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British Literature

by: Zelma Schiller

British Literature ENG 2301

Zelma Schiller
Baylor University
GPA 3.74

Jesse Airaudi

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Jesse Airaudi
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zelma Schiller on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENG 2301 at Baylor University taught by Jesse Airaudi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see /class/217960/eng-2301-baylor-university in Foreign Language at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Restoration and the Eighteenth Century Signi cant Dates in the Restoration and the Eighteenth Century 15881688 event Age of Reason or Age of Enlightenment Theaters reopen after civil war middle class reemerges and reinstitutes order 1660 event Charles 11 Stuart restored to the English throne 1691 event The Glorious Revolution deposition of James II and accession of William of Orange 1707 event Act of Union unites Scotland and England creating the nation of Great Britain 1714 event Rule by House of Hanover begins with accession of George I 177583 event American Revolutionary War war for independence from Great Britain 1784 event Death of Samuel Johnson the great generalizer end event of period 1785 event publication of The Task by Cowper beginning event of romantic period Signi cant Persons in the Restoration and Eighteenth Century James 11 Royal House of York reason Tried to make England a Catholic Dynasty but ed to France when William of Orange marched on London Robert Walpole reason Considered Britain s rst powerful prime minister Pushed and enacted the play licensing act which reduced the number of theaters to two John and Charles Wesley reason leaders of the evangelical revival in the Church of England in the eighteenth century started the Methodist movement George I Royal House of Hanover reason during his reign Britain transitioned to the modern system of government in which actual power is held by the prime minister Sir Robert Walpole Charles H Royal House of Stuart reason brought religious and political stability Dissolved Parliament after several years of living by his promise to support it William and Mary Royal House of Stuart reason joint reign of Britain signed the English Bill of Rights worked well with Parliament led to a greater personal liberty and democracy in Britain Countess of Winchelsea reason aka Anne Finch one of the first published female poets in England Wrote Nocturnal Reverie Daniel Defoe Samuel Richardson Henry Fielding Laurence Stern Richard Sheridan and Frances Burney reason founders of the English novel Alexander Pope reason a man of letters wrote Essay on Man a verse epistle aimed to argue a philosophical point in an informal letter style Oliver Goldsmith reason friend of Samuel Johnson member of The Club a dining club wrote The Vicar of Wake eld John Dryden reason wrote Absalom and Achitophel which portrays the turmoil in London during the threat that the Catholics were going to rise up and slay their Protestant opponents Note threat later proved false James Boswell reason best known for his biography Life of Samuel Johnson Jonathan Swift reason wrote Gulliver s Travels the entire history Gulliver relates parallels European history exactly down to the smallest details The HighHeels and the LowHeels correspond to the Whigs and Tories of English politics Lilliput and Blefuscu represent England and France The violent con ict between BigEndians and LittleEndians represents the Protestant Reformation and the centuries of warfare between Catholics and Protestants Thomas Gray reason wrote the English poem using archaic words and styles but speaks in living English speech so that the common man can read it wrote Elegy Written in a Country Courtyard William Collins reason his lyrical odes spurred the transition from the Augustan poetry of Alexander Pope to the Romantic era Wrote Ode to Evening William Cowper reason wrote The Task Samuel Johnson reason literary critic acclaimed for his wisdom and morals famous in life and in death compiled Dictionary of the English Language Charlotte Smith main contribution romantic revival of the l4line sonnet Restoration and the Eighteenth Literary Terms heroic couplet definition and example Affects every person in the human race Ex In Alexander Pope s An Essay on Man Whatever IS is RIGHT pg 1162 Neoclassical poetic diction de nition and example arti cial not spontaneous from the head not the heart Ex In the Seven Woods by WB Yeats Tara uprooted tara fern Ex The Epitaph by Thomas Gray Ex The Rights of Woman by Ana Barbauld Try all that wit and art suggest to bend anastrophe de nition and example Inverted order of words or events as a rhetorical scheme Ex T S Eliot writes ofquotarms that wrap about a shawlquot rather than quotshawls that wrap about an armquot in quotThe Love Song of J Alfred Prufrockquot periphrasis definition and example circumlocution the use of many words to express what can be expressed in a few Ex yending adjectives de nition and example Classical allusion de nition and example reference or allusion to a classical work Ex The Rape of the Lock Pope echoes The Illiad and Parsdise Lost spirits freed from mortal laws with ease Assume what sexes and what shapes they please Just as in Paradise Lost supernatural beings take on form of characters abbreviation de nition and example mock epic heroicomical poem de nition and example Form of writing that uses serious conventions of the epic to mock a trivial subject subject is the protagonist Ex Thomas Shadwell in Mac Flecnoe Ex The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope satire definition and example Genre that aims to correct social awsvices through ridicule andor laughter Ex Mac Flecnoe by