participation o Leads to goal acceptance by employees which leads to gal commitment and then goal accomplishment I Supervisory Commitment 0 A re ection of the organization s commitment to goal setting I Useful performance feedback 0 Most useful when the goals are specific and specific goals improve performance most when interim feedback is given 0 Most helpful when it is useful helping the salesperson identify highprobability prospects and timely halfway through the performance period I Improving Performance Evaluation 0 The third major function of goal setting is improving the accuracy and validity ofperformance evaluation 0 Management by Objectives MBO a goal setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers 0 Goalsetting programs are somewhat mechanical by nature they are most easily implemented in stable predictable industrial settings I Performance Management 0 Performance Management is a process of defining measuring appraising providing feedback on and improving performance 0 The skill of defining performance in behavioral terms is an essential first step in the performance management process 0 The information about performance can be fed back to the individual and can be used as a basis for setting goals and establishing plans for improving performance 0 Positive performance should be rewarded 0 Poor performance should be corrected I Defining Performance 0 Performance must be clearly defined and understood by those who are expected to perform and work well 0 Defining performance is a prerequisite to measuring and evaluating performance on the job 0 Organization Citizenship Behavior OCB behavior that is above the call of duty 0 Involves individual discretionary behavior that promotes the organization and is not explicitly rewarded It includes helping behavior sportsmanship and civic virtue 0 Enhanced through employee involvement programs aimed at engaging employees inthe wo rk organization 0 Performance Appraisal is the evaluation ofa person39s performance on it is well defined 0 This helps managers fulfil their dual roles as coaches and evaluators As a coach they are responsible of encouraging the growth and development of employees As an evaluator they are responsible for makingjudgments that in uence employees roles in the organization I Measuring Performance 0 Actual performance and measu redperfo rmance ideally are the same Measuring operational performance is easierthan measuring managerial performance because of the availability of quantifiable data Measuring production performance is easier than measuring research and development performance because ofthe reliability ofthe measures Actual amp Measured Performance Performance overlooked by evaluator Evaluamr s situational factors True Assessment De ciency EmploYee 5 Actual Measured Performance Poorly de ned Performance task performance Chapter 7 Stress 0 Organizational Stress Prevention 237 o The experience of organizational justice and fairness is emerging as one contextual factor at work that leads to a positive lowstress work environment 0 Organizational Health Center OHC developed to keep people happy healthy and on the job while increasing efficiency and productivity to their highest levels by focusing on workplace stressors organizational and individual forms of distress and managerial and individual strategies for preventive stress management I Primary Prevention The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce modify or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress This includes job redesign goal setting role negotiation and career management I Secondary Prevention The stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual s or the organization s response to a demand or stressor Team building and social support I Tertiary Prevention The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain job Redesign major concern in job redesign should be to enhance worker control Increasing worker control reduces distress and strain without reducing productivity Done through one of two ways I Increase job decision latitude I Reduce uncertainty and increase predictability Goal Settingdesigned to increase task motivation while reducing the degree of role con ict and ambiguity I It focuses a person s attention while directing energy into a productive channel Role Negotiation Allows people to modify or switch roles I The final result of the role negotiation should be a clear well defined focal role with which the incumbent and organizational members are all comfortable Social Support Systems Interpersonal communication is the key to unlocking social support for preventive stress management provide emotional caring information evaluative feedback modeling 0 O O 0 Chapter 8 Communication 0 Defensive and Nondefensive Communication 0 Defensive Communication communication that can be aggressive attacking and angry or passive and withdrawing I Leads to a wide range ofproblems injured feelings communication breakdowns alienation in working relationships destructive and retaliatory behaviors nonproductive efforts and problemsolving failures 0 Nondefensive Communication Communication that is assertive direct and power ul Restores order balance and effectiveness in working relationshi s o Defensive Communication at Work Subordinate Defensive ness characterized by passive sub missive withdrawing behavior 0 People with low selfesteem andpeople atlow organizational levels quotyou are right im wrong Important information about performance may be lost because people maybe afraid to send bad news to upper management Dominant Defensiveness characterized by active aggressive attackingbehavior quot The best defense is a good of ense Causes defensiveness as a result 0 Defensive Tactics Defensive Tactics Boss Defensive Tactics Employee information 1 need for the Doubts Power Play used bypeople to control and manipulate others through the use of definition choice the other person is allowed to make eitheror conditions and overt aggression Aputdown is an effortby the speakerto gain the upper hand in the relationship Labeling used to portray another person as abnormal or deficient Raising Doubts about a person39s ability values preferential orientations or other aspects oftheir life creates unce 39 ty Misleading Info rmatio n selective presentation of information designed to leave a false and inaccurate impression in the listene r39s mind Deceit 39 method or hiuing e wrong person Hostile okes destructive jokes created at the expense ofothers 1 Deceptio n lying o Nondefensive Communicatio n constructive healthy alternative I Centered assertive controlled informative realistic and honest Subordinately defensive needs to learn to be more assertive Nonverbal Communication 6590 percent of communication All elements of communication that do not involve words such as gestures and the use of space Four basic kinds proxe mics kinesics facial and eye behavior and parala nguage The Real Wo rld Oba ma and using eye contact and tone of voice O rather than more frequently used hand gestures I Tone ofvoice gave a sense of optimism and a vision ofa brighter future 0 Proxemics The study ofan individual39s perception and use of space including territorial space comfort zones territorial space differs with cultures Zone 1 112 feet intimate space spouses family significant others I Zone 2 154 feet personal distance friends I Zone 3 412 feet social zone Zone 4 12 beyond public distance zone 0 Seating Dynamics Proxemics Seating Dynamics Seating Dynamics seating people in certain positions according to the person39s purpose in communication X 0 X 0 Coopemtiun Communlcatlnn X 0 o Kinesics the study ofbody movements including posture Tapping foot differs with culture Facial and Eye Behavior facial expression has two distinct O functions I Show the persons emotional state I Revealing the persons behavioral intentions o Paralanguagevariations in speech such as pitch toneloudness durations laughing crying 0 Accuracy People s confidence in their ability to decode nonverbal cues is greater than their actual accuracy Best ways to tell if someone lies is to look for inconsistencies in their nonverbal cues