Classical Roman Civ (LAT)
Classical Roman Civ (LAT) HIS 210
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Hansen on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 210 at Berea College taught by John Carlevale in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/217966/his-210-berea-college in History at Berea College.
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Study Guide for Zoch Chapters 4 5 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Ch 4 Kings after Romulus 1 2 W Who ruled Rome directly after Romulus What is an interregnum How was Numa Pompilius chosen as Romulus successor In what important ways was Numa different from his predecessor After the death of Romulus there was an interregnum a period of time in which a senator would exercise royal power for ve days and then passes it to another In 715 BC Numa Pompilius a Sabine with a great reputation for justice became the next king A source from the time says that the common people chose him as Romulus successor the senators approved of the choice and Jupiter sent a favorable sign during the inauguration Romulus had been a warrior waging war on many In contrast Numa was peaceloving and he tried to temper the Romans desire for war What did Numa do to prevent the Romans from degenerating into idleness and dissipation once they were freed from the demands and discipline of war What did he learn from his supposed secret meetings with the goddess Egeria What is meant by pax deorum What was the signi cance of the gates of the Temple of Janus Who were the flamines What was the seat of authority for the pontifex maximus Who were the salii Who were the Vestal Virgins King Numa imbued them with a religious fervor by spreading the rumor that he had secret meetings with the goddess Egeria who gave him information on how to maintain the goodwill of the gods which the Romans called an deorum which means peace of the gods King Numa built the Temple of Janus whose gates when open indicated that Rome was at war and when closed showed that the city was at peace Flamines were priests one from Jupiter alone amen Dialis and others for Mars and Quirinus both gods of war The Regia was the seat of authority of the pontifex maximus or high priest The Salii were minor priests in service of Mars King Numa created Rome s cult of the Vestal Virgins who gave up the goals of marriage and a family to tend the eternal fire of Vesta How was the calendar Numa created divided into months What were the days when business could and couldn t be conducted called What English word is derived from the not speakable days Numa divided the Roman year into twelve lunar months and appointed days when business could be conducted known as fas speakable and those when business could not be conducted known as nefas not speakable and thus unholy which gave to the rise of the English word nefarious Who became king after Numa Pompilius and another interregnum What were the dates of his rule Tullus Hostilius became king after Numa Hostilius 672642 BC 5 What con ict arose during this period What did Mettius Fufetius the dictator of Alba Longa propose as a way to resolve this con ict without weakening both cities and drawing the attention of the Etruscans Who were the Horatii The Curiatii Who was victorious in this contest The citizens of Rome and Alba Longa were prepared for war civil war really since they had a common origin Each city had a set of triplets and mettius suggested that each set represent their city in battle against the other set of triplets The city whose triplets one would rule the losers city The Romans triplets were Horatii and those from Alba Longa were the Curiatii Only Horatius one of the Horatii was left standing victorious 0quot How did Horatius sister take the news of what had happened Why How did Horatius respond to this What is perduellio Why is Horatius saved from the punishment of death His sister had been engaged to one of the Curiatii She saw her brother Horatius carrying the cloak she had made for her ance and began to mourn his death crying out his name Horatius shouted at her Since you have forgotten your country and your brothers both dead and alive take your misplaced love and go to your ance May all who mourn the foe do the same and stabbed her Horatius was put on trial for perduellio a type of treason King Tullus did not want the hero to receive the death sentence so he urged him to appeal his sentence to the people Only his recent heroism and a tearful speech by his father who had lost two sons and a daughter saved him from the punishment of death 7 What did Mettius do to try and regain sovereignty of Alba Longa from the Romans How did Tullus deal with this What happened to Alba Longa and its people He secretly induced the Latin colony Fidenae to revolt against Rome and convinced the Etruscan city Veii to join him in a war against Rome Tullus summoned Mettius and his army so they could put down the revolt at Fidenae and he place Mettius and his troops across from the soldiers of Fidenae near the mountains Mettius and his troops drifted to the mountains hoping to help whichever side was winning After a message that the Albans had deserted Tullus replied in a very loud voice that the Albans had gone to attack the unprotected rear of the Fidenates The Fidenates who spoke Latin heard and understood the message They became alarmed and then retreated Tullus then routed the enemy Mettius congratulated Tulus for the victory Tullus thanked him and asked him and his soldiers to join him at dawn for a puri cation ceremony At dawn the Albans came and were seated closest to Tullus The Romans armed then came into the meetingplace and surrounded the Albans The Citizens of Alba Longa were brought to Rome and Roman legions were sent to Alba Longa to destroy it 8 Why did Marcius Ancus decide to establish rites by which Rome could justly declare war What officials were in charge of carrying out these rites What did these rites entail The Latins thought Ancus a weak king and made raids on Roman territory Before declaring war on the Latins Ancus decided to establish rites by which O LN Rome could justly declare war so it would not offend the gods In the ceremony the Roman envoy stood at the border of the hostile country and called upon the gods to witness that his demands were just if his demands were unjust he said let him never be a citizen of his country The envoy ten crossed the border and repeated the speech to the rst citizen he met and then again in the marketplace If the Romans voted for war the fetials priests whose duty was declaring and deciding upon the justice of a war then went to the border and gave a formal speech detailing the wrongs of the enemy They would then throw a bloody spear into the enemy s territory as the formal declaration of war Where was the first Roman colony Why is this location important Where does the name Ostia come from The settlement received the name Ostia from os mouth opening and became the port of Rome as well as the source of salt Where is the Janiculum and why was it strategically important for Ancus to seize and fortify it What was the Pons Sublicius The Janiculum a ridge on the west bank of the Tiber because of its geat strategic importance in the defense of the city to ease communication with the troops on the Janiculum he built the Pons Sublicius a wooden bridge across the Tiber Where were Lucumo and Tanaquil from What sign did Lucumo recieve upon arriving at Rome and how was this interpreted by his wife How did Lucumo help bring about this foretelling What nickname does Lucumo become known by How does he go about obtaining the kingship after Ancus death Lucumo and Tanaquil were from Tarquinii An eagle landed on his head as the approached the gates and ew way with his hat only to return a min later placing the hat back on his head His wife Tanaquil said it foretold his future greatness He was known by the nickname Tarquinius after his native city He became an adviser to King Ancus and a guardian of the king s children When Ancus died in 617 Tarquinius sent the king s sons on a hunting expedition During their absence he solicited votes for his own campaign to become king What tradition did Tarquin the Elder bring to Rome on a scale never before seen What facility did he have built to utilize for this custom He celebrated public games on a lavish scale never before seen in Rome The games became a custom called the Roman Games The Circus Maximus were chariot races were help Where was the Forum built What important temple did Tarquin begin to construct on the Capitol The Forum was built in the lowlying areas between the hills where rainwater collected and there once had been a swamp Tarquin began construction of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol 4 U 18 What problem with the army does Tarquin want to solve when the city is at war with the Sabines Why does he halt his improvements How does he end up resolving the problem Tarquin saw a weakness in the formation of the Roman cavalry However he did not have the approval of the augurs so he halted Instead of reforming the cavalry he doubled the number of knights What is the importance of the Sibylline books How many books are there originally How many does Tarquin buy and at what price What happened to the rest What changed Tarquin s mind The books were lled with oracles from the Sibyl a woman with prophetic powers He bought three at the same price as all nine The rest were burned 3 at time 3 each time Tarquin turned them down Who is Servius Tullius What sign from the gods is given that he is destined for greatness How does the king respond to this Servius Tullius the son of a female slave in the king s household was sleeping when his head burst into ames From then on the child Servius received the education and upbringing of a king s son He became a man impressive in all ways and Tarquin even gave him his daughter in marriage How does King Tarquinius Priscus die How does Tanaquil deal with the situation What becomes of the sons of Ancus Marcius How Does Servius attempt to placate the sons of Tarquin The sons of Ancus Marcius began to cause trouble and hired to men to murder the king The two assassins presented themselves at the palace and started ghting with each other As one began to explain their case to the king the other killed Tarquin Tanaquil kept a clear head She ordered the palace to be closed and made preparations for nursing the king as if there was hope his recovery Then she summoned Servius and said Servius if you re a man the kingdom belongs to you not those whose hired men committed that horrible crime She told the people that the king had been merely stunned by a blow and that they should give their obedience to Servius Ancus sons went into voluntary exile Servius gave his daughters both named Tullia in marriage to Tarquin s sons What was the purpose of dividing the Roman plebs into classes Into how many classes were they divided How did he further divide the city where citizens would register for the census What is a lustrum and what is its purpose The main purpose was to create a census They were divided into six classes Each class was further divided into groups of 100 centum forming a centuria which was the smallest unit of the Roman army A lustrum is a puri cation ceremony whose purpose was to ward off evil since the census and lustrum occurred every ve years the lustrum came also to mean a period of ve years 19 What four hills did Servius add to Rome What was therefore the number of hills included in the city When do modern scholars think that the Servian wall was built What was the signi cance of the pomerium Servius added the Quirinal Viminal and Esquiline making a total of seven hills Modern scholars think his wall was built around 378 BC On either side of the wall was a strip of land called the pomerium originally a line made by a plow drawn by a bull and a cow to demarcate the religious boundaries of the city An army could not cross the pomerium into the city except in triumph Ch 5 Tarquin s Coup d Etat and the End ofthe Monarchy 20 N How did Lucius Tarquin and Arruns wife Tullia assure they were able to plot against the king in secrecy What was Tarquin s reply to the accusation that he would dare sit in the king s and summon the senators while the king was still alive Who was the first to salute the new king They each murdered their spouse Lucius killed Tullia s sister Tullia and Tullia killed Lucius brother Then they Lucius and Tullia married each other to begin plotting against the king in secrecy Tarquin de antly responded that he was simply keeping his father s chair and that it was much better for a king s son rather than a slave to inherit the kingdom Tarquin then threw Servius down the steps into the street Tarquin s assassins then killed the king Servius daughter and Tarquin s wife Tullia was the first to salute the new king What methods did Tarquin the Proud employ to keep his throne Why did Tarquin try to win the support of the Latins What few good things did Tarquin do for Rome He executed the senators who had supported Servius and did not ll the vacant seats thinking that the senators would be intimidated by their dwindling numbers He did not consult the senate as previous kings had done but ruled instead by his own power and his own authority making whatever decisions he thought best He employed a bodyguard fearing decisions he thought best He employed a bodyguard fearing that someone else might follow the precedent that he himself had set He even seized the property of wealthy citizens He made great efforts to win the support of the Latins Rome s neighbors in the event he should need outside help against his Roman subjects Tarquin may have built the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol He also built Rome s main sewer the cloaca maxima Why does Tarquin send his sons to the oracle at Delphi What does the name Brutus mean What is the irony of this name When the king s sons ask Who will be the next king of Rome what answer does the oracle give How does Brutus trick the king s sons as they are leaving the temple One day a snake was seen slithering down a wooden pillar in the palace Tarquin was so alarmed he sent his sons to Delphi The name Brutus means dull To avoid the king s wrath he pretended to be stupid The oracle replies the rst among them to kiss their mother would have supreme authority in Rome Brutus pretends to trip and kisses the earth the mother of all living things 23 What prompts Collatinus Sextus Tarquinius and others to return to Rome from the siege of Ardea What do they find upon returning What makes Lucretia Collatinus wife so virtuous When he returns alone with what does Sextus Tarquinius threaten Lucretia so that she will have an affair with him When that doesn t work how does he nally convince her How does Lucretia regain her lost honor How do Brutus and the rest avenge the death of Lucretia In what year does monarchy in Rome end They had a party and began to drink and talk about their wives and decided to return home just to see what their wives were doing and to determine whose was most faithful They return seeing their wives one after another to nd each wife throwing a party with many guests and sumptuous food Lucretia was spinning wool by lamplight with her maidservants at her side Sextus rst says he will kill her if she doesn t give in Then Sextus threatens to kill her and slit the throat of a slave laying the naked body next to her making it look as though she was justly killed for adultery She confesses to her husband and kills herself by stabbing herself in the chest They then carry her body into the street stirring the public into taking up arms against the king Monarchy in Rome ended in 509 BC Damien Russell Study Questions for Zoch Chapters 10 13 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Ch 10 The Gauls Sack Rome 1 Where did the Roman army meet the invading Gauls in 3903C Where did the Romans evacuate to