John Dryden satirical target definition and example The object of ridicule by satirical authors In a mock epic the target is the hero that is not really a hero Ex Thom as Shadwell the playwright who thought himself to be the successor of Ben Jonson utopian model de nition and example What society could be if people would be reasonable and not extreme Ex The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope Ex Gulliver s Travels by Jonathan Swift Ex A Nocturnal Reverie by Anne Finch verse epistle definition and example a form of poetry addressed to friend or patron in the manner of an informal letter arguing a moral or philosophical point Ex An Essay on Man by Alexander Pope picaresque romance de nition and example Ex Gulliver s travels The protagonist moves from place to place and story deals with elements of the fantastic The Romantic Period Age of Revolution Significant Dates in The Rom antic Period 1785 event publication of The Task by William Cowper 1789 event Revolutionary begins in France with the assembly of the StatesGeneral in May and the storming of the Bastille on July 14th 1798 event Beginning of the Reign of Terror and publication of the Lyrical Ballad and The Rime ofthe AncientMariner 1815 event Napoleon defeated at Waterloo 1830 event Death of King George IV 1830 event by 1830 all of the Romantic period writers were dead or no longer productive Signi cant Persons in the Rom antic Period William Wordsworth reason one of the 6 great poets of the Romantic period fervent supporter of the French Revolution propelled the literary revolution by restructuring poetic form wrote My Heart Leaps Up which said that wrote I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud and Lines Written in Early Spring Lyrical Ballads published anonymously but was a collaboration of Wordsworth and Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge reason one of the 6 great poets of the Romantic period wrote wrote B iografia Literaria which introduced Esemplastic Power God s creation is an ongoing process and we can enter eternity spontaneously wrote The Rirne of theAncientMariner Lord Byron reason one of the 6 great poets of the Romantic Period Mary Wollstonecraft reason despised the social life and spending of the upper class sought gender equality and said women are confined by the unjust marriage laws and by their own romantic illusions She wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women William Godwin reason married Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Godwin Shelley reason daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin wrote Frankenstein married Percy Blithe Shelley Tom Paine reason George 111 Royal House of Hanover reason Reigned from 17601820 the majority of this time period During his reign Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War Britain and Ireland became the United Kingdom and The American Revolution transpired Succeeded by his son George IV George Washington reason general in the American Revolution Nicolas Boileau reason French poet critical of society in his time Satires and Epistles L39Artpoe39tique and Le Lutrin Johann Blumenbach reason German physician studied human races wrote On the Natural Varieties of Mankind Rom antic Period Literary Terms dramatic or personal or meditative or local lyric de nition and example organic metaphor de nition and example whole is worth more than the sum of its parts Ex London by William Blake And the hapless Soldier s sign Runs in blood down Palace walls personal ode de nition and exampleA long often elaborate stanzaic poem of varying line lengths dealing with a serious subject matter and treating it reverently The ode is usually much longer than the song or lyric but usually not as long as the epic poem Ex Ode to the West Wind by Percy Bysshe Shelley Gothic Novel or Gothic Romance de nition and example A type of romance wildly popular between 1760 up until the 1820s that has in uenced the ghost story and horror story The stories are designed to thrill readers by providing mystery and bloodcurdling accounts of villainy murder and the supernatural include wild and desolate landscapes ancient buildings such as ruined monasteries cathedrals and castles with dungeons torture chambers secret doors and winding stairways apparitions such as phantoms demons and necromancers an atmosphere of brooding gloom39 and youthful handsome heroes and fainting or screaming heroines who face off against corrupt aristocrats wicked witches and hideous monsters Conventionally fem ale characters are threatened by powerful or impetuous male figures and description functions through a metonymy of fear by presenting details designed to evoke horror disgust or terror Ex Mary Shelley39s Frankenstein literary apostrophe definition and example the act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present an example of arhetorical trope Ex John Donne commands quotOh Death be not proudquot in Divine Sonnet X Death of course is a phenomenon rather than a proud person Spenserian stanza definition and example The stanza developed by Spenser for The Fairie Queene 9 iambic lines first 8 are pentameters last line is a hexameter Rhymeschemeabab bcbc c Ex Keats The Eve 0fSt Agnes English or Shakespearian sonnet de nition and example rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg Ex Sir Philip Sidney sAstrophel nndStelln Italian or Petrarchan sonnet definition and example the problem is found in the rst 8 lines called the proposition The tone turns in the 9th line and the resolution is found in the couplet Rhyme scheme a a Ex Wordsworth s London 1802 ballad de nition and example a ballad is a narrative poem consisting of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trirneter Common traits of the ballad are that a the beginning is