Week One Notes - Gender and Sexuality Studies 50A, Professor Sameh
Week One Notes - Gender and Sexuality Studies 50A, Professor Sameh Gen & Sex 50A
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Date Created: 10/03/15
92915 GSS 50A Professor Sameh WEEK ONE Gender Feminism and Everyday Life in a Transnational World 1 Whats Gender Studies a examines how societies produce different genders and what genders come to mean in various periods of history thinks about power and methods for understanding power focuses on key concepts that will encounter in humanities soc sci arts explores global processes that have shaped gender modernity colonialism wars capitalism social movements 2 Distinguishing Features a Takes seriously the viewpoints of marginalized people iv questions what is taken for granted provides views you won t get in other courses womengender studies belief system is that gender is a system that produces forms of affinity conflict collaboration and inequality way of understanding of how gender matters in everyday life 3 Transnational Method a a world of connections across national boundaries between domesticforeign our lives other people around the world b looks at how ideas money goods correct people c studies movement that corrects people and cultures 4 Transnational World a the nationstate as an organizational form that links territories peoples and cultures but is also contingent subject to change i powerful ideas associated with modernity have spread around the world ii colonialism trade and military expansion force people together iii technologies of communication internet media speed up connec ons What s Gender a the assignment of masculine and feminine characteristics to bodies objects attitudes activities b dynamic system that varies historically and culturally c intimately related to biological elements and dynamics presumed to be What s Sex a system for categorizing people into mf b biological characteristics and properties placed in those categories What s Sexuality a related to desire orientation identity i sexual mode how you want to have sex ii sexual object who or what you want to have sex with Orientations Classifications a homosexuality sexual desirerelations among those of the same gender b heterosexuality sexual desirerelations among those classified as menwomen c Bisexuality Confronting the Binary Opposition a transgender moving from one identity associated with one gender to another b transsexual someone who has changed or is changing through medical their body to accord with gender identity 10 11 12 13 14 15 c gender queer sexual desire relations andor the ID of someone who does not believe they fit the norms of gender Connecting Gender Sexuality and Transnational World a the personal and political connected b ideas about gender have spread through modernization and colonial expansion c capitalism alters norms of masculinity and femininity d migration and trade spread ideas of gender family sexuality Social Justice Activism a spread of movements feminism civil rights gaylesbian racial equality workers rights transgender liberation What is Feminism a Both i social movement that argues for womens equality with men and liberation ii variety of analytical approaches Seeks to End Patriarchy a system of male dominance over women i has historical roots not natural or biological A Few Kinds of Feminism a liberal feminism seeking equality with men but keeps system basically the same just add more women Hillary Clinton b chicana feminism liberated chicanas from multiple forms of oppression c black feminism womanist feminism blacks experiences of antiblack racism give them different perspectives liberation from oppression d anticolonial feminism e socialist feminism class anticapitalist critique f transnational feminism Some Methods of Analysis a feminism social constructionist analysis traces how ideas of inequalityequality acknowledges produced by particular people traces how ideas of what counts as normal women and men vary across culture history b intersectional feminism critical perspective that sees how gender exists in relation to race class faith age etc 16 Transnational Feminism Feminist Transnational Studies a often used interchangeably with with global feminism b important to differentiate 17 Directionality a global feminism assumes the flow its form west to the rest i bringing western northern feminism to the globe ii women from global North are rights bearing while women from global South are rights needing iii saving and rescue and politics 18 Scale a global feminism can reproduce unexamined universalism i flattens out important differences among women geography class race ii ignores that these differences among women are attracted to more or less power iii hides the fact that one specific local NorthUS positions itself as global 19 Essentialism a basis for connection among women is assumed because inherent sameness i ignores importance of historical conditionscontexts that produce oppression of women location economy work migration 10115 WEEK ONE GSS 50A Transnational FeminismFeminist Transnational Studies a often used interchangeably with global feminism b important to differentiate c has different theoretical and political implications d more historically rooted in international feminisms Directionality a global feminism often assumes the flow is from the west to the rest i bringing Western Northern feminism to the globe ii women from global North are rights bearing while women from global South are rights needing iii saving and rescue narratives and politics Scale a global feminism can reproduce unexamined universalism Essentialism a transnational challenges essentialism b basis for connection among women is assumed because inherent sameness i ignores importance of historical conditions and contexts that produce