when the Gauls entered the city How did the Gauls respond to Fabius passing through them to make a sacri ce on the Quirinal Who did the Romans appoint dictator in the hopes he would break the siege How were the Romans on the capitol alerted to a Gallic night raid What nickname did M Manlius receive for leading a counterattack How did the Romans trick the Gauls into believing they were not running short of food although they were 0 The Gallic and Roman armies met at the juncture of the Allia and Tiber Rivers 0 Some ed into the countryside and other into the citadel the Capitol The Gauls were either astonished by his audacity or moved by his piety after all they themselves are hardly negligent of religious matters Camillus was a in exile at Ardea after being accused of mishandling spoils taken from Veii Though his was bitter with the city he made preparations to save his city He was appointed dictator in absentia o The sacred geese of Juno woke M Manlius who woke other and fought of the Gauls knocking them back down the hill 0 M Manlius received the nick name Capitolinus Of the Capitol They tricked the Gauls by throwing loafs of bread from the walls to the Gauls below 2 What tribute did the Romans agree to pay to buy offthe Gallic army What is the meaning ofthe phrase vue victis What stopped the transaction from being completed What does Camillus mean when he says Rome must be defended ferro mm aura o Athousand pounds of gold 0 Woe to the Vanquished 0 During the weighing of the Gold Camillus appeared He said that the agreement was invalid because it had been made contrary to his orders as dictator o Camillus ordered his soldiers to recover their city ferro non auro with iron not gold 3 Why was Rome nearly abandoned What made up the Senate s mind to stay 0 When the Romans saw the ruins of their city thr tribunes began urging the common people not to vote to rebuild the city and instead move to Veii Damien Russell 0 What convinced them was a sign from the gods As the Senate was debating whether or not t move some soldiers were passing through the Forum after guard duty the senators overheard the centurion give his soldiers the orders to halt saying Hic manebimus optime here will be the best place for us to stay 4 Why did Lucius Manlius Im periosus keep his son Titus from public life How does Titus respond to a tribune attempting to prosecute his father Lucius How does Titus earn the nickname torqmltus 0 Because Titus had a stutter 0 He takes a knife and goes to the house of Pomponius the tribune He requested a private talk and when everyone had le he pulled the knife and threatened to stab him unless he swore to never call an assembly for the sake of prosecuting his father He fights a Gaul for possession of a bridge over the river Anio Both sides frequently fought over possession of the bridge When the Gaul challenged the Romans Titus was the only one to step forward He won and took only a bloodsplattered necklace torques in Latin he received a nickname for his bravery and victory Torquatus Wearing a Necklace Ch 11 The Wars with the Samnites 5 Why was T Manlius Torquatus son beheaded for insubordination when he as his father had done defeated an enemy warrior in single combat Who sentenced him 0 He defeated an enemy after the consul had ordered everyone one not to leave their post to attack the enemy for any reason He was afraid of being thought of as a coward 0 His father a consul sentenced him 6 How does Gavius Pontius trap the Roman army at the Caudine Forks What does his father say he should do with that army What does he do 0 He planted shepherds to tell the Romans the Samnite army was besieging the town of Luceria Rome s allies The Romans had to paths to Luceria one long and one short The Romans took the shorter which led in between two mountains On the exit end the path was blocked by trees and boulders When the Romans took the path the Samnites blocked the way they came 0 First his father says let them go and obtain unending peace for your mercy Then his father says kill them all and it postpone war while the Romans rebuild the two lost armies 0 Instead Gavius Pontius decided to force the Romans to give up their weapons and possessions and to pass under the yoke a symbol of slavery and a great source of shame to soldiers Damien Russell 7 How did P Decius Mus rally the Roman army to defeat the Samnites at Sentium during the third Samnite War What was the Linen Legion How were the keepers of the sacred chickens punished for lying about the auspices at the battle of Aquilonia When was peace achieved with the Samnites 0 Like his father he sacri ces himself and the enemy army giving himself and the army to the gods of the underworld and to mother earth 0 The Samnites closed off an area in their camp with wicker walls and a linen roof They then sacri ced someone with a great ancestry They then brought the most noble of birth and accomplishments to come into the tent one at a time where they made them take an oath and sent them out to each pick a man until the number amounted to 16 thousand They were called the Linen league and were each given special armor and equipment to help them stand out 0 They were put in the front lines 0 Peace was achieved in 290 BC Ch12 King Pyrrhus Pyrrhic Victories 8 What group founded the city of Tarentum in southern Italy When was it founded o Founded 706 BC by Greeks 9 What was the source ofthe conflict between Tarentum and Rome in 2823C How did the Romans respond at rst Then What drew king Pyrrhus of Epirus into the conflict What special contingent did Pyrrhus have in his army What was the outcome ofthe battle ofHeraclea in 2803C 0 There was a treaty in place between the Romans and Tarentines In 282 Roman ships passed through Tarentine waters thinking the Romans had broken the treaty they Tarentines attacked the Romans killing their commander in battle taking their sailors captive and seizing their ships Already ghting the Gauls and Etruscans they Rome didn t want another war on its hands so they first sent ambassadors to propose that the Tarentines simply release the captives and the ships and pay restitution The Tarentines refused o The Romans next sent the consul Aemilius Barbula with his army his orders were only to negotiate a peace with the Tarentines Negotiations were unsuccessful 0 Because of his reputation as an excellent general the Tarentines called upon King Pyrrhus for help Pyrrhus had elephants o The Romans lost seven thousand men and Pyrrhus lost 4000 of his best men Pyrrhus won but at a great cost Damien Russell 10 What was the purpose ofthe embassy sent to Pyrrhus Fabricius among them How did Fabricius respond to Pyrrhus offers of gifts to speed the negotiations along What highly valued Rom an character trait did Fabricius show by this 0 Their purpose was to discuss the ransom for the Roman and Italian prisoners he was holding Fabricius responds to Pyrrhus agreeing to bring about peace he however declines his gifts and saying he has enough things and despite Pyrrhus handing out gifts he was infact very poor for he would have left Epirus and all his belongings to claim more The man who lives in such a way and puts no end to his desire for more is the poorest of the poor 0 Fabricius is displaying his great poverty 11 What was the purpose of Cineas visit to Rome How were his gifts received by the senators and their wives How did Appius Claudius Caecus change their minds What did Cineas report back to his king about the Romans 0 After his talk with Fabricius Pyrrhus sent his officer Cineas to Rome with gifts to distribute to other Roman senators and their wives guring that the women would pressure their husbands into making peace with Pyrrhus In uenced by the gifts the Romans developed a kinder attitude towards Pyrrhus Appius Claudius Caecus stated Don t think that once you have made Pyrrhus your friend you ll get rid of him Instead you ll bring on yourself all those who have no respect for you thinking that you re easy to beat if Pyrrhus leaves without suffering the consequences for the wrongs that he has committed against you On Cineas return to Pyrrhus he remarked that the Senate seemed like an assembly of kings so great was the dignity and bearing of its members 7 12 What offer did Pyrrhus physician make to the consul Fabricius How did the consul respond What did the Romans do when Pyrrhus released the Rom an prisoners out of gratitude 0 To poison Pyrrhus 0 He wrote Pyrrhus informing him of his doctors offer pointing out that he is waging war against just and honorable men yet he trust in evil and unjust men 0 They released an equal number 13 What was the outcome ofthe battle ofAusculum in 279130 What is Pyrrhus said to have remarked about this victory What is the meaning ofthe term Ryrrhic victory What happened at the battle of Beneventum in 2753C and shortly thereafter By what year was Rome the master of peninsular Italy 0 Romans lost 6000 men and Pyrrhus lost 3500 again Pyrrhus would be hard pressed to replace his men 0 If we beat the Romans in still another battle we ll be completely destroyed Damien Russell Pyrrhic victory means winning the battle but having such great losses that the victory turns into defeat because of the inability to recover from the losses Pyrrhus elephants stampeded his own army By 264BC Rome was ruler of peninsular Italy 14 How does the modern idea of a nation describe Italy in the third century BC Explain The modern idea of a nation does not describe Italy in the third century BC In northern Italy were the Celticspeaking tribes of Gauls whose social organization the only Gauls with political power were the priests and the knights made them even more warlike than the Romans their unsettled way of life was changing as they came increasingly under Roman domination South of them but north of Rome were the Etruscans a civilization that had long before declined they spoke a non IndoEuropean language and were completely alien to the Romans although the Romans had learned a great deal from them East of them in the Apennine Mountains were the Sabines and Aequi To the south east were the Samnites Etc What Rome established in Italy was by no means a nation in the modern sense many Italians did not speak Latin or follow Latin and Roman customs many could not vote had no rights in Rome 15 What was the purpose of the Roman policy of extending civil and political rights to allied or conquered cities in Italy What were the different types of citizenship in Rome its allied cities and those it had conquered What were the rights that went along with each of these statuses The reason for extending citizen ship or Civitas Romana to capturedallied cities was to bind them more closely to Rome Latin Rights were Latinum nomen de ned as civitas sine suffragio citizenship without the vote Towns that received civitas sine suffragio were called municipia Socii italici Italian Allies this was the treatment of other cities towns and villages and it depended upon the provisions of the treaty that Rome made with them This was usually people who were persistently hostile with Rome Etruscans Gauls and Samnites or showed little inclination to adopt Rome s ways Greeks These people had no civil rights in Rome they were just free noncitizens They did enjoy some basic rights through ius gentium the law of the nations they could marry Romans or Latins and they were liable to perform military service if Rome called on them Also they could not vote for or against their leader in war or whether or not to go to war They were largely selfgoverning except they paid takes to Rome Then there were Slaves and freedmen Slaves were res mancipi the property of their owner and had no civil rights They have a temporary respite from their servitude on the Satumalia festival of Saturn Dec 17 The last group the freedmen men who never have been slaves and were Damien Russell noncitizens were simply liberi free men Exslaves were called liberti freed men 16 What was the purpose ofRome establishing colonies How big were the Rom an colonies to start out with The Latin colonies What were the pros and cons ofjoining a Latin colony 0 To keep subject peoples loyal o The Roman colonies started with two or three hundred families of Roman citizens o The far more important are the Latin colonies The Romans and Latins together sent out thirty of these and they were much larger eight to twenty thousand colonists o Cons they were in hostile areas or areas slow to adopt Roman ways Roman citizens joining a Latin colony forfeited their Roman citizenship Pro some thought it worth it to give up citizenship in exchange for fertile land they could farm in the colony 17 What was the via Appiu and where did it derive its name 0 The Romans built excellent roads through the peninsula the most important of these was the via Appia the contract of which was awarded in 312 by then censor Appius Cladius Caecus Ch 13 The First Punic War 18 Where was the city of Carthage located Who founded the city To where did Carthaginian power extend o Carthage was a Phoenician City roughly in what is Tunis today 0 It was founded by people from Tyre in Syria in the eighth century BC as a trading post According to myth the city was founded by a woman named Dido whose dying curse was to avenge the wrong done her by Aeneas Carthage grew and became the leading naval power and the chief trading center of the western Mediterranean In the sixth century Carthage occupied Corsica and Sardinia and after centuries of war with the Greeks of Sicily it came to control the western half of that island 19 Who were the Mamertines What did they do which destabilized the region Why was Messana important strategically From whom did the Mamertines ask for help when attacked by King Hiero of Syracuse 0 The mercenaries from Campania who had been employed by the ruler of Syracuse Upon his death in 289 took control of the Sicilian town Messana They called themselves Mamertines after Mamer the Oscan form of the name Mars they killed many Messana s citizens and stole their property Messana was not far from Syracuse and it lay right across the straights from the toe of Italy Mamertines asked the Carthaginians and the Romans for help Damien Russell 20 How did the Carthaginians answer the Mamertines call for help Why did the Romans send the army led by Appius Claudius Caudex to help the Mamertines Why did the Carthaginian garrison besiege the city of Messana which they were occupying beforehand What did the Romans do when they got to Sicily What happened at the battle of Agrigentum N p A The Carthaginians sent a garrison into the city They feared the Carthaginians would use Sicily as a base for attacking Italy They sent Appius Claudius CaudeX to help the Mamertines keep the Carthaginians out of Messana They had been tricked by the Mamertines into leaving the city because they were intolerant of failure the Carthaginians cruci ed the commander for cowardice and the besieged Messana with King Hiero with whom they had made a treaty to drive the Mamertines out of Sicily Claudius quickly conquered the army of Syracuse Then Claudius defeated the Carthaginian army They Carthaginians responded to Claudius defeating them by sending an army of fty thousand to Agrigentum which they planned to establish as a base for subduing all of Sicily Claudius defeated the Carthaginians Then the Romans got the idea of conquering all Sicily Why did the Romans deem it necessary to build a navy What did they use as the prototype to make their fleet Why were the Rom ans initially unsuccessful at naval warfare What innovation changed the rules of navy combat in favor ofthe Romans and how What happened at the battle of Mylae in 260 0 To conquer all of Sicily One of the Carthaginian ships ran aground and the Romans quickly took it and its crew Then they used this ship as a model for building their first navy In ancient naval battles the goal was to ram and sink the enemy ship The Roman ships were clumsy and heavy in comparison to the light and