often abrupt b the story is told through dialogue and action c the language is simple or quotfolksyquot d the theme is often tragicthough comic ballads do exist and e the ballad contains a refrain repeated several times Ex Chaucer39s quotBallade of Good Advicequot not from this test s reading lyrical ballad de nition and example a song by one singer written in 1st person folk style Real poetry is written in the style of the common man with themes of extreme emotion Ex Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge ballad stanza de nition and example usually a quatrain in alternating iambic tetrameter and iambic trirneter lines rhyming a b c b Ex This Be The Verse by Philip Larkin symbol definition and example natural event around which ancestral FEELING is connectedrepresented In the Romantic period a symbol is distinguished from an allegory because meaning of an allegory must be agreed upon while meanings of symbols are supposedly inherent Ex William Blake The SickRose O Rose thou art sick The invisible worm That flies in the night In the howling storm Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy And his dark secret love Does thy life destroy internal rhyme definition and example rhyme in which the 1st mate is found in the middle of the line and the 2nd mate is at the end of the line Ex The Cloud by Percy Blithe Shelley I bring fresh showers for the thirsting owers The Victorian Age Signi cant Dates in The Victorian Age 1830 event opening of 1st railroad Liverpool amp Manchester and publication of Tennyson s Chiefly Lyrical 1832 event The 1st Reform bill 1846 event The Corn Laws Repealed publication of George Eliot s The Life of Jesus 1851 event Great Exhibition in London gt The Crystal Palace 1859 event Charles Darwin s Origin of Species published 1901 event death of Victoria Signi cant Persons in The Victorian Age Queen Victoria Royal House of Hanover reason longest reigning British monarch 18371901 63 years reigned during a very progressive time in England marked by great expansion of the British empire last of the House of Hanover Thomas Carlyle reason Scottish satirical writer essayist wrote The French Revolution A History Thomas Macaulay reason British poet writer historian wrote extensively on British history John Henry Newman reason converted from Church of England to Roman Catholic and became a Cardinal admired by James Joyce developed a distinction between natural religion and revealed religion wrote Apologia Pro Vita Sua the Grammar of Assent and the poem The Dream of Gerontius Jeremy Bentham reason philosopher and social reformer He became a leading theorist in Anglo American philosophy of law and a political radical whose ideas in uenced the development of welfarism best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism John Stuart Mill reason son of James Mill philosopher and civil servant in uential contributor to social theory political theory and political economy proponent of utilitarianism Thomas Huxley reason biologist advocated Darwin s theory of evolution coined the term 39agnostic to describe his own views on theology Charles Darwin reason proposed natural selection wrote Origin of Species Give titles of their important works Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities Great Expectations Oliver Twist A Christmas Carol Thomas Hardy H ap Neutral Tones Drummer Hodge The Darkling Thrush Channel Firing He Never ExpectedMuch Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre Emily Bronte Charlotte s little sister wrote Wuthering Heights William Makepeace Thackeray Vanity Fair The Luck of Barry Lyndon George Eliot T heM ill on the Floss SilasMarner Middlemareh and Daniel Deronda George Meredith The Ordeal of Richard F everel Diana of the Crossways Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside with Poems and Ballad Elizabeth Barrett reason prominent poet of the Victorian Era wrote quotStanzas Excited by Re ections on the Present State of Greecequot quotThoughts Awakened by Contemplating a Piece of the Palm which Grows on the Summit of the Acropolis at Athens rst collection of poems An Essay on Mind with Other Poems quotGeorge Eliotquot reason Mary Anne Evans wrote under the pen name George Eliot to ensure that her works were taken seriously leading writer of the Victorian Era Florence Nightingale reason nurse and writer involved in English feminist movement wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth and Lady with a Lamp Victorian Age Literary Terms pastoral elegy de nition and example poem about both death and idyllic rural life often features shepherds Ex Percy Bysshe Shelley s Adonuis dramatic monologue definition and example One person speaks revealing hisher part in a conflict Ex Soliloquy ofthe Spanish Cloister by Robert Browning verse epistle definition and example a form of poetry addressed to friend or patron in the manner of an informal letter arguing a moral or philosophical point Ex An Essay on Man by Alexander Pope epic definition and example lengthy narrative poem celebrating a hero invoking divine inspiration written in high style and divided into long sequences Ex Victorian quotsagequot de nition and example Tennyson Carlisle Ex The White Man s Burden by Kipling The Twentieth Century Signi cant Dates in The Twentieth Century including the 18905 1887 event Queen Victoria s Golden Jubilee 1897 event Queen Victoria s Diamond Jubilee 1899 event Irish Literary Theatre founded in Dublin publication of Sigmund Freud s Interpretation of Dreams Keat s Celtic Twilight marks the beginning of this period 1899 to 1902 event AngloBoer War enter into a time of constant war 1914 to 1918 event World WarI 1929 event Stock market crash beginning of Great Depression 1939 events beginning of W WII James Joyce s F innegans Wake W B Yeats Last