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Marine Vertebrates

by: Heidi Stephens

Marine Vertebrates MSCI 302

Heidi Stephens
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Sharks and the beginning of bony fish
Marine Biology
Dr. Abel
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Stephens on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 302 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Abel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Marine Science at Coastal Carolina University.

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Popular in Marine Science


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Date Created: 03/19/16
Types of Sharks ● Angel-- ray-like, gaping mouth ● Spiny dogfish ○ Extremely abundant; intertidal to 900 m ○ Ovoviparous; litter of 1-20; 20 years to sexual maturity ○ 18-24 month gestation period ○ Heavily fished in East North Atlantic; migratory ● Lantern sharks-- smallest of the deep water sharks ○ 10-100 cm ○ Grooved spine on dorsals ○ Photophores ● Cookie cutter ○ Vertical migrator ○ Neutrally buoyant ○ Teeth are more heavily calcified than other sharks’ ● Viper dogfish ○ Long, dagger-like teeth ○ Convergent evolution with viperfish ● Cat shark ○ Oviparous ● Smooth dogfish ○ Birth a lot at once-- 12 annually ○ 8-9 month gestation period ● Carcharhinidae-- “sharky-looking shark’ ○ Blacktip, sandbar, silvertip, tiger ○ “Requiem sharks” ○ Sandbar-- bottom-dwelling and coastal; seasonal migration ■ 13-16 years to maturity ■ 9-12 month gestation period with 6-13 pups ○ Blacktip-- inshore or offshore in upper 100 m ■ 10-12 month gestation period up to 10 pups ● Lamnid ○ Mako-- fast swimming predators ■ Conical snout, lunate tail, dagger teeth ■ >3 m ■ Eat prey whole ■ Almost endothermic Why study sharks? ● Apex predators ○ Control evolution and population size in lower trophic levels ● Economic value ○ Estimate value of over $2 million over its lifetime ● Intrinsic value Threats to sharks ● Finning ● Commercial and recreational fishing ● Habitat destruction ● Climate change ● Marine pollution Vulnerability ● Slow growers ● Mature late in life ● Specific mating and nursery places ● Long gestation periods with small litters ● Migratory Bony fishes-- Osteichtyes ● All ray-finned except two-- ○ Lobe-finned coelacanth in Indian Ocean and Indonesia ○ Coelacanth means “hollow spine” ○ Thought to be extinct for 65 my and rediscovered in 1938 ○ Closer related to longfish, reptiles, and amphibians ○ Gave rise to tetrapods ● Characteristics-- ○ Terminal mouth with protrusible jaws ○ Swim bladder-- possible why they’re so successful ○ Operculum-- flap covering gills ○ Categorized by lifestyle ■ Pelagic cruisers-- “blue water” ■ Demersal-- bottom associated ■ Benthic-- truly benthic, living in structures on bottom ○ Fins-- stabilize, thrust, maneuverability ■ Pitch-- up and down; pectoral fins ■ Yaw-- side-to-side ■ Roll-- dorsal and anal fins


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