quick Carthaginian vessels and the Romans were inexperienced On the prow of their ships they built a raven The raven consisted of three parts a pole over 7 meters high secured to the prow of the ship with a pulley at the top a long gangway more than 1 meter wide and projecting from the base of the pole more than 7 meters off the prow and a rope connecting the gangway to the pulley When an enemy vessel tried to ram a Roman ship the sailors would pull the gangway up by means of the pulley and swing it to project over the enemy ship then they would let it drop Aheavy spike on the end of the gangway would secure it to the deck of the enemy ship allowing heavily armed Roman soldiers to board and defeat the enemy sailors The Carthaginians seeing the Roman eet had nothing but contempt for the upstart Romans and immediately attacked without even getting into battle formation They were taken by Damien Russell surprise when the Romans latched onto their ships The Carthaginians lost fty ships and almost their commander 22 What did Consul M Atilius Regulus do while the other consul was ghting the Carthaginians in Sicily Why did the Carthaginians not agree to peace when they sued for it in 256 How did the Carthaginians turn the tide of battle Why was Regulus sent to Rome by the Carthaginians and under what condition What advice did Regulus give to the Senate Did they take his advice What happened to Regulus O The consul and his army sailed to Africa to invade Carthaginian territory They considered the terms too harsh Desperate the Carthaginians called in a Spartan Mercenary Xanthippus to help them against Rome He took control of the army revived their morale and then crushed the Roman army capturing Regulus They sent Regulus to Rome to persuade the Romans to accept their peace proposal they made him swear to return to Carthage if he failed to secure either peace or an exchange of prisoners Regulus said I am of the opinion that making peace will not help you in any way at all He explained to the Senate why he thought it in Rome s best interest to reject the proposal and added I am well aware of the destruction that plainly lies before me YetI put that which is bene cial to the state before my own safety The Senate tried to make peace simply to protect Regulus Regulus falsely claimed he had taken poison and would die soon consequently the Senate rejected the proposal and made no trade of prisoners But Regulus true to his oath returned to Carthage where he was tortured and killed 23 How many times did the Rom ans build fleets which were destroyed before managing to defeat the Carthaginians How did they fund the final fleet with an empty treasury Where was the decisive battle fought How did the first Punic war end What territories were brought under Rome s control The Romans had just built a eet of 200 ships and after defeating the Carthaginians at Hermaeum the weather took as many as 130 of those ships They build 220 more another storm destroyed 150 more Roman ships They also lost 93 ships at Drepana When the Roman treasury was empty and they needed to build yet another eet of 200 ships roman citizens contributed their own mone At the Aegates Islands off the western coast of Sicily After Aegates Islands the consuls moved to besiege Lilybaeum Carthage was broken and sued for peace A settlement was reached in 24lBC The terms of the treaty had Carthage abandon Sicily and pay war indemnity The Romans took Corsica and Sardinia a betrayal of trust that enraged Carthaginians Soon they would also obtain pirate islands in 229 then Rome s power in the Adriatic Sea included Damien Russell the islands of Pharos and Corcyra and the cities of Apollonia and Drrhachium In 224 Rome subdued Transpadane Gaul and advanced to the Alps Damien Russell A Brief History of the Romans Study Guide Chapter 2 Rome s First Centuries Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Emergence of an Urban Community Rome s location and geography Near the west coast of Italy Ancient Rome occupied a group of hills overlooking the Tiber River Rome s location was a favorable one The hills and river made defense easy Two of the most important routes in central Italy passed by the site one from the salt pans at the mouth of the Tiber along the banks of the river into the interior and the other the coastal road from Etruria to Campania which crossed the Tiber by a ford here the closest place to the sea where this was possible Forum Romanum The valley that was drained in the seventh and sixth centuries would become the Forum Romanum Roman Forum the city s political and religious center Forum Boarium 7 A small plain that gave access to the Tiber ford this plain became the Forum Boarium the chief market and harbor of urban Rome earliest burials The earliest known burials date to around 1000 they mark the beginning of the rst phase of the Latial Culture Latial culture The earliest phase of life here around 1000 marked by the earliest burials and similar interments at other Latin sites Regia A building erected near the edge of the Forum near the end of the seventh century Comitium Another public space in the end of the seventh century A sacred space where of cials would summon citizens to vote to hear legal cases and to make or be informed about important public decisions Curia Hostilia A large stone building constructed along the edge of the Comitium Served as one of the meeting places for the council of elders known as the senate Temple of Vesta contained the sacred hearth of the city Sacra Via The chief processional route of the city paved and grated as it entered the southeast corner of the Forum Capitol One of the major centers for Rome s civic and religious life Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus constructed on Capitioline hill around the beginning of the sixth century when nished the temple was one of the largest temples in Italy The Romans and Their Early History BOX 21 Romulus Founds Rome Plutarch writing in Greek around AD 100 presents Romulus as founding Rome with just the same rites that the founders of Rome s own colonies used in the fourth century BC and later A trench was dug around what is now the comitium and in it were deposited rst fruits of whatever was considered good by custom and necessary by nature Each man brought a small portion of their native soil and threw it in where it all mixed together They call this trench the Mundus as they did the heavens They marked out the city in a circle around this center Then a cow and a bull with a bronze ploughshare on a plough plough a deep furrow around the boundary lines people follow the plow and turn inward to face the city the clods of dirt thrown up by the plow leaving none facing out With this line they marked the course of the wall which is called by contraction pomerium in other words behind the wall post murum Where they intended to place the gate the plough was lifted to leave an empty space This is why the entire wall is sacred except the gate Romulus Remus753715 Romulus founded the city Numa Pompilius715653 set the pattern for Rome s religious life Servius Tullius 578535 the sixth king was virtually the second founder to the city Damien Russell 0 Tarquinius Superbus534510 Rome s last king who falls along with Rome s monarchy o 753 BC The date proposed by Marcus Terentus Varro 11627 BC of Romulus founding of Rome Now the generally adopted date of the founding Rome under the Kings 0 rex the latin word for king 0 Rome s territory in 6th c Romans regularly celebreated rites that marked the boundaries of their territory centuries earlier Certain rituals preserved he memory of a time when this territory encompassed only about seventyfive square miles and Rome s frontiers were no more than five miniles from the city in any direction By the end of the sixth century however Rome had become much larger Its territory probably coverd almost 300 square miles while the population may have been as high as 35000 0 mobility of elite families Some aristocrats and their followers moved from city to city taking up in the new place the position they had abandoned in the old 0 Tarquin the Elder was thought to have moved to Rome from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii o Claudii Came to Rome around 500 were aristocrats Came to the city with great bodies of clients having left its native Sabine country to the northeast after suffering political setbacks there 0 populus Romanus the mass of adult male citizens o gentes and curia gentes are clans Together as a larger unit is known as curia The Roman Curiae supposedly thirty in number came together to form three tribes For Rome the Curiae had important religious functions in which aristocrats took the lead 0 Census a compilation of a list of adult male Romans in which they were classified by wealth and by residence rather than by kinship o Classis Those that could afford to equip themselves for service on foot aka those summoned o infra classem Those who could not afford to equip themselves below those not summoned o Centuriae Those who belonged to Classis were further divided into units known as centuries centuriea singular centuriaThe term centuria should denote a group of exactly one hundred men 0 Legion Commanders raised armies by summoning citizens to gatherings where they chose their soldiers from those eligible to serve The force rose in this way is called a Legion legio plural Legiones which signified that it stemmed from a selection process the verb legere meaning either to collect or to pick Rome and the Latins o Aeneas The ancestor of all Latins a noble Trojan who escaped from Troy as it fell to the besieging Greeks o Lavinium A city near Latium though Lavinium would come later Aeneas supposedly landed in Latium o Alba Longa Founded by the son of Aeneas The seat of kings who would rule Latium and found the other Latin cities 0 nomen Latinum 7 the name of Latin 0 Latiar The Latin festival held in honor of Jupiter Latiaris o Connubium A right to make a lawful marriage with a resident of any other Latin citychildren of the marriage gained the citizenship status of the father children born outside marriage gained their mother s status 0 Commercium A right that allowed Latins to own land in any of the Latin cities and to make legally enforceable contracts with their citizens The Early Republic o Lucius Tarquinius Superbus described as a tyrant Rome s last king who was expelled Damien Russell Lucretia The wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus who was assalted by Sextus Tarquinius she kills herself Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus Lucretia s husband who along with Brutus and Publius Valerius Publicola exploited the king s absence to take over the city and begin the Republic Lucius Junius Brutus worked with Collatinus to exploit the king s absence to take over the city Magistrates In the Roman Republic they took the king s place annual offlces Rome would eventually possess a hierarchy of offices each with its own tasks and powers each office was annual occupants only served for a year collegiality More than one individual shared the power of the position at the same time and each could check improper actions by a colleague two consuls Rome offices that were elected yearly military tribunes between the fourth and fth century another experiment with Rome s offices Tribune militum consular potestate Dictator An office in times of emergency had roman magistrates pick one man to serve as dictator in emergencies or in a major war when a unified command seemed desirable master of cavalry magister equitum appointed as second in command by the dictator in times of emergencies Assemblies Required by annual magistracies for a process of selecting elected individuals to fill offices Centuriate assembly chose the highest officials and rendered judgments in important cases Decemvirs a special commission of ten men They were to hold supreme power for one year superseding the consuls and by the end of this year they were to produce a body of laws to regulate the public Twelve Tables mid fthcentury law code resulting from the Decemvirs These laws did not form a code in a modern sense They were a collection of specific detailed and narrowly focused provisions Best fit a society where the family and the household are the fundamental units of social life and agriculture Debt Debt and its consequences were among the central concerns of lawmakers In the ancient Mediterranean world debt could force smallscale farmers into a state of permanent dependency Sabines Volsci Aequi emerged from the hills that bordered Latium in an arc from northeast to southeast Coloniae Latin cities that had fallen or been abandoned were reoccupied as colonies coloniae singular colonia Coriolanus Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus earned his third name or cognomen from commanding the army that captured Volscian town of Corioli left Rome because his position in internal political disputes would make him unpopular there Taking refuge with the Volsci he had previously dfeated Coriolanus then led their armies against the Romans with great success Volumnia The wife of Coriolanus a model of the virtuous Roman matron Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus 458 he was summoned from his fields to serve as dictator after the Aequi had trapped a Roman army in the mountains Within sixteen days he had gathered an army defeated the Aequi rescued the beleaguered Roman army resigned his dictatorship and returned to his farm Here could be no better model of the modest and dutiful citizen Struggle of the Orders deep con icts over aspects of the basic organization of the Republic and of Roman society 0 access to magistracies after the expulsion of a king leading families often tried to monopolize the new offices in their communities ability of magistrates to punish at will wout trial a second area of con ict roles of magistrates and citizen assemblies in particular the ability of such assemblies to choose offrceholders freely and to make laws requiring or forbidding certain actions by magistrates OO Damien Russell Patricians a roman who belonged to one of a very few families Wealthy powerful families Assumed leading roles in their communities and some or most of those that made up the Roman patriciate may have had such origins Claimed privileges that ensured their leadership Claimed to have exclusive rights over the religious life of Rome a central aspect of communal life Plebeians common folk Auspices 7 take the auspices rites by which an officeholder sought the approval of the gods to take up his office for the first time and while serving their support for all his official actions pax deorum right relationship with the gods divisions within plebs a wide range of status and roles in the city Some were not even poor Secession ithe plebeians main weapon was a kind of strike in time of war and that their major succeses derived from this In a secession plebeian members of an army would withdraw to a hill outside of Rome choose leaders and refuse to cooperate with the magistrates of the city until their grievances had been addressed populus Romanus leaders of the roman people as a whole Were expected to provide political military and religious leadership in matter of general concern tribunes of the plebs The plebeians first major gain was the right to choose their own leaders the tribunes of the plebs tribune plebis their title may have been intended to provide a clear contrast with the military tribunes who were in many of these years the Republic s chief officials Aediles along with the plebeian tribunes established their won cult site at the temple of Ceres the goddess of grain Temples of Ceres on Aventine Hill a cult site Auxilium the giving of aid Sacrosanctity Plebeians took an oath to regard anyone who laid hands on atribune as an outlaw liable to be killed without penalty 12OOBC 7533c 7537716BC 6737642BC 6427617BC 5093c 4963c 4923c 4583c 4513c 4063c 3963c 3903c 