Poem and Two Plays Sigmund Freud s Death Modernist 1939 event marks end of modernist movement death of Yeats amp Freud 1939 to 1945 event World War II 1945 events publication of George Orwell sAnirnal Farm end of WWII Signi cant Persons in the Twentieth Century including the 18905 Thomas Hardy reason writer of naturalist movement works re ect romantic period best known for Tess of the al Urbervilles A E Housman reason cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad ranked as one of the greatest scholars of all time Robert Bridges reason Milton s Prosidy The testament of Beauty also wrote literary criticisms Sigmund Freud reason Psychologist Theory of unconscious mind and dreamsThe Interpretation of Dreams W B Yeats reason an Irish poet practices Modernism based on ancient Irish beliefs that are rooted in nature Celtic Revival Visionay Poetry The Second Coming Wild and dreamy Joseph Conrad reason predominantly nautical or sea setting that depicts trials of the human spirit by demands of duty and honor James Joyce reason Irish novelist and poet major works Portrait of theArtist as a Y oungMan Dubliners and Ulysses Wilfred Owen Siegfried Sassoon Isaac Rosenberg reason leading English poets of WWI wrote about the war D H Lawrence reason The Rainbow and women in love probe all aspects of relationships Virginia Woolf reason Orlando the protagonist starts out as one gender and switches by the end Explores bisexuality E M Forster reason Explores irreconcilable class differences A passage to India and Howards End Lytton Strachey reason Established a new form of biography with psychological insght and sympathy T S Eliot reason wrote The Hollow Man and The Waste Land Ezra Pound reason Dylan Thomas reason Part of the New Apocalyptic Movement wrote The Force That Through the Green Fuse Drives the Flower Queen Elizabeth H Royal House of Windsor reason Twentieth Century Literary Terms symbol definition and example Symbolism or Symbolist Movement de nition and example Celtic Twilight Movement de nition and example revival of the atmosphere or artistic tendencies associated with the folklore and legends of Celtic Britain esp of Ireland Nature Arti cial Ex Celtic twilight W B Yeats39s name for his collection of stories etc based on Irish folktales the atmosphere of or artistic tendencies associated with the folklore and legends of Celtic Britain esp of Ireland modern de nition and example an attempt to rescue a dying present by returning to a living past Ex Modernism or Modernist Movemen definition and example The attempt to rescue the dying present by returning to a living past return to tradition Ex Stoicism definition and example stiffupperlipped determination to endure whatever fate may bring asserts that the natural world consists of suffering and that the appropriate response of a human being is to face this suffering with dignity and a lack of tears while doing one39s duty acknowledging that life and pleasure are transitory contrasts carpe diem Ex Meliorism de nition and example the belief that we can t change the iron working of the world but we can ameliorate make things a little better for people Ex Aesthetic Movement definition and example quotart for arts sakequot con icted with Victorian ideas about the functions of art and the artists intenteducational purpose Ex No Second Troy Yeats apologist definition and example One who speaks or writes in defense of anything one who champions a person or a cause whether in public address or by literary means one who makes an apology or defense Speci cally a defender of Christianity in particular one of the authors of the early Christian apologies Ex Christ as the Brother of Man Steinbeck39s Grapes of Wrath Christ as Death in Life and Life in Death Dostoyevsky39s Crime and Punishment Christ as the Old Champion Hemingway39s The Old Man and the Sea Christ as Existentialist Antichrist Camus39 The Stranger dramatic monologue definition and example One person speaking revealsexplains his part in a con ict Ex Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister by Robert Browning streamofconsciousness de nition and example Writing in which a character39s perceptions thoughts and memories are presented in an apparently random form without regard for logical sequence chronology or syntax Such writing makes no distinction between various levels of realitysuch as dreams memories imaginative thoughts or real sensory perception Ex James Joyce39s Ulysses didn t read in class and TS Eliot s The Love Song ofJ Alfred Prufrock multiplecenterofconsciousness de nition and example allusion definition and example reference in literature to a person place event or another passage of literature to establish a tone create an implied association contrast two objects or people make an unusual juxtaposition of references or bring the reader into a world of experience outside the limitations of the story itself Ex T S Eliot The Wasteland A heap of broken images where the sun beats And the dead tree gives no shelter the cricket no relief alludes to broken images in Ezekiel 63 and Ecclesiastes 125 the grasshopper shall be a burden those pearls that were his eyes line taken from Shakespeare s The Tempest Beat Movement definition and example give up drop out light up group of American postW W 11 writers who came to prominence in the 1950s against T S Eliot s creed of strict objectivity and literary modernism39s new classicism Ex Jack Kerouac39s 0n the Road not in reading The New Apocalypse Movement definition and example poetry grouping in the UK in the 1940s poems and the short stories convenient forms for men under arms became the favoured means of literary expression Ex Dylan Thomas The Force That Through the Green Fuse Drives the Flower


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