New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Samantha Pratt


Marketplace > College of Charleston > Geology > GEO 105 > GEOLOGY 105 WEEK 10
Samantha Pratt
C of C

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Earth History
Class Notes
Geology, GEO 105, Earth History
25 ?




Popular in Earth History

Popular in Geology

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Pratt on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 105 at College of Charleston taught by Egerton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Geology at College of Charleston.


Reviews for GEOLOGY 105 WEEK 10


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/19/16
Week 9 Geology Notes From Fins to Feet Part 5 • Transition on to land • Devonian Period (start of next test) • Devonian 419-359 • Tropical to temperate environments • Glaciers possibly at poles • Increase in co2 but drops in Devonian • Increase in oxygen • Because on increase in plants on land • Still sea level high (not as high as Ordovician) LAND LIFE • Plants • First soil • Global spread of plants • First trees • Seed bearing plants • Late Devonian first forests (30ft tall trees) • Anthropod diversity increases • First Tetrapods (amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) • Soil=roots • Braided streams to meandering (deeper) streams because of vegetation • Fish can move to waterways NEAR LAND LIFE • Aquatic life expands into shallower habitats • Marine and freshwater • Abundant algae in shallow water environments • = little shading, so dense algae=bottom waters mat of decomposing algae -> anoxic bottom waters AQAUTIC LIFE • Age of the Fish • High diversity • Placoderms dominating • First ray finned and lobe finned fish • Shark diversity and abundance increas es • Extensive reed system • Osteichthyes: Bony fish • Arose in late Silurian • Two distinctive lineages: Actinopterygii “ray fin” and Sarcoterygii “lobe fin” • Bones, paired fins, teeth • Rayfin fishes: • 25,000 plus, fins made of dermal bone, multiple paired fins, teeth fused to jaw bones • Rotation of fins (base of humorous) • Lobe finned fish: • Few are alive today • 2 extant species coelacanths • 6 extant species lungfish Fish breathing: • fish have nostrils for smelling not breathing • most fish have gills only for breathin g • lungfish have both gills and lungs • many fish have swim bladders today o homologous with lungs • tadpoles have lungs and gills (developing lungs later on) LEAVING THE WATER Problems with living on land= Gravity, desiccation, respiration, reproduction, senses Why leave the water= Virtually all estuarine and shallow are fish predators (7 feet long and 1 feet long), Avoid getting eaten, protect eggs from being eaten, better able to breath Devonian estuarine vertebrate fauna Gaining traction: 385 mya -> fish: fins, conical heads, no neck, scales Eusthenopteron: 385 mya, lobe finned fish, clear humerus, radius and ulna, clear femur, tibia, and fibula, earliest bone marrow, external and internal choana (nostrils), no neck, and short ribs Tiktallik: 375 mya, lobe finned fish, clear humeru, radius, and ulna, shoulder, elbows, and wrist joints, no fins, more like flippers, pelvis large with circular hip-socket (no sacrum), external and internal (choana) nostrils, reduced hymoandibular, first neck, longer ribs, expanded snout, flattened head, eyes on top, scales, no operculum 365 mya -> amphibians: flattened heads, necks, four legs with digits Euromerica= Ecuador, plant species, warm Problems with living on land: o Gravity- thickening of bones, development of more ridged vertebral column, more musculature o Desiccation- scales to waterproof skin o Respiration- gills to lungs o Reproduction- eggs still require water o Senses- smell (internal and external nostrils) o Hearing- senses (hyomandibular -> stapes) decent with modification • Loss of operculum results freeing of back of the skull that becomes shoulder girdle • Lungs and swim bladders homologous structures END OF DEVONIA EXTINCTION -20% families, 70-80% species (375-359ma) -Prolonged marine biotic crisis extending 20 -25 million years -Affected those in low latitude shallow marine environments most -Marine didn’t do so well, insects and plants were fine Affected: PLACODERMS Causes (Devonian plant hypothesis): widespread black shale in shallow inland seas ->organic rich sediment indicates anoxic environments o Plants using CO2 -> storing carbon o Organic carbon being buried o Decrease in atmospheric CO2 o Water anoxia (when oxygen is low, bacteria turn to other elements for energy -> sulfate, by product is hydrogen sulfide H2S) o Extensive soil formation: extensive mechanical and chemical weathering