3433c 3213c 3123c 2983c 2873c 2823c 2803c 2793c 2753c 2673c 264 24ch 238 149Bc 2363c 2273c 2193c 218 2013c 2163c 21472053c 2073c 2043c 2023c 2007197BC 1973c 1927189BC 1863c 1857129BC 1843c 171416SBC 1683c 1673c 149 1463c l47BC 1463c 1463c ROMAN CIVILIZATION TIMELINE THROUGH EXAM 1 Fall of Troy Founding of Rome Reign of Romulus Reign of Tullus Hostilius Reign of Ancus Marcius expulsion of the Tarquins Roman Republic founded Rome attains leadership of Latin League with victory at Lake Regillus First Plebeian Secession dictatorship of Cincinnatus Twelve Tables Pay for soldiers approved Seige of Veii concluded with evocatio Gauls sack Rome First Samnite War Second Samnite War Roman a1my captured at Caudine forks by Gavius Pontius and forced to pass under the yoke contract for a road south let by censor Appius Claudius Caecus Third Samnite War P Decius Mus offers himself in devotio Second Plebeian Secession Tarentum attacks and seizes Roman ships and crews Pyrrhus defeats a Roman a1my at Heraclea Pyrrhus wins at a cost of 3500 dead to the Roman toll of 7000 Pyrrhus loses at Beneventum and thereafter makes peace with Rome Concilium Plebis gains right to pass plebiscitum First Punic War life of M Porcius Cato the Censor Hamlicar moves into Spain Treaty establishes the Ebro River as limit of Carthaginian territory Roman ally Saguntum besieged and brutally sacked though south of Ebro Second Punic War Battle of Cannae First Macedonian War Hannibal s brother Hasdrubal marches from Spain Scipio invades North Africa where he is joined by Masinissa Battle of Zama Second Macedonian War Romans defeat Philip at Cynocephalae War with Antiochus the Great Seleucid king of Syria Scandal of the Bacchanalia life of P Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Cato the Censor eXpels senator for embracing his wife in front of his daughter Third Macedonian War Battle of Pydna Roman citizens those with civitas Romana are hereafter exempt from taxes Third Punic War Scipio Aemilianus elected consul below minimum age and without having been praetor Achaean War Scipio Aemilianus sacks Carthage weeps and quotes Homer as city burns Damien Russell Zoch Ch15 1 Study Guide Zoch Chapter 15 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Ch 15 Rome Encounters the East 1 Where and when did Alexander the Great die Who were the Antigonids The Seleucids The Ptolemies What were some other minor powers which were successor monarchies to Alexander s empire 0 323 in Babylon 0 Ruling line of the Macedonia Hellenistic Kingdom Seleucid Empire is another Hellenistic kingdom Kings were named Anitochus or Seleucus Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies who treated all Egypt as their personal farm or factory Pergamum ruled by kings named Attalus or Eumenes Island of Rhodes it had powerful navy and commercial interests 2 What instigated the First Macedonian War What was its outcome 0 216 King Philip V made an alliance with Hannibal and tried to expand lllyricum by takeng over Dyrrhachium o 215 Rome sent an army to drive him away Rome was busy with Hannibal the Gauls Spain and Africa the war was waged with little dedication from Rome 206 Rome abandoned the Aetolians who were conquered by Philip Aetolians never forgave Rome 3 With whom did Philip V plot to take on the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean powers To whom did Egypt Rhodes and Pergamum appeal for help when attacked How did the Romans justify their declaration of war Where was the major battle that decided the Second Macedonian War What was the outcome of the war for Macedon and the Greek cities Philip and Anitochus the Great king of the Seleucid Empire agreed to wage war on their common enemies and split the gains Rome but Rome didn t have a good reason for war The fetials set impossible conditions for Philip to meet if he wanted to avoid war with Rome He had to free his Greek subjects and not wage war on the Greeks in Asia Minor Cynoscephalae Dog s Heads in 197 under T Quinctius Flamininus Philip had to abandon all his holdings outside of Macedonia and leave the Greeks free of Macedonian rule e V39 0 gt1 Damien Russell Zoch Chl 5 2 What are the dates for the war between Rome and Antiochus the Great of Syria What was the outcome of that war 0 192190 0 Anitochus was to stay out of Europe withdraw from Asia and hand over Hannibal He did the first two How did Perseus prepare to wage a war with Rome What happened at the battle of Pydna in 16830 What were the terms of the treaty Macedon signed with Rome at the end of the Third Macedonian War What happened to King Perseus Referring back to page 63 describe the triumph of a Victorious Roman general 0 Perseus father Philip was planning another war with Rome so he stocked up on money supplies and soldiers for 10 years but died too soon and Perseus inherited everything 0 The Roman army destroyed Perseus army so bad most cities of Macedon surrendered to Paullus The treaty broke Macedon into four independent republics Macedonians retained their basic freedom and selfgovernment but had to pay Rome onehalfthe taxes that they had paid to Philip and Perseus He was captured along with his wife and son to be a part of Paullus triumph What was the result of the Fourth Macedonian War When was the war with the Achaean League What happened as a result of that war 0 Rome conquered Macedon 148 and annexed it as a provinece installing a governor o 146 L Mummius destroyed Corinth and dissolved the Achaean League Why did the Carthaginians break their treaty with Rome What was the response of the hardliners in the Roman senate to this speci cally M Porcius Cato What constituted Rome s ultimatum to the city of Carthage What happened to the survivors of the city What happened to the city itself and the surrounding region 0 Masinissa 0f Numidia took advantage of Carthage s inability to defend itself He captured more than 70 towns Carthage complained to Rome but Masinissa always got Rome to side with him 150 Carthage finally declares wore and is beaten Carthago delenda est Carthage must be destroyed So its continued existence would present a constant threat to Rome that would keep the Romans vigilant and strong P Cornelius Scipio Aemiliaus stormed the city 146 sold the survivors into slavery Damien Russell Zoch Chl 5 3 o Carthage was sowed with salt and the area became the Roman province called Africa 8 How did Rome acquire the province of Asia formerly Pergamum o The Romans were given Asia Minor 133 Attalus III of Pergamum died without an heir so he left the kingdom to the Roman people 9 What resulted from the in ux of slaves from Greece and Asia Minor who were frequently better educated than their Roman masters What is the meaning of the phrase Graecia captafemm victorem cepit Where did Latin literature get many of its models What did many fear was being lost as new eastern ways began to be imported into Rome 0 Many became the tuturos and teachers of their master s children meaning children were less likely to receive an education in the traditional Roman virtues Greece although captured took its wild conqueror captive Greece It all threatened mos maiorum the old ways the customs of our ancestors and the moral simplicity of earlier times Study Guide to Zoch Chapters 6 7 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Ch 6 The Res Publica 1 What does the word Republic mean according to its Latin roots res publica Property of the People 2 How many consuls were there How long did their term last What were the powers of consular rank There were two consuls One year They were chief magistrates of Rome and commandersinchief of the armies he position conferred great glory and even nobility The two consuls assumed the king s position and authority 3 Under what circumstances was a dictator appointed How long was a dictator supposed to serve Appointed only during times of national crisis when an enemy threatened Rome or its allies and the situation demanded prompt unanimous and decisive leadership of the Romans or when the consuls were disabled or otherwise unable to perform their duties Six months at most though it was customary for them to step down at the end of the crisis 4 How often and for how long were censors elected What were the responsibilities and powers of that office They were in charge of the census conducted every ve years They performed the lustrum They revised the senate list A senator who had lapsed in his morals could be struck from the list by the censors Censors supervised public morals and occasionally passed sumptuary laws laws designed to curb the love of luxury They also awarded government contracts for say collecting taxes in the provinces or building bridges and roads 5 How much imperium did praetors have What was the main function of the praetorship Less than that of the souls consuls the praetors were seen as junior colleagues of the consuls they only had six lictors The praetor like the consul was allowed to sit in a sella curulis Being elected praetor made one a senator There were two types some were responsible for the administration of justice in Rome the praetor urbanus the praetor peregrinus dealt with lawsuits in which one or both of the parties were foreigners Praetors could convene and lead the senate when the consuls were unable or out of Rome 6 What civic duties were the quaestors in charge of What additional military function did they have The quaestor seeker was a gofer in Roman Gov t They were in charge of treasury aerarium room for bronze which was also part of the temple of Saturn and public records which were also stored in the aerarium Quaestor also had a military function they would be assigned to a consul or praetor during a war and had the duty of paying the troops and quaestor might command a wing of the cavalry 7 What were aediles responsible for In what way could being an aedile help further one s political ambitions Originally subordinates to the tribunes were in charge of the infrastructure of Rome As well as maintenance of the roads bridges and buildings supervision of weights and measures in the market with power to fine merchants who had broken the law and oversight of traf c regulations One of their most important duties was cura annonae ensuring that the city had an adequate supply of grain The aediles were also expected to supply games and amusements for the people Although the gov t did allot some money for hosting the games politically ambitious aediles would supplement that amount out of their own pockets for the aedileship was an opportunity to advertise oneself for future political offices 8 What was the purpose of the ten tribunes From what class did they come What does it mean to be sacrosanct There were ten trbuni plebis Their function was to protect the common people from the abuses of power of the magistrates and the senate both of which were usually patrician They had to be plebeian The tribunes had sacrosanct they were not to be harmed by anyone even by holders of imperium 9 Who composed the ranks of the Senate What was the chief function of the Senate It was made up of former consuls censors praetors tribunes aediles and even quaestors the Senate had experience in all matters relating to the state military legal political foreign domestic and religious They also advised the various magistrates who were expected to carry out the Senate s recommendations 10 What was the typical course of offices cursus honorum by which an ambitious Roman climbed the political ladder Cursus honorum course of honors or the ladder of offices leading to the top the consulship He would start out as a quaestor then usually but not always become an aedile As aedile he would give fabulous games and parties to win the gratitude and the votes of the people for his next office the praetorship By law he would have to wait three years between the preatorship and the consulship After serving as consul he might become a censor 11 Of what was the comitia centuriata composed What did it do What was the concilium plebis and what was its role One of three types of comitias or assemblies Comitia centuriata was a timocratic assembly one in which the richer voted before the poorer of Roman men of military age It elected the magistrates approved laws recommended by the Senate declared war and heard appeals of citizens condemned for capital crimes The Consilium Plebis or popular assembly was an assembly of the common people that elected the tribunes Eventually they could pass laws at first with the approval of the Senate and later without Senate approval Ch 7 Traitors and Heroes of the Early Republic 12 Who were the first consuls of the Republic Who were the patres conscrz39ptz39 Why did Collatinus go into exile In 509 BC Brutus and Collatinus assumed the leadership of the infant republic as Rome s first consuls Brutus added three hundred members of the equestrian class to the Senate they were called conscripts in Latin pares conscripiti to distinguish them from the original senatorial families Collatinus full name Tarquinius Collatinus frightened the citizens so they asked him to resign He was stunned but complied and went into voluntary exile 13 Why did Publius Valerius move his house What custom did Valerius introduce to reassure the common people What law is attributed to him What nickname did Valerius earn for the respect and love that he showed the common people He originally built his house on the top of a hill allowing him to look down on everyone After coming under suspicion for being aimed toward monarchy Valerius had his house torn down and rebuilt on the lowest part of the hill so they could all look down on him and he also started the custom of having the fasces lwered in the presence of the people to show that the power and greatness of the people were greater than that of the consul Romans believed that Valerius passed a law guaranteeing that a citizen convicted of a capital offense could appeal the sentence to the citizens He earned the nickname Poplicola lover of the people 14 What conspiracy was uncovered of which Brutus own sons were part How did Brutus pass judgment on his sons when the conspiracy was uncovered Tarquin had sent a mission to Rome ostensibly to recover his property but in reality to stir up unrest among the nobles who according to those apart of the mission would suffer the most under the rule of law of the republic Under the rule of a friendly king the nobles could be forgiven for petty violations of the law but blind justice in a community ruled by law was incapable of showing favor The conspiracy drew in Titus and Tiberius A loyal slave however over heard their plans and reported the conspiracy Brutus had them stripped ogged and beheaded Brutus did not need his consular powers to execute his sons As paterfamilias or father of the family he had the father s absolute power of life and death called patria potestas over his children 15 How did the Etruscan king Lars Porsenna attempt to help Tarquin regain the throne How did Horatius Cocles kept the Etruscans from entering the city How did Gaius Mucius earn the nickname Scaevola What condition had to be met before Porsenna would accept peace How did Cloelia earn the admiration of King Porsenna With what was she honored by the Romans War Horatius Cocles remained at his post while the other Romans ed He stopped as many as he could and told them to cut the bridge when they got across to prevent the Etruscans from entering while he held off the army Gaius Mucius plotted to assassinate Porsenna after infiltrating the camp of the enemy he stabs the kings secretary instead of the king When being threatened to be burned alive he shows he does not fear death because his eyes are set on glory and sticks his right hand in the sacrificial fire The king scared sends him on his way for his courage and then begs for peace with Rome Mucius is now a lefty and that is his nickname Cloelia had to be returned as a hostage Cloelia had fooled her captors and lead a troop of girls across the