oppresion of women Transnational feminist praxis a feminists in many parts of the world have been doings transnational feminist work in 19th century transnational not new phenomenon Multi Directional Flows a power ideas politics b over many routes and paths c disrupt many kinds of borders History and Context a transnational feminist praxis builds ties across geographical and other divides b complex and multidimensional politics of location which challenges borders of nation id culture c transnational feminist praxis highlights how women are connected along axes of history context and power and points to possibilities for solidarity that disrupt rather than reproduce relations of inequality and domination d exchanges between and solidarity among women around shared contexts of struggle can lead to new theoretical and political insights What is Sex What is Gender what is gender a the assignment of masculine and feminine characteristics to bodies objects attitudes and activities b dynamic system that varies historically and culturally c presumed to be intimately related to biological elements and dynamics What is sex a a system for categorizing people and other things into male and female b the biological characteristics and properties of bodies placed in these categories Biological Sex fm Gender id woman or man Gender Role behavior femininitymasculinity Sexual Orientation object choice homosexual man heterosexual woman homosexual woman heterosexual man Sexual ModeAim passive active Diagram of sex and gender a male intersex female b man genderqueerbigender woman psychological sense of self c gender expression communication of gender Conflicting paradigms a essentialists assume that characteristics and traits of gender race sex class and sexuality are natural and innate b Biological or genetic determinism 6 Social Construction Theory Carole Vance a social constructionists argue that differences between men and women are not products of biology or nature but of culture and society 7 Constructionist paradigm a focus is on the interrogation of what we mean by nature and natural b insists that what we know of the human body is an interpretation subject to change 8 NaturalizingNormalizing a sociohistorical process whereby certain ideas and concepts are made to appear natural and therefore normal and others unnatural and therefore abnormal 9 Feminist Science Studies a biology is a discourse not a body of facts b biology is a way of thinking and talking about living beings including bodies c biology is a modern scientific discipline 10 Western Modernity a cherished notions i progress ii empirical science iii technological development iv expansion v speed vi control 11 What became devalued in modernity a nonlinear conceptions of time b tradition c magic 12 13 14 15 16 d nonscientific modes of knowing e onesex model Interpreting Sexual Differences a historical variation Nelly Oudshoorn i onesex model Aristotle Galen ii twosex model emerges in 18th century Onesex model four humors vagina as inverted penis male and female bodies differ in degree of heat genitals of males are external version of female genitals conception required mutual arousal of male and female partner male is the more perfect form than female no distinct words given for female organs T 0 sex model modernity a binary opposition scheme i categorical exclusivity 1 eitheror logic 2 intolerant of ambiguity or hybridity ii hierarchical ordering 1 notjust benign difference but inequality lncommensurable Difference a 18th century 1700 i male and female skeleton organs cells blood vessels hair and brains are differentiated ii age of enlightenment modern democracy iii European colonial expansion iv rise of movement for women s rights v rise of movement to abolish slavery Shifting Science a early 19th century 18001850 Scientific and medical discourses reduce women to one organ uterus becomes the essence of femininity 39 FDQPP39PJ 17 18 19 20 21 22 b by late 19th century 18701900 scientific and medical discourses reduce women to their ovaries The Sperm and the Egg Emily Martin a Dominant account active sperm and passive egg b Alternate ways of narrating the story of conception female reproductive system as a cybernetic loop not passive Byzantine Medical Lore Kathryn Ringrose a Byzantine empire b three genders male female eunuch c Emphasis on harmony and balance i ideal male was in control of himself ii typical female lacked selfcontrol iii eunuchs womenly males lacked balance control and were excessive Four bodily humors Hippocrates a blood air hot wet warm moist b phlegm water cold wet c black bile fire hot dry d yellow bile earth cold dry Androgynous Males and Deficient Females Charlotte Furth a context 16 17 century China b Gender distinctions based on reproductive capacity c Gender not fixed but fluid i sex of child depends on the prominence of yin or yang ch i present at the moment of conception Emphasis on Reproduction a insufficient ch i leads to false males and false females b male homosexual relations okay as long as they didn t interfere with family obligations c coward rejects the duty of paternity d castrati eunuch incapable of paternity Stories of Sex Changes late Ming dynasty a females who became males seen as auspicious modest passive asexual b males who become females sodomy resulted in male pregnancy active motivation threat to social order 23 Concluding ldeas a you just witnessed the social constructionist method b ideas about gender differences vary across history and cultural contexts c binary opposition model has dominated Western science and culture in modernity d social and political movements challenge the dominant ideologies about gender sex and sexuality In order to understand who we are we need to understand how we are and why we are
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