Week 1 Biology Notes
Week 1 Biology Notes Bio 180
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cissy Ding on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 180 at University of Washington taught by Scott Rider Freeman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
930 Friday ctober Z 2 15 814 PM Bloom39s taxonomy of learning 0 Lower order thinking remember can I recall key terms and ideas understand can I explain these ideas to someone 0 Higher order thinking apply can I use these ideas in a new situation analyze recognize underlying patterns and structure evaluate can I make judgements on the relative value of ideas and information synthesize can I join ideas and information to create new ideas Pseudoscience a claim belief or practice which is incorrectly presented as scientific but does not adhere to a valid scientific method cannot be reliably tested or lacks scientific status Science A testable claim that follows scientific method Religion collection of beliefs viewpoints Scientific method 0 Observations 0 Ask a question 0 Form a hypothesis 0 Make a prediction 0 Experiment or additional observations I Test does not support hypothesis revise or pose new one I Test supports hypothesis make additional predictions DO NOT USE THE WORD quotPROVEquot quotPROVENquot quotPROVEDquot BIOSKILLS B46 X axis or abscissa Y axis or ordinate Limit conclusions to data presented don39t extrapolate beyond the data Bar charts plot data with discrete or categorical values Histograms illustrate frequency data Box and whisper plots allow you to see where most data fall Standard error quantifies how confident you are that the average you calculated is the average you39d observe measure of precision Statistical test is 3 steps 0 Specify the null hypothesis 0 Calculate a test statistic which is a number that characterizes the size of the difference among treatments 0 Determine probability of getting a test statistic at least as large as the one calculated by just chance The answer comes from a reference distribution a math function that specifies the probability of getting various values of the test statistic if the null hypothesis is correct B10 180 Page 1 101 Saturday ctol er 32 2 15 1158 AM 0 Prediction are set up as an quotif thenquot statement by cause and effect 0 Hypothesis then prediction 0 Hypothesis is proposed explanation 0 If hypothesis is correct then the prediction is what you are going to measure and test 0 Large sample size 0 Random assignment 0 More memorization vs more on thinking process higher order cognitive skills B10 180 Page 2 102 Thursday October 1 2015 851 AM Chapter 25 251 252 Evolution is one of the most important ideas in modern biology Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace populations of organisms evolve meaning they change throughout time 0 Published theory in book in 1859 Special creation 0 All species are independent in the sense of being unrelated to each other 0 Life on earth is young perhaps 6000 years old 0 Species are immutable incapable of change A pattern component is a statement that summarizes a series of observations about the natural world About facts about how things are in nature whatfact The process component is a mechanism that produces that pattern or set of observances why how scientific revolution overturns an existing idea about how nature works and replaces it with another radically different idea Plato claimed that every organism was an example of a perfect essence or type created by god and it was unchanging special creation TYPOLOGICAL THINKING is based on the idea that species are unchanging types and that variations within species are unimportant or misleading Aristotle proposed species were organized into a sequence based on size and complexity with humans at top Linear scheme called great chain of being or scale of nature 0 Species are fixed types 0 Some species are higher complex or quotbetterquot than others Biologist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck proposed theory of evolution Lamarckian evolution is progressive in the sense of always producing larger and more complex species change through time via inheritance of acquired characters 0 Individuals develop in response to challenges posed by environments phenotype change and passed onto offspring Evolution is responsible for change through time occurs because traits vary among individuals in population and individuals with certain traits leave more offspring POPULATION consists of individuals of the same species that are living in the same area at the same time POPULATION THINKING is instead of being unimportant or an illusion variation among individuals in a population was the key to understanding the nature of specnes Descent with modification species that lived in the past are the ancestors of the species existing today Pattern component of theory of evolution 0 Species change through time 0 Species are related by common ancestry FOSSIL is any trace of an organism that lived in the past Bones branches shells tracks B10 180 Page 3 FOSSIL RECORD consists of all the fossils that have been found on earth and described in scientific literature EXTANT SPECIES are living today SEDIMENTARY ROCKS form from sand or mud or other materials deposited at locations such as beaches or river mouths O Younger layers on top of older layers GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE a sequence of named intervals called eons eras and periods that represented the major events in earth history Radiometric dating is based on three pieces of information 0 Observed decay rates of parent to daughter atoms 0 Ratio of parent to daughter atoms present in newly formed rocks 0 Ratio of parent to daughter atoms present in a particular rock sample EXTINCT is a species that no longer exists Law of succession is extinct species in fossil record were succeeded in the same region by similar species TRANSITIONAL FEATURE is a trait in a fossil species that is an intermediate between those of ancestral older and derived younger species If traits observed in more recent species evolved from traits in ancient species then transitional forms are expected to occur in appropriate time sequence VESTIGIAL TRAIT is a reduced or incompletely developed structure that has no function or reduced function but is similar to functioning organs or structures in closely related species Species are dynamic not static unchanging and fixed as claimed by plato aristotle and special creation PHYLOGENETIC TREE a branching diagram that describes the ancestor descendant relationships among species or other taxa Homology means the study of likeness 0 Genetic homology DNA nucleotide sequences RNA nucleotide sequences amino acid sequences 0 Developmental homology recognized in embryos 0 Structural homology similarity in adult morphology or form The three levels of homology interact Genetic homologies cause developmental homologies observed in embryos which lead to structural homologies in adults Fundamental of all homologies is the genetic code Theory of evolution by natural selection predicts homologies will occur If species were created independently of another these similarities would not occur SPECIATION a process that results in one species splitting into two or more descendant species INTERNAL CONSISTENCY is the observation that data from independent sources agree in supporting predictions made by a theory Data from many sources are much more consistent with evolution than with special creation 0 Descent with modification is a successful and powerful theory because it explains observations that special creation does not such as vestigial traits and close relationships among species on neighbor islands B10 180 Page 4 105 Friday October 2 2 15 253 816 PM Darwin recognized a process called natural selection that explains why the pattern of descent with modification occurs ARTIFICIAL SELECTION manipulation of composition of population Darwin39s process of evolution into four simple postulates criteria 0 Individual organisms that make up a population vary in the traits they possess such as shape and size 0 Some of the trait differences are heritable passed on O In each generation more offspring are produced can possibly survive Only some will survive to produce offspring and among those some will produce more than others 0 The subset of individuals that survive best and produce the most is not a random sample of the population Instead individuals with certain heritable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce Natural selection occurs when they produce more offspring than those without certain characteristics selected naturally by environment Evolution by natural selection occurs when heritable variation leads to differential reproductive success BIOLOGICAL FITNESS is the ability of an individual to produce surviving fertile offspring relative to that ability in other individuals in the population ADAPTATION is a heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment relative to individuals lacking the trait Increase fitness SELECTION is a passive process differential reproduction as a result of heritable variation 254 Theory of evolution by natural selection is testable Natural selection acts on individuals because individuals experience differential reproductive success Only populations evolve Allele frequencies change in populations not in individuals Multidrug resistance NATURAL EXPERIMENT allow researchers to compare treatment groups created by an unplanned change in conditions Natural selection leads to measurable changes in characteristics of population B10 180 Page 5
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