tiber under enemy fire the she safely returned the girls to their homes With a new type of honor an equestrian statue of a girl sitting on a horse 16 What other people on the Italian peninsula did Rome have to worry about coming into con ict with To what is attributed the Roman victory at the battle of Lake Regillus in 496BC The Gauls in the far north the Aequi Sabines Samnites Volsci and sometimes even Latins Damien Russell Study Guide for Zoch Chapters 8 9 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Ch 8 Class Conflict in Rome 1 What were some ofthe problems the common people faced in the early Republic What was the patron client relationship Whom did this bene t the most the patrons or the clients What is ironic about the scars on the body ofthe aged centurion 0 Many of the common people were farmers and farming was dif cult but as Romans they had to serve time in the military as well for which they did not get paid Many under the double burden of farming and soldiering fell into debt and became subject to debt laws which allowed the debtor in default of his loan to be sold into slavery or even killed by his creditor A poor person in need sought the help of a patron usually a noble who would give the poor person now his client the legal and nancial help he needed but in turn would expect help and support from the client when his own time of need arose o Patrons helped clients at their own pleasure and to meet their own goals Many nobles amassed great numbers of clients because doing so increased their political power The scars on his chest were from each battle he had fought for Rome The scars on his back were not from battle he had never turned his back to run in battle the scars were from the whip 2 How was the imminent attack by the Volsci greeted by the common people How did the consul Servilius temporarily re unite the social classes Where did the plebeians secede What concessions were granted to them by way of negotiating a settlement 0 The common people cheered and encouraged each other not to ght They preferred the city to perish rather than the patricians continuing to rule The consul Servilius issued an edict making it illegal to put a Roman citizen into chains or into prison for debt thus keeping him from serving in the army to seize or sell the property of any soldier on active service or to interfere with his children or grandchildren The Romans then conquered the Volsci 0 They encamped on the Sacred Mount outside the city The plebeians were to have their own of cers called tribunes who would represent them and protect them from the magistrates abuses of power The tribunes would be sacrosanct immune to the power of those holding the power of imperium and no man from the patrician class could be a tribune Eventually the tribunes gained the power to veto any action of Damien Russell the magistrates armed with this intercessio one tribune could put a halt to what the senate and consuls were doing 3 How was Rom an law remembered and passed down before the Twelve Tables Who were the decemviri Where did the Rom ans look to for laws on which to base their own 0 All the magistrates were patricians and the patricians alone knew the laws which were not recorded but were passed down orally through the generations The patricians changed the laws as they thought necessary A panel of ten men appointed to write down the laws for all to see read and learn While this was taking place normal government was suspended and the ten ruled Rome with their decisions immune to veto or appeal Tradition says three Romans were sent to Athens to study the laws of Solon one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece who had created reforms to save Athens from civil war in 594 BC 4 In what year were the Twelve Tables established What were some ofthe legal procedures ensured by them What was the trinoctium What lasting in uence did Rom an law have after the fall of the Rom an Empire 0 In 45 lBC the ten tables of laws were written on bronze or wood Then two more were written One procedure was how one citizen might call another to court or what to do if he refused to come or ran away A person who lied under oath was to be thrown from the Tarpeian Rock If a patron defrauded a client he was to be cursed o A married woman and her father s family retained legal power over her and her property if once a year she spendt three continuous nights triniocitium away from her husband s house The Twelve Tables formed the basis of ius civile civil law that is law that concerns the rights of citizens As Rome expanded its law naturally became the law of the entire empire In the Middle Ages scholars rediscovered Roman law and used it as the basis for the law codes of European countries thus Roman law became an important element in the development of Western civilization 5 Why were plebeians originally not allowed access to the consulship In what year did the Senate approve pay for soldiers In what year was the rst plebeian elected consul Dictator Censor Why did the growing access to high level magistracies not alleviate the class struggle in Rome What caused the passage ofthe Lex Hortensia What did it allow 0 The patricians argued that the plebeians were not allowed to take the auspices that is to interpret the will of the gods from observations of natural phenomena which was one of the consular duties they could not be consuls In 406 the Senate approved pay for soldiers In 366 the first plebeian was elected Consul In 356 the first dictator Damien Russell 0 In 351 the first censor o The plebeians in office did not share concerns of the ordinary plebeians The highstatus plebeians were themselves nobles and had much more in common with the patricians with whom they had social dealings marriage alliances political deals and business interests 0 In 287 BC the plebeians seceded again this time to the Janiculum because of debt laws and usury their succession forced the passage of the Lex Hortensia o It allowed bills passed by the Popular assembly to become law Ch 9 Coriolanus Cincinnatus and Camillus 6 How did Coriolanus advise the Senate to force the common people to give up the tribunate Why did he go into exile Where did he go into exile What is peculiar about the way Coriolanus army devastated the countryside How did the Romans nally get through to him and get him to stop his attacks 0 In 491 Rome was suffering from famine the Romans had to import grain from Sicily When the Senate was debating what price the common people should pay for the grain Coriolanus who hated the tribunate and was bitter about the power the plebeians were gaining advised his colleagues in the Senate to hold the grain hostage and thus force the plebeians to give up the tribunate o The common people were outraged and the senate thought it politically expedient to sacri ce him to their Wrath A date was set for him to go on trial for tyrannical behavior but on the day of his trial Coriolanus went into exile 0 He went into exile in Volsci Rome s enemy Coriolanus led the Volsci against Rome s allies but made sure not to destroy patrician property His mother wife and children came to his camp outside of Rome His mother shed a few tears and talked him down 7 What prompted the Senate to elect L Quinctius Cincinnatus as dictator What was he doing when they came to give him the command How did he enter the city after the battle For how long did he remain dictator 0 After losing a minor battle with the Aequi in 458 BC the consul Minucius decided to keep his army within the forti cations of his camp so as not to risk any more losses The Aequi interpreted his actions as fear and consequently built barriers to trap lVIinucius and his army within their camp Five Roman soldiers escaped and told Rome about the danger to the army The Romans decided to bypass the consul and elect a dictator instead 0 He was working on his three acre farm either digging a ditch with his shovel or plowing o The enemy generals were led before his chariot then came the army s standards followed by the army loaded down with loot Tables of food are said to have been set before the houses of all Damien Russell the citizens and the soldiers eating from the tables followed the chariot with a triumphal song and jokes like a body of partygoers His entry into Rome was an example of the Roman triumph a sort of parade for victorious generals and their armies First came men showing the gold silver weapons and loot captured in the war They also carried placards bearing drawings or names ofthe cities and generals that had been captured indicating the rivers or mountains crossed and depicting the major battles fought Then came the white oxen that would be sacri ced to Jupiter and then hostages and prisoners in chains The general himself in a four horse chariot adorned with gold ivory and jewels then approached with his entourage which might include his children as well as his lictors the Senate and his assistants He was only dictator for 15 days 8 In what year was the siege of Veii What is an evocatio The Romans undertook the conquest of Veii in 405 BC in Roman legend the siege of Veii lasted ten years In 396 led by Camillus the Romans tookVeii by tunneling into the city When the Romans took over a city they feared the wrath of the gods dwelling there so they asked those gods to leave that city and come to Rome Once they had brought the gods to Rome they worshipped them along with the usual Roman gods 9 Why did the Romans attack the city of Falerii How did one Falerian teacher try to expediently end the siege What was Camillus response How was the siege resolved When the Romans were attacking Veii Veii s allies the Etruscan city Falerii attacked Rome The teacher was entrusted to look after the sons of the Falerii s chief citizens He would take them out side of the city regularly for play and exercise sometimes father than others one day he led them all the way to Camillus camp and tried to turn over the city using the boys Camillus stripped the teacher bound his hands behind his back gave the boys switches to whip the traitor then sent them all back to Falerii s When the city saw the boys bringing the traitor home they unanimously sought peace They said We surrender seeing that we will live better lives under your rule than under our own Won over by your trustworthiness we voluntarily acknowledge your Victory Damien Russell Study Guide for Zoch Chapters 1 3 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic di shonesty Ch 1 A Linguistic Introduction 1 To what language family does Latin belong What modern languages are direct descendants of Latin In what five major time periods did English gain its largely Latinate vocabulary Latin stems from Italic which stems from ProtoIndoEuropean Several languages stem from Latin Portuguese Spanish Catalan Provencal French Italian and Rum anian l 2 In 110 BC Romans fought wars with the Germanic tribes and established colonies in Germany they left a Latin influence on the Germanic languages 55 BC the Romans invaded England under Julius Caesar and by 43 AD a century later under Emperor Claudius England became a Roman province The language of the Roman government in England was Latin and it influenced the Celtic languages there 597 AD missionaries began to travel to England to convert natives to Christianity The language of the Catholic Church was Latin so Latin became as much of a part of people s lives as their worship V Ch 2 Rome s Origins according to the Ancients 2 He Who was Aeneas and what did ancient writers both Greek and Roman find inthis figure They found a noble ancestry for the Latin people and for Rome s power in the figure of Aeneas a Trojan prince When was Troy sacked by the Greeks How did Aeneas ee the burning Troy 1200 BC Aenas fled with his son Ascanius his father Anchises and friends to found a new troy Though Aeneas was not one of the outstanding heroes in Homer s Iliad what values does he show that recommend him as an ancestor to the poets writing about Rome s past The few references to him attest to his pietas Latin for fulfillment of the obligations placed upon a person by family community and gods and to his valor in war both of which are very important to the Romans When was the Aeneid written and by whom What does its story concern The Aeneid was written by a Latin poet named Vergil in 26 to 19 BC The Aeneid tells of Aeneas wanderings after he fled troy Vergil believes that Aeneas left Troy knowing that it was his destiny to found a city from which a great empire would eventually arise Aeneas did not know where to found this great city so he traveled through the Mediterranean region in search of his destiny and Vergil tells of his travels What happened according to Virgil during Aeneas stop at Carthage in North Africa What later historical events are connected to this Thanks to Aeneas mother Venus the queen of Carthage Dido falls in love with Aeneas and he with her When he is reminded by Mercury of his destiny he leaves Africa breaking Dido s heart She commits suicide cursing all of his descendents with her death saying I beg our shores to be against theirs our seas against theirs swords against swords Dido s curse is proposed to explain the Punic Wars in the third and second centuries BC gt1 Damien Russell What town does Aeneas found after warring with the Italian natives What is this town named for What town does Ascanius found Aeneas founded the town Lavinium named after his newest wife Lavinia His son Ascanius founded the town Alba Longa Ch 3 Romulus and Remus Found Rome 8 0 9 Who was Numitor when and where did he live What happened to his reign What happened to the children of Numitor Who were the parents of the twins Romulus and Remus What sort of divine parentage do the Rom ans claim through these events and why do you think Numitor was king of the city of Alba Longa and son of Aeneas in the 83911 century BC Numitor was deposed by his brother Amulius and driven into exile Amulius murdered Numitor s sons and made his only daughter Rhea Silvia a vestal virgin Despite being a vestal virgin Rhea became pregnant by Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus Because of this the Romans see themselves as decedents of Mars god of war What did Amulius do when he learned of the twins existence How and by whom or what were they rescued Amulius ordered that the twins be placed in a basket and thrown into the Tiber River The Tiber happened to be unusually high so the basket was left in a shallow pool near the shore The water magically receded and left the twins safe on the shore They were then discovered by a wolf which took care of them until royal shepherd found them under a fig tree and brought them home What folk hero do Romulus and Remus emulate with their young exploits robbing from thieves and distributing the loot among their poor fellow shepherds How did the thieves take this what did they do in retaliation They seem like young Robin Hoods Out of revenge the robbers ambushed the twins at a festival Romulus escaped but Remus was captured by the robbers and taken to Amulius How does Remus get away from the king Do you think there is any foreshadowing in the fact that Romulus seems to be the stronger of the two What happens to Numitor Romulus and his fellow shepherds attacked and killed Amulius rescuing Remus and restoring Numitor to his throne I believe this is foreshadowing to Romulus later dominance over Remus What method did Romulus and Remus use to decide who should rule the city they found on the banks of the Tiber What hills do Romulus and Remus stand on for the augury How many birds do they each see What is the result of the quarrel that follows What is the other version of the story They agreed to augury the practice of looking for signs of approval or disapproval from the gods usually by birds Remus stood on Aventine hill and Romulus on Palatine Remus saw 6 birds and Romulus saw 12 the followers of each saluted their leader as king Romulus then kills Remus after their