decrease in atmospheric CO2 WEEK 10 Causes of Devonian plant hypothesis: • High rates terrestrial photosynthesis =decrease in atmospheric co2 • Extensive soil formation= decrease in atmosph eric co2 • Anoxic bottom waters in ocean Carboniferous 358-299 mya Carbon-coal Carboniferous bearing Named in 1822 Broken into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods Formation of PANGEA Active mountain building (Appalachians still growing and extending through Europe) Formation of Ural Mountains (Europe/Asia boundary today) Panthalassa and Paleo-tenya oceans Major glaciation in southern hemisphere= cooler temperature and lower sea levels Early Carboniferous: warm, high sea levels • Recovery after the Devonian mass extinction • Almost no fossils known from first 15 million years (known as Romer’s Gap) • Extensive rain forest from throughout the Carboniferous (first modern tropical, subtropical and temperate rainforests) Late Carboniferous: cold, low sea level, start of major Ice Age that continued through to Permian Aquatic vertebrates: o Sharks took over the armored fish niches o Increase in diversity of actinopterygians and sarcopterigians o Aquatic invertebrates= rare trilobites, eurypterids, ammonites, crinoids • Most coal today formed from plants that lived during the Carboniferous • Coal forms= peat, buried, heat, pressure Carboniferous etc. First extensive wood tissue and bark bearing trees Ferns, mosses, horse tails Seedless and seed plants Still require water to reproduce o After Permian/ beginning of carboniferous= Ice house largest since snowball effect o Increase in sharks, lobe finned fish, ray fin fish o Sea lilies (Crinoids), sea scorpions (Euryoterids), Ammonites (shell) o All the coal produced for the worlds pre serve o Peat->Lignite->Coal (heat, pressure, time) Plants o 120-130ft trees in forests o “Palm-like” trees o Plants= Neuopteris, Cordaites, Calamites o True seeds= no water is required to reproduce= leave coastal areas Insects o Giant bugs ex: dragon fly the size of an eagle (Meganeura), scorpions the size of wolves o Breath through tiny holes called tracheaea= air from outside goes into to circulatory fluid carrying oxygen directly to the cells o Increase size=increase cells o Higher oxygen= abundance in food in decaying forest leaf- litter and absence of large terrestrial vertebrates o High oxygen for arthropods means easier diffusion during respiration o Arthropod herbivore late Paleozoic with evidence of leaf chewing o Predator system evolved later o First flying insects Amphibians o Dominate land vertebrate of the time o Evolve later into reptiles o Still require water to lay eggs o Less digits (5-6) o Diverse and common by middle of period (more than today) o 20ft long or smaller o Various habitats (aquatic, semi aquatic, terrestrial) o Tetrapod amphibians displace the scorpions during the Carboniferous o Ex: Eryops (9.8ft long, weak bite, swallow prey whole) Reptiles o Hylonomous (small lizard) o Prospered during the cooler, drier period at the end of Carboniferous o Scaly skin, lung development, amniotic egg o Shell to prevent desiccation o Self-contained o Sac for food o Sac for waste o Semi porous shell allows for gas exchange End of Carboniferous o Glaciers o Drop in sea level o Water locked up on the Southern pole as ice o Largest volume of ice on land during en tire Phanerozoic o Caused an extinction event but NOT one of the “Big Five” o Species that survive into the Permian were well adapted for seasonal temperatures (first time this occurred on land o Overall lower diversity of plants, animals, and insects o Drop in temperature during the latest Carboniferous slowed amphibian evolution Permian 252-299 mya • Pangea supercontinent= surrounded by Panthalassa Ocean and the Paleotethys Sea • Alfred Wegner= proposed continents were once connected, southern continents fit like a jigsaw puzzle, same fossils from them same time period all in similar areas on the southern hemisphere continents (lack on Antarctica evidence) • Scott Terra Nova Expedition= heads to South Pole in 1911, reaches in 1912, British, used new European technology, motorized sleds, brought ponies (don’t do well in the cold and need a lot of food), Norwegian team was there and ahead • Transantarctic Mountains • Found a leaf= Glossopteris, collected 35lbs worth • Cold start to Permian -> hot end • Drying through the Permian • Shallow seas= sat deposits • Supercontinent -> most land father from oceans -> desert environments form • Polar regions more extreme in seasonal temperature changes • Single continent -> almost no seafloor spreading -> sea level lower


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.