quarrel Another version is that Remus jumps over the walls of Romulus city to demonstrate their flaw of being halfbuilt Romulus kills Remus and says the same goes for anyone else who jumps over my walls How were historical happenings dated by the Romans On what date was Rome founded Where does the name Rome come r Rome is traditionally believed to be founded on April 21 753 BC Rome was named after Romulus Damien Russell 14 What established laws and customs are attributed to Romulus What are lictors and what did they carry to symbolize the king s authority What is the Senate and how is its name derived What is the distinction between patricians and plebs What did Romulus do to attract more people to the new city What one essential element for population growth did the city still lack Romulus established several customs one being that 12 lictors or attendants who announce his coming and clear his path of everyone but Vestal Virgins and matrons Each lictor carried a bundle of sticks wrapped around an axe This showed the king could either beat you with the sticks or decapitate you He also created the Senate a council of elders the word senate is derived from senex which means old The one hundred members of the senate were called patres fathers since they were the fathers of the different clans their decedents were called patricians The patricians were the leading citizens of Rome and constituted the nobility The common people were the plebs which is an English word for plebeian or common vulgar Romulus established a sanctuary or asylum place where on cannot be seized Though the city still lacked one major thing women H U What was Romulus plan for bringing women in to the city How were his actions received by the families of the women seized What are spalia apima Who are the Sabines What were the consequences of the rape of the Sabine women Who is Tarpeia and what was her reward for aiding the enemy Romulus prepared his city for games in honor of the god Neptune and invited inhabitants from nearby towns and then he took their single women straight from the crowd The outraged neighbors cried to the gods to avenge them to punish the Romans for breaking the laws of hospitality They took up arms against the Romans and most were defeated Spalia apima the spoils of an enemy commander killed by a Roman commander in single com at The Sabine s were a tough hardy people in the hills northeast of Rome and who would occupy the citadel of Rome for a short time Romans would later compare Sabines to the Spartans for their bravery and simple morality It was a roman girl Tarpeia which let the Sabines into the citadel after they bribed her with gold Instead of giving her gold they beat her to death with their shields 16 What are the two versions of how Romulus met his end What might this say about later Roman leaders and their possible fates In 716 BC Romulus was reviewing his troops when a storm came and thick clouds hid Romulus from the soldiers When the clouds cleared he was gone Then they proclaimed he had become a god Soon after a man said Romulus came down from the heavens and told him that the gods want Rome to be the ruler of the world Another story has senators tearing Romulus to pieces for being a tyrant Damien Russell Zoch ch14 1 Study Guide Zoch Ch 14 Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Ch 14 The Second Punic War 1 How did the Carthaginians recover from their losses in Sicily Corsica and Sardinia What was the oath that Hannibal swore when he was only age nine By extending their power in Spain Hannibal seeing his father Hamilcar giving a sacri ce before takin his army to Spain tried like a child to talk him into taking him along after being taken to the altar Hannibal touched the sacred objects there and was made to swear an oath that he would be an enemy of the Roman people as soon as he could N What was the treaty the Romans made with Carthage concerning the extent of the advance of Carthage s power What infuriated the Romans about Hannibal s siege and sack of the city of Saguntum even though it was south of the river Ebro o Carthage would no advance its power beyond the Ebro River in Spain 0 Rome also promised help to the people of the Spanish town Saguntum in the Carthaginians attacked them E Describe the scene where the Roman embassy declares war on Carthage What route did Hannibal s army take to Italy Why was P Cornelius Scipio unsuccessful at checking Hannibal s advance at Massilia What advantage did Hannibal gain by crossing the Alps where he did 0 Senate sent another embassy to Carthage Carthaginians maintained that Hannibal acted legally amp with their support Roman ambassador Q Fabius gathered together the folds of part of his toga appearing to contain something Here we offer you peace or war Take which you will You can give whatever you want shouted the Carthaginian Senate Fabius dropped his toga saying he brought war The Carthaginians roared We accept Hannibal fooled the Romans by moving much more quickly that they expected When Scipio arrived at Massilia Hannibal had passed by three days earlier Romans expected to him to cross the Alps in easy places he headed toward the part of the Alps closer to central Gaul Romans did not have enough time to prepare for the upcoming war Before him lay an open path to Italy Damien Russell Zoch ch14 2 4 How was the consul Scipio saved from danger at the battle at the Ticinus River What tactics did Hannibal use to win the Battle of Trebia Approx how many Roman soldiers were lost in this engagement 0 Scipio wounded and surrounded by enemy cavalry was saved by his seventeenyearold son who had run away from soldiers assigned to protect him and rescued his father He laid a trap He hid a thousand cavalry and foot soldiers behind bushes and shrubs of the stream Ordered his Numidian cavalry to lure the Romans to battle with an attack but then to quickly withdraw o 30000 men How did Hannibal reach Arretium quickly What tactic did Hannibal use to win the battle at Lake Trasimene What was the outcome of that battle for the Romans 0 Hannibal chose to travel through swamps o Hid some troops in the mountains north of the lake and stationed his cavalry to block the path once the Romans had come into the trap More than 15000 Romans were killed in the Battle including the consul Flaminius 6 Who was appointed dictator after the defeat at Trasimene What tactics does he opt to employ against Hannibal What English adjective is derived from this and why How does Hannibal escape from being penned in a valley by the Romans 0 Q Fabius Maximus Cunctator from the verb cunctor to delay 0 The Romans would follow him harassing his troops with guerrilla type warfare working to keep the Italian allies loyal and trying to isolate Hannibal from supplies and reinforcements Fabius characteristic caution gave rise to an adjective in English Fabian meaning cautious dilatory Bundles of dry twigs and brushwood were tied onto the horns of the many cattle that had been among the loot taken from the countryside 2000 with horns ablaze were drove toward the mountains and above the passes held by the enemy Men guarding the passes thought they were surrounded and left their posts V39 7 What tactic did Hannibal use to win the battle of Cannae What was the outcome of the battle for the Romans Does it seem familiar How did Rome s allies and subjects in Italy respond to Hannibal o Hannibal placed the bulwark of his troops his veteran Africans in the rear center of his army and kept his first lines thin Romans cut through Hannibals thin fromnt center and then anks closed in on them The tired Romans were surrounded facing Hannibal s toughest veterans Damien Russell Zoch ch14 3 o Romans were again crushed by Hannibal losing more than forty five thousand men including consul Paullus who had advised against the battle 0 Some Italian allies were deserting Rome one city revolted The Gauls inthe north were taking Hannibal s side Many of the Greeks revolted The Samnites side with Hannibal So desperate were the Romans that they performed a human sacri ce 8 How did the citizens inside the city of Rome respond to the defeat at Cannae How did the Romans recover How did the Senate convince the people of Rome to pay the taxes to pay for more oarsmen in the eet 0 Roman women were sweeping the pavements of the temples with their hair The Romans declared a Ver Sacrum or Sacred Spring in which all first fruits of the season were dedicated to the gods They instituted games in honor of Apollo 0 To put an end to these expressions of panic the consuls decided women should be forbidden to appear out of doors mourning should be checked silence should be imposed ever where Bought 8000 slaves from their owners and aimed them later even opened jails with offers of freedom and forgiveness for the criminals and debtors if they joined the my 0 The senators went home and then returned bringing their gold silver and bronze The knights heard and brought theirs then last the common people did likewise 9 Where was the major second front of the war How did P Cornelius Scipio gain the support of Masinissa prince of the Numidians Where does the word imperator come from and what does it mean 0 Spain 0 Scipio learned of boy of royal blood who had been raised by his grandfather had joined the cavalry to fight against the Romans against the orders of his uncle Masinissa Scipio gave the boy many gifts and an armed guard to escort him as far as he needed to go Scipio set free 10000 Spaniards whom he had captured To honor him and show their respect and gratitude they began calling him reX king under no circumstances could he allow it He asked them to call him imperator instead became the word used to honor Victorious generals imperator conquering general 10 What does Hannibal s cavalry commander Maharbal advice Hannibal to do What is his response when Hannibal refuses to listen Why did Hannibal s wintering in Capua come to be known as Hannibal s Cannae How did M Claudius Marcellus swing the pendulum in Rome s favor against Hannibal o Hannibal s commander of cavalry urged him to attack Rome immediately ll Damien Russell Zoch ch14 4 Hannibal you know how to win a battle but you don t know how to use your victory Victoria uti nescis Maharbal replied So changed was Hannibal s a1my after the winter spent in that decadent city that one Roman general Marcellus called Capu Hannibal s Cannae Marcellus was forced to starve Syracuse into giving up While besieging Syracuse he also reconquered the rest of the island He took Syracuse in 211 Under Marcellus leadership the Roman army in icted many small losses on Hannibal reestablishing morale in the Roman a1my Who was Hasdrubal and where did he move his army from Spain to Italy What happened at the battle of Metaurus What did Hannibal say in response to Hasdrubal s head being thrown into his camp 0 Hasdrubal was Hannibal s brother 0 Hasdrubal was killed in battle and his army annihilated and his immense amount of gold and silver was taken What were Scipio s reasons for invading Africa What support did Scipio receive for his expedition from Italy and once he arrived in Africa Why did Hannibal withdraw from Italy What happened at the battle of Zama in 2023C What were the terms imposed on the defeated Calthage How was Rome s position as a power in the western Mediterranean changed in the aftermath of the Second Punic War 0 First to punish the Africans and cause them to suffer for Italy had been the battle ground long enough second to force the Carthaginians to recall Hannibal to Africa to defend Carthage He couldn t enlist new soldiers the Senate supplied him with only thirty five warships In Africa he was joined by Masinissa 1200BC 753BC 7537716BC 6734642BC 6424617BC 509BC 496BC 492BC 458BC 451BC 406BC 279BC 275BC 267BC 2647241BC 2387149BC 236BC 227BC 219BC 2187201BC 216BC 2147205BC 207BC 204BC 202BC 2007197B C 197BC 1927189BC 186BC 1857129BC 184BC 1717168BC 168BC a erl67BC 1497146BC 147BC 146BC 146BC 1237122BC 121BC HIS 210 CHRONOLOGY Fall of Troy Founding of Rome Reign of Romulus Reign of Tullus Hostilius Reign of Ancus Marcius expulsion of the Tarquins Roman Republic founded Rome attains leadership of Latin League with victory at Lake Regillus First Plebeian Secession dictatorship of Cincinnatus Twelve Tables Pay for soldiers approved Seige of Veii concluded with evocatio Gauls sack Rome First Sanmite War Second Samnite War Roman army captured at Caudine forks by Gavius Pontius and forced to pass under the yoke contract for a road south let by censor Appius Claudius Caecus Third Samnite War P Decius Mus offers himself in devotio Second Plebeian Secession Tarentum attacks and seizes Roman ships and crews Pyrrhus defeats a Roman army at Heraclea Pyrrhus wins at a cost of 3500 dead to the Roman toll of 7000 Pyrrhus loses at Beneventum and thereafter makes peace with Rome Concilium Plebis gains right to pass plebiscitum First Punic War life of M Porcius Cato the Censor Hamlicar moves into Spain Treaty establishes the Ebro River as limit of Carthaginian territory Roman ally Saguntum besieged and brutally sackedithough south of Ebro Second Punic War Battle of Cannae First Macedonian War Hannibal s brother Hasdrubal marches from Spain Scipio invades North Africa where he is joined by Masinissa Battle of Zama Second Macedonian War Romans defeat Philip at Cynocephalae War with Antiochus the Great Seleucid king of Syria Scandal of the Bacchanalia life of P Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Cato the Censor expels senator for embracing his wife in front of his daughter Third Macedonian War Battle of Pydna Roman citizens those with civitas Romana are exempt from taxes Third Punic War Scipio Aemilianus elected consul below minimum age and without having been praetor Achaean War Scipio Aemilianus sacks Carthage weeps and quotes Homer as city burns Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus Attalus leaves Pergamum to Rome which becomes the province of Asia Tribunate of Gaius Gracchus death of Gaius Gracchus 112BC 109BC 107BC 10643BC 105BC 104BC 1037100BC 100BC 10044BC 99BC 91787BC 90BC 59BC7AD17 58BC 56BC 58451BC 52BC 54BC 52BC 52BC 53BC 49BC 48BC 47BC 47BC 46BC 44BC 42BC 35BC 32BC 32BC 3lBC7ADl4 29BC 27BC c26il9BC 23BC AD9 Jugurtha attacks Adherbal s kingdom and besieges city of Cirta a commercial city where many Romans lived Metellus sent to Numidia along with his legate Gaius Marius Marius first consulship life of M Tullius Cicero Marius captures Jugurtha through the diplomacy of his quaestor Sulla Marius elected consul in absentia to counter the German invasion Marius rewlected consul tribune Saturninus killed life of Gaius Julius Caesar Bill authorizing Metellus return passes over Marius opposition Social War franchise offered to all Italians Latin status offered to Transpadane towns Sulla s First March on Rome Sulla s Second March on Rome Sullan program proscriptions Sulla dies in retirement Spartacus slave revolt Gabinian Manilian Law Cicero suppresses Catiline conspiracy Bona Dea scan a First Triumvirate Caesar s rst consulship Life of Titus Livius Clodius elected tribune Conference at Luca Caesar in Gaul Revolt of Vercingetorix Julia wife of Pompey dies in childbirth Clodius killed Pompey remarries Cornelia Metella Crassus killed by Parthians at Carrhae Caesar crosses the Rubicon Battle of Pharsalus Caesar establishes Cleopatra as ruler of Egypt Battle of Zela Battle of Thapsus Cato commits suicide aesar assasshIated Battle of Philippi Sextus Pompey executed Antony divorces Octavia Actium reign of Augustus Temple of Janus closed First Settlement The Aeneid is written Second Settlement 3 legions massacred in Teutoburg Forest Tiberius Caligula Conquest of Britain Haudhm ero the great re in Rome 1453 Year of the Four Emperors Titus Flavius Vespasianus Vespasian capture and destruction of Jerusalem Titus Flavius Vespasianus Titus eruption of Mt Vesuvius Titus Flavius Domitianus Domitian Marcus Cocceius Nerva Marcus Ulpius Traianus Trajan First Dacian War Second Dacian War Pliny s letter to Trajan concerning Christians Parthian War Publius Aelius Hadrianus Hadrian Hadrian s world tour Marcus Aurelius Commodus Septimius Severus Antonine Constitution by edict of Caracalla Elagabalus Period of the Barrack Emperors Valerian defeated amp captured by Persians at Edessa in Mesopotamia Zenobia becomes queen of Palmyra Aurelian defeats amp captures Zenobia regaining lost territory Diocletian Battle of Milvian Bridge Edict of Milan Council of Nicaea Constantinople founded Julian the Apostate Augustine s conversion Altar of Victory controversy Theodosius bans all pagan religions amp forbids sacri ce Rome falls to Alaric the Visigoth Augustine writes City of God Last Western Roman emperor deposed Constantinople falls to the Turks Damien Russell BHR Ch3 A Brief History of the Romans Study Guide Chapter 3 Rome and Italy in the Fourth Century Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Fall of Veii and the Sack ofRome o Siege of Veii 396 BC Veii was located about 10 miles from Rome It was a wealthy and powerful city state similar to Rome and it dominated some of its smaller neighbors similar to Rome In the fth century Veii had fought over land and leadership of smaller cities Rome eliminated Veii as an autonomous city state Veii s land became Rome territory and some of its citizens became Romans The remainder of the population was enslaved or expelled Roman of cials placed some citizens on some of the vacant Veii territory 0 Gallic invasion 387 BC A large army of Gauls were plundering in the upper Tiber Valley when they came down the river defeated a Roman army and entered the City Gauls had no political or social organization they would assemble warbands and raid across the Apennines for centuries Greeks and Romans regard Gauls as uncivilized warlike predatory and expansionist 0 Marcus Furius Camillus Roman historians made Camillus the hero both of the nal war against Veii and of the Recovery after the sack of Rome As dictator he commanded the Roman Army that captured Veii When the Gauls entered the city he was supposedly made dictator again defeating the Gallic army recovering the treasure that the Gauls had taken from the city As dictator yet again he was reported to have had a central role in opening the highest of ces to plebeians in 367 a crucial event in the struggle of the orders Rome s historians thought he had been military tribune with consular powers six times and dictator ve times The City and Its Institutions in the Fourth Century 0 Two consuls By 366 military tribunes with consular powers were no longer used Instead two consuls were elected each year During their year they primarily served as generals in Rome s wars They entered of ce in March just in time to raise an army for the campaigning season When they were in the city they made sacri ces and performed other rights of the public cults presided over meetings of the senate addressed assemblies of citizens listened to complaints and rendered judgment 0 Toga praetexta a special toga bordered in purple worn by the consuls o Sella curulis aka curule a special chair for the consuls inlaid with ivory 0 Lictors attendants of various kinds that followed the Consuls around and maintained order in his presence There were usually twelve of them per consular o Fasces Lictors double headed axe bound in rods 0 Replacement of military tribunes by consuls connected with and important episode in the struggle of the orders Two tribunes of the plebs Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus successfully had a series of laws passed the LicinianSextian Laws 0 Licinian Sextian Laws Some of their provisions allegedly addressed matters of land use and debt but the most important ones we are told xed the of ce of consul as the highest in the city and permitted plebeians to compete for it Two decades later a law was passed requiring one of the two consuls elected each year be a plebeian What is important was not the opening of of ces to all adult male citizens but the creation of new political elite composed of some patrician families and some plebeian ones 0 Praetor an of ce created by the LicinianSextian reforms the leading official in Rome when the consuls were absent on campaign When necessary the praetor could command an army 0 Plebeian of ce holding By 337 plebeians would gain access to this of ce as well Im perium related to the verb irnperare meaning to order or to command For Romans it had strong religious associations and its possession provided the essential basis for a higher magistrate s authority to lead armies and to punish offenders o Auspices Auspicium denoted their right to seek the approval of the gods for their tenure in of ce and for their official actions through the rituals of divination known as the auspices o Pomerium the sacred boundary of the city of Rome 0 Curule and plebeian aediles The four aediles maintained temples and the city s streets and they also supervised its markets where they judged disputes arising from business there Damien Russell BH R Ch 3 Quaestors holders of an of ce that dated back to the mid fth century they took care of public money and supervised the treasury and oversaw the funds that generals took on campaign Ten tribunes of the plebs The most important of the lesser of ce holders They possessed the right to summon citizens to vote They guaranteed the rights of citizens against illtreatment by other magistrates lex Hortensia Roman laws or leges singular leX In 287 the dictator Quintus Hortensius sponsored a law the leX Hortensia that supposedly gave to citizen assemblies meeting under the presidency of a tribune of the plebs the right to enact laws binding on the entire community rather than just on the plebs Two censors The two censors held the only of ce that was not annual From 443 these censors replaced the consuls as supervisors of the census Usually elections would be held every five years and the successful candidates would hold of ce for around eighteen months Intercession Any exercise of powers of obstruction it should be noted required the action to be blocked Intercession intercessio the term for this step derives from a verb meaning to step between Senate Roman of cials were expected to consult other before acting the senate lled this advisory role Met only when summoned by a consul or a praetor or later by a tribune of the plebs and it met in the presence of that of cial It could meet only in a place dedicated to the gods usually in a temple Cam pus Martius A place for the senate to meet when it was barred from entering the city itself a consecrated place just beyond the Pomerium Advisory role of senate The senate should only discuss matters put to them by the of cial who called them together However the senate would gradually assume a much more active role It would come to make decisions in matters of religion supervise public nances receive embassies from both allies and enemies and determine military assignments for consuls and praetors Princeps sen ates Every year the censors compiled a ranked list of around three hundred senators the member placed at the head of the list gained the honori c title princeps senates Iteration Lucius Genucius a tribune of the plebs had a law passed that prohibited the holding of more than one of ce at the same time or of the same of ce more than once in any ten year period a practice known as iteration contio contiones occasions just for discussion and debate Comitia meeting where they actually voted Concilia meeting where they actually voted Centuriate assembly comitiu centuriutu only an of cial with imperium could summon was organized like the army with the presiding of cial acting as a commander and the voters as soldiers Voting was oral This voting was organized and tallied by centuries which voted in turn Each century possessed one vote which was itself determined by the votes of a majority of the century s members who were present This assembly elected new consuls praetors and censors and voted on matters of war and peace praetors and censors quaestors plebs and plebeian aediles on concilium plebis plebian assembly Tribunes of the plebs summoned citizens by tribes to elect their successors as tribunes or to accept or reject proposed laws Lares ancestral spirits Penates the protective divinities of the house Damien Russell BH R Ch 3 Divination some people made vows to favored dities to be fulfilled if and when the desired outcome should be achieved Those about to undertake journeys or projects could try to determine the attitude of the gods towards their plans through rites of divination Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste A shrine that drew individuals seeking rites of divination ludi Rom ani BOX 31 pontifex maximus head of the pontiffs elected by seventeen of the tribes Instaur ation Given by the pontiffs A procedure recommending that a ritual be performed again until satisfactory Augurs They were experts in the auspices Before taking office or before beginning any public action an official was expected to consult Jupiter the god of auspices by watching the ight of birds or by observing the feeding of chickens kept for the purpose It was the augurs who were thought to be the experts in proper forms and in the interpretation of the results They also knew rituals to inaugurate places like shrines and temples At first there were only three By the end of the fourth century their number had increased to nine increased to fteen in the rst century BC Vestal virgins The six vestal virgins performed the rites of Vesta the Roman goddess of the hearth from her shrine near the Regia in the Forum Romanum They tended the sacred ame Rom an Dominance in Italy pattern of annual campaigns There is a level of intensity and regularity that is unique among ancient city states Warfare came to be deeply entrenched in Roman political and religious life shaping the highest offices as well as the lives and careers both of the community s leaders and of its citizens New consuls entered office in March they began to levy the army or armies that would conduct the year s campaigns Rituals and sacrifices accompanied the raising of an army Victory in battle was thought to be the result of divine favor and for military leaders it was a key obligation to perform properly the rituals that secured this Such regular campaigning in turn shaped the duties of Rome s highest officials and determined the quali cations desired in a leader Dilectus Every year after the consul had taken office citizens eligible for military service came to Rome for the levy or dilectus in which some were chosen to be soldiers in the consuls armies in the upcoming season Deditio in colniadem Aritual Romans sometimes forced defeated cities to perform a ritual of surrender Capua The leading city of Campania appealed to Rome because they were hard pressed by the Samnites Samnites Inhabitants of the mountains in central Italy Municipium Communities incorporated into the Roman state their citizens became Roman citizens and their land became Roman land Their urban centers continued to exist as units of no more than local government with restricted freedom of action Municipium sine suffragio A municipium without the right to vote socii nominis Latini A vestige of the old rights of the Latin s allies of the Latin name 0 conubium the right to make lawful marriages with Romans 0 Commercium the right to enter into legally enforceable contracts with Roman citizens 0 ins migrationis the right to take up residence in Rome merely by moving there The Expansion of Roman Dominance Samnites The strongest power in the central highlands They were a fairly close match for the Romans and in the second 326304 and third 298290 Samnite Wars determined who would be the leading power in Italy In 295 in the great battle at Sentinum in Umbria Rome ensured their triumph with victory against the Samnites and the Gauls Tarentum A Greek city in southern Italy The largest Greek city in the region and ambitious to lead the others Pyrrhus King of the Molossians in Epirus across the Adriatic Pyrrhus was a typical monarch of his time the Hellenistic period in the Greek world Her aclea 280 BC In 280 Pyrrhus army reinforced by the Tarentines citizen army engaged a Roman consular army at Heraclea southwest of Tarentum Pyrrhus won but with immense loss of life ving rise to the expression Pyrrhic victory for a battle won at such a cost that it almost amounted to a defeat Beneventum 275 BC Pyrrhus army met the Romans at Beneventum in Samnium and this time the Roman army won War and the Roman State What accounts for Rome s Warrior Culture Several features of Roman society and politics encouraged acceptance of and perhaps the active search for frequent wars O 0 Damien Russell BHR Ch3 Military virtue essential to self image of elite Possession of the military virtues was central to the self image of the Roman elite to the ways its members competed among themselves for office and honors and to their claims to leadership in their city and elsewhere Regular warfare provided ambitious Romans with the opportunity to display their bravery and skill memorable 7 vital achievements for those who wished to reach high office Tangible bene ts for entire populace Successful warfare brought tangible bene ts to many Roman citizens Distribution of captured land would have enabled many poorer Romans to receive a plot that was suf cient to support their families external war reduces internal conflicts Enslaved people from campaigns were usually put to work on the lands and in the households of Roman citizens Altogether the acquisition of wealth through regular campaigns no doubt reduced the level of internal con icts in the city Damien Russell BHR 4 1 A Brief History of the Romans Study Guide Chapter 4 The Beginnings of a Mediterranean Empire Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty The Nobility and the City of Rome Nobiles A new governing elite was a result of opening offices and priesthoods to plebeians during the fourth and third centuries These elite would govern Rome and its empire throughout the period of expansion in the third second and rst centuries Pratriciate o Aristocracy of birthThe Pratriciate was always an aristocracy of birth Membership in certain families itself sufficed to grant patricians their place in the new city and the associated privileges Of ceholding this new elite was not an aristocracy of birth instead individuals and families had to establish and maintain their place in the city Of ce holding was central Nobilis Designates an individual with an ancestor who had been chosen consul Novi hominess Men from families that had never held office did succeed in gaining at least lower magistrates they were termed New Men novi homines Hierarchy of positions The emphasis on of ces result in the gradual creation of a hierarchy of positions each conferred on its holders a successively higher status Lowest to Highest quaestor tribune of the plebs aedile praetor and consul Auctoritas in uence Tribunes and senate meetings Tribunes of the Plebs gained the right to summon meetings of the senate they also came to be enrolled in it after holding office These to developments not dated mark the integration of plebeian officials into the of cial order of the city As a gathering of former of ce holders the senate came to be organized internally in the same hierarchical fashion as were the magistracies Triumph The chief celebration of victory A formal procession of a victorious general and his army through the city Triumphator aka the victorious general Pomerium Victorious commanders and their armies waited outside the pomerium while the senate debated their accomplishments Monumentum Leading Romans sought to enshrine the memory of their accomplishments in monuments Monumenta singular Monumentum related to the verb meaning to remind or to instruct Cognomen praenomen nomen gens This desire to proclaim the glory of one s ancestors led some aristocrats to stress an additional name the co gnomen When added to their praenomen and nomen announce their descent from a particular member of their gens Imago imagines Wax death mask Funeral of Decimus Junius Brutus 264 The rst known gladiatorial games were staged during his funeral 0 Sons of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus end of third century put on combats with 22 pairs of gladiators Wars with Carthage called Punic from the Latin adjective punicus meaning Phoenician dominate rome history in the middle and late third century First Punic War 264 241A result of a threeway struggle between Carthage Rome and Syracuse over the strategic city of Messana Messina controlled the straits between Italy and Sicily Marcus Atilius Regulus 256 crossed from Italy to North Africa with an army and a eet to attack Carthage Defeated and captured in 255 the allowed to go to Rome to negotiate peace or exchange of prisoners but promised to return if he failed at either He exhibits good faith des by returning to Carthage to his death The rst Rom an provinces outside of Italy Victory in the first Punic War led to the creation of Rome s first permanent communities outside of Italy Sicily Sardinia and Corsica Damien Russell BH R 4 2 Filed Armies In traditional warfare consuls and praetors raised armies each spring and discharged them in the fall after campaigning season Soldiers could be selfsupportingthey always returned home in time to plant their crops 0 Winter and distant locations In the third century it was sometimes necessary to keep armies in the eld over the winter and to maintain garrisons in distant locations Publicuni ublicunusThe state needed supplies and labor for rituals building projects and the army in these cases Roman officials would usually turn to private contractors or Pu blicani Second Punic War 218 201 The second Punic war broke out over Spain Spain Leadership of the Phoenician cities of the Iberian peninsula had long been a major prop of the Carthaginian power gold silver metal timber Hamilcar Barca 237 Hamilcar previously Carthage s general landed in Spain and conducted military operations there until his death 229 His successor was Hasdrubal his soninlaw Hannibal Barca After Hasdrubal death Hannibal Hamilcar s own son became the commander in Spain Saguntum 218 Hannibal besieged and captured Saguntum a won that Rome claimed to be under its protection Rome declared war Quintus Fabius Maximus Hannibal destroyed a consul s army and Rome appointed Fabius dictator Cunctutor the Delayer Fabius avoided battle with the Carthaginians instead he harassed Hannibal s army on the march attacked detachments and looked for any opportunity to exploit some advantage Cannae 216 the consuls took a different approach With some 80000 soldiers they fought Hannibal at Cannae it was a disaster a consul lost his life few soldiers escaped Allies then began to change sides Capua one of the largest cities in Italy a Roman municipium for the past century joined Hannibal Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured Sicily in 213 Oracle of Delphi 205 after a series of distressing protents the senate sconsulted Roman prests and the Greek oracle of Delphi Both recommended bringing the Geat Mother from her sanctuary to Rome 0 Magna Mater the Great Mother whose cult image is a black meteorite centered on selfcastrated priests ecstatic rites and wild singing and dancing Sacred Spring A promise that the Roman people will perform certain actions if the gods do their part rst If the Roman Republic and its people are preserved for the next ve years in these wars let the Roman people offer as a sacrifice to Jupiter what the spring produces from the ocks of pigs sheep goats cattle whatever is not already consecrated Second Front Rome opened in Spain Publius Scipio and Gnaeus Scipio held command there until their deaths in 211 Publius Cornelius Scipio The person Rome then assigned the Spanish command to 209 he captured Carthago Nova succeeded in crossing the mountains between the coast south of Saguntum and the headwaters of the Baetis River Metaurus 207 Hasdrubal Hannibal s brother was stopped and beaten at the Metaurus River where he lost his own life Zama 202 Scipio won another victory against the Carthaginian forces He then added Africanus to his other names Grave strains of a prolonged war Prolonged war had imposed grave strains upon the Roman authorities its citizens and the citizens of allied states 0 Numerous commands Romans had to maintain armies in Spain Sardinia and Sicily as well as in Italy 0 High casu alty The consequent need for numerous commands disrupted traditional political arrangements while the many armies and high casualty rates required an unusually large percentage of the male population 0 Draft while the many armies and high casualty rates required an unusually large percentage of the male population 0 Criminals and slaves Rome even drafted criminals and slaves o Depletion of Senate At Cannae around eight senators were said to have been killed Dominant Mediterranean power Despite all the setbacks Rome emerged with a dominant position in the central and western Mediterranean 0 A Medi 0 Damien Russell BH R 4 3 terranean Empire No clear plan After the Second Punic War Roman power spread through much of the Mediterranean world No single cause explains all the wars waged Governing elite seems to have had no clear plan for expanding Rome s power or for establishing its authority Burdens of far flung campaigns Rome s armies were stationed in many places often distant from Rome 0 Number of armies vs number of consulspraetors the number of armies often exceeded the number of consuls and praetors 0 Time Some assigned areas of operations were so far from Rome that the time needed to travel there reduced the amount of campaigning that could be undertaken during the magistrate s year in office 0 Greater distancegreater freedom of action Generals operating in ever more distant theaters of operation effectively gained greater freedom of actlon Prorogation extending the terms of some officials o Proconsulpropmetor During the First Punic War a few officials occasionally continued in of ce for a short time after their magistracies had expired Each served in place of a consul or praetor 0 Legal status and authority Prorogued of cials had a different legal status from those actually in their year of office and they had no authority in Rome itself Commanders were extended in one of two ways Voting assemblies extended the commands of serving officials or even assigned provinces to private citizens On other occasions the senate did likewise Compuru o Each year Senators decided the tasks that would be divided amoung the new consuls and praetors The members of each group could determine assignments by mutual agreement before lots were cast a process known as Comparatio Imperium this word is the root of the English empire the Latin term does not denote a clearly delimited territory 0 Empire Provinciu The creation of provinces was the main vehicle for Roman expansion In modern English a province usually denotes a subdivision of a larger state or country with wellde ned borders The Latin term provinica would gain this meaning too but for long iti did not denote anything so fixed 0 Sphere of operations late third and second centuries merely denoted the sphere of operations given to a Roman of cial 0 Different provinciae Some served at the same place but had different provinciae 0 Urban praetor the urban praetor handled the supervision of lawsuits between citizens while the other 0 Peregrine praetor handled disputes involving noncitizens Italica Toward the end of his time in Spain Scipio Africanus had settled some of his wounded veterans at Italica probably to guard against any return by the Carthaginians The town would become a major center of Roman power Kings of Macedon they had long sought to extend their power over the Greek cities of the south the islands of the Aegean and neighboring kingdoms in the Balkans Seleucids of Syria The Seleucids of Syria had once ruled an extensive state that reached from the Mediterranean to the frontiers of India Ptolemies of Egypt fought Syria for control over Palestine First Macedonian War 215 205 grew out of the second Punic war After Rome s defeat at Cannae in 216 Philip V began to negotiate with Hannibal Discovery of their alliance led to war between Rome and Macedon Second Macedonian War 200 196 marked the beginning of the next stage of Roman intervention Rom s former ally Attalus of Pergamum urged Rome to intervene in Greece Cynoscephalae 197 Titus Quincitius Flaminius consul in 198 and proconsul for several years after was able to defeat Philip s army at Cynoscephalae Flamininus and the Isthmian Games After his victory Flaminius proclaimed the freedom of a number of Greek cities at the Isthmian Games Third Macedonian War 171 168 Ended the Macedonian monarchy Prominent Romans had distrusted Philip s son and successor Perseus 172 Eumenes of Pergamum came to Rome with a long list of complaints against Perseus and with these as pretexts the senate decided on war Damien Russell BH R 4 4 Perseus at Pydna 168 Lucius Aernilius Paullus defeated Perseus at Pydna where he had concentrated his army Delos The small island of Delos emerged as one of the great commercial centers of the Aegean At end of Third Macedonian War Roman officials punished the city of Rhodes by removing Delos 7 sacred to the god Apollo and the site of an important sanctuary from its control and transferring it to Athens 0 Negotiators The chief place of business for many Italian negotiators singular negotiator individuals who were at once speculators merchants nanciers Corinth A roman army destroyed the wealth commercial city of Corinth in 146 Third Punic War 149 146 began as a result of longstanding quarrels between the Carthaginians and Masinissa King of the Numidia s Cato the Elder For several years before Rome finally declared war Cato the Elder ended every speech he made in the senate with the demand that Carthage must be destroyed Scipio Aemilianus grandson through adoption of Scipio Africanus led Romans into Carthage They killed thousands of Carthaginians enslaved many thousands more and completely destroyed the city Damien Russell BH R Ch5 1 A Brief History of the Romans Study Guide Chapter 5 Italy and Empire Items and questions on this guide are likely to appear on your next quiz during which you may use the notes you have taken on the following The use of another student s notes will be treated as academic dishonesty Senators Officials and Citizen Assemblies Senates consultum Senators registered their opinion in the form of an advisory decree or senates consultum the role of the Senate was to advise Princeps principles leading senators or principles singular princeps members who generally held the highest of ces belonged to the leading families and had acquired the greatest fame and glory 400000 adult male citizens in mid 2nd c BC There were around 400000 adult male citizens but the Campus Martius the place where elections of consuls and praetors were usually held could accommodate only about 70000 at most Cursus honorum hierarchy of senatorial of cers Quaestiones When ordinary citizens were the suspects Roman of ceholders personally conducted investigations quastiones commissioned by the senate or by a law passed in a citizen assembly Prosecutions of former of ce holders presectuions of former of cials in fact became a common feature of the Roman political order Quaestiones perpetuae From 149 a series of laws began to create permanent courts socalled quaestiones perpetuae to try certainspeci c offenses by magistrates and senators Italy and the Consequences of Empire Confiscations of land after the end of the war many communities in southern Italy suffered massive con scations of land which badly hurt their citizens and their economies Large scale settlement projects after Second Punic War Roman of cials conducted largescale settlement projects after the Second Punic War in particular settling veterans of campaigns in Spain Sicily and North Africa on some of the land con scated from allies who had rebelled or were considered untrustworthy Rooting out of disloyalty and threats to public order During the war with Hannibal and for two decades after the senate regularly instructed magistrates and promagistrates to search out signs of disloyalty in some allied cities and to punish those suspected of it Attempts to search out perceived threats were not limited to charges of assisting Rome s enemies Three times between 184 and 179 the senate assigned to praetors the task of investigating the many poisonings Suppression of Bacchanalia beginning in 186 BC Roman of cials and senators became disturbed by the practices and wide diffusion of the cult of the god Bacchus the Greek Dionysus The cult involved groups with no of cial sanction outside of a city s normal religious and political framework Spurius Postumius Albinus one consul of 186 began the investigation after receiving reports that worshippers included ritual murders and poisonings in their nocturnal rites Imposition of burdens on Italian cities The Romans shifted more of the burdens and fewer of the bene ts of waging war to the Latins and other Italian allies They were carrying more of the burdens for a smaller share of the pro ts Suspension of tributum from citizens in 167 BC The senate suspended the collection of tributum from citizens because the treasury was full with pro ts of expansion Adoption and imitation of Roman institutions by Italian cities Latin colonies founded by Roman of cials were organized in a Roman manner Now more communities began to use Latin in of cial inscriptions and there are signs of an increased use of Roman law and of Roman titles for of ces In ux of wealth from plunder mass enslavement and con scation The vast in ux of wealth into Italy changed the appearance of many cities and the ways of life of their leading families Wealthy Damien Russell BH R Ch5 2 Romans now built private houses and nanced the construction of temples public buildings and monuments in prominent locales o Imitation of Hellenistic Greek architecture art rhetoric literature and philosophy architects and builders imitated a Hellenistic style of building in both private houses and public structures Magistrates staging festivals had come to favor playwrights who imitated Greek styles Participation in Hellenizing literary and philosophical culture came to be a mark of elite status that linked individuals across communities Members of leading families eager for political careers sought training in Greek rhetoric Some studied philosophy 0 Resistance to the aforementioned trend Cato the Elder Cato denounced luxury and when in office sought to limit it 0 Growing divide between rich and poor Despite this prospect of advancement for some much of Rome s population was still illhoused and led only a marginal existence 0 Pressure of maintaining large standing arrny Soldiers who served outside of Italy could be away from their homes for years Military service on this scale and of this duration disrupted communal life and the organization of labor 0 Abandonment of land proletarianization of Rome s poor The pressures of military service may well have encouraged some to abandon the land and move to the cities 0 Expansion of slaveholding Landowning on any scale is always dependent on the availability of labor to farm it In the fourth and early third centuries Roma s elite increasingly turned to slaves 2quotd c slavery in Italy became larger in scale and importance as Roman armies abroad forced larger numbers into slavery 0 First Slave War in Sicily Roman Politics from the Mid Second Century 0 rise of popular politicians charismatic generals amp confrontational tribunes o Scipio Aemilianus o Ambitus o Tiberius Gracchus o Gaius Gracchus o populares vs optimates
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