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Transatlantic Modernities I

by: Mrs. Sasha Kunze

Transatlantic Modernities I HS 067

Marketplace > Boston College > History > HS 067 > Transatlantic Modernities I
Mrs. Sasha Kunze
GPA 3.6

Stephen Schloesser

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Stephen Schloesser
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This 81 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Sasha Kunze on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HS 067 at Boston College taught by Stephen Schloesser in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/218034/hs-067-boston-college in History at Boston College.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
l 789 Revcluticnary Qpera H8067 Week 13 Lecture 02 6 December 2007 1 Longterm causes both material and cultural hardware and soare 1685 Re ation of the E 39 of Nantes Loni aka Edict of Fontainebleaif 108 39IewtonP 39 39 39 Mu mmm I 1688 The Glono Rev hltion in Enghnd James II 1117 1 replaced by Dutch 168039 EnglishBii I 1le I nu n L rm r u H Wm Hrquot 7w WWWn m r v 1715 Death of Louis XI crumbling of Absolutist 17th c 16431715 11315 1774 1 17741792 illotined 1 Introduces the 18 ce11h11 y Age of Enlightemnent 1715 Death of old order not only political but also economicsocial The third quot THEY II He Ie now includes the merchann39le ch 7T4 39tion w axa 62 leIt is the Third E Death of Louis 1741 Handel 1 All we like sheep Pcullm c dd J LAImmImL XVUldnmSIeckL Runequot El e v J l oomme Moxmsqmeu 1 I L Didcmt 13 Rousseau up amour d39uu busl da blmne15gt Geography of ideasquot Public Absolutist Versailles First Estate Private Bourgeois Home Third Estate Geography Chapel Organ Absolutist Versailles PianosHarpsichorcL B0urge01s Salon 1755 The Great Lisbon Earthquake Lisbon Portugal November lst 1755 ie All Saints Day think All Hallo Dramatic rescue of clu From Iaibn 01 we not In u39lml mean 1 mm U 1 m rlrv V II vommou will I mosh 39Tix39morker to fall my all 39 39 I 17 quot Votaire Pomnontlwl39bonD 39ax39ter o IlEmminaIJ39onqf thexltiom 111539 Wellquot Roger Rosenblatt Chiistmas 7001 If there is a God he does t seem to be thinking about us In nite gap distance between God and llulnan trauma crisis in Ineaninc 39 stem 1 7 i i t 39 Baroque Lelbnl Newton Bach mathematlcal ce amty Enlightenment oltaire eistemolooicalmodest Candide 0r Optimism Tl quotNeither need you tell me did Candide quotam we must take care 01 our ardentquot quotYou are in me right 39d Pangl quotfor when man 8 hm man V 1 pm into me garden ofEden n x withanimennodre t and m be m beidle 10 quotWork hen without lisll nquot aidMan 1 quotit 39 39 39 ponablequot quotExcellemly obsen ed ax ered Candide quotbut let us cul vnte our 11m VOLTAIRE Treatise on Toleration 1 763 aning of tolerance t om perspective 0 llteticism an 1 39 emological mo 9 a recognition that human rea limited iv e e do not ll V absolute mathematical certainty about religious truths 9 hence it 39 accordance with natural law that we iould be tolerant of what we do not kno v And human la iouldt 110 natural law Nov lst All Sain s D3 Great Ear quake and Tsunami OleSlJO ca 930 am 17541763 Seven Yeais War 1763 Treaty of Paris France cedes Canada and all te ories t f ippi to England Spain cedes Florida to England NORTN AMERICA ea mn Colonists revolt in 1776 1155 xmm m 1 ican colonists in 1 oh against England 2 Shortterm triggers 7 American Revolution ends 7 USA free France broke 1787 7 Monarchy 011 verge of bankruptcy lpport from moneyed emny ofNotablesquot monarchy in more debt 7 Louis X I agrees to conyoke Estates General next year 1789 Problem Last meeting ofEsIates General had been 175 ears earlier 1614 the French had 6 ence of c rec agai t monarch 7 e vaote by order hnd rt 5 0 of population Wagmmmw Wmmf m Mm 4mm 39 3331131763 W WWMEW mm WWW asz me mmsm wm gm 1 Mara Mam B fwimimlxw nr n w an 1cralizing the Revolutionmy Moment Why sacralize Sacralize to make sacred 0 same root sacri cequot 0 Why sacralize We need to invest continent events eg luck orforluna with meaning significance We need to make them not so arbitrarv Sacred signi cance cosmic worldhistorical or even religious proportions E t Alternative trauma A sense of 11ving in a random tquot arbitra chaotic R0 eau BOOK 1 Chapter 1 Subject of Lhe First Book Man i39 burn row 1nd everywhere he is in rhaini Ono hinks himsr f J l39 x avc an 39 The Social Contract r 10 master I one mt 5 a I h lid Unis L39hnngr comp ubm l I 2 nm kmm What can In kt it hEIT IWW HH unswcx I hm hm account only lm39rv and th39 rffm39ls del39ivw rum iL I x 39 g m u peova 39 mmpvllm u obey and quotvbryx h s it can us ii an Iibvrly by hr same righl look it cilhm39 it 391st Mining it or ilu n was no juauhul39 INN whu m It Iv L iHI or 9139 ER 39 r is A NEED TO SACRALIZE make nece 139v what is contingent and perhaps even arbltra V Sacred Moment 20 June 1789 Hm 39to make 39 mething radically new seem nee 39 my natural en 397 Noteinherentprobleminleg 39ga Re olmion itadmi mam omethimnew NotEtemal quot1e I 39 2139 eplanet butrmher Prov ml Human Au eemem 139 w Commsnhet ic of re olution wi he of rem mce 15mm a reb 1h ofthe ancient ox mation 16 CJ a refonn thm goesbacm mething ancient Painter JacquesLouis David Note EI ightemnent ecular NiIIlblls acredhalo Cosmic Forces Light vs Dark Massive Winds in Kneelmg 111 prayer at thls E Social Contract as sacred 20 21 Sacred Moment The Tennis Court Oath 20 June 1789 22 23 We re neither pure nor 39 e nor g0 W511 do the bESt we know We ll build our house and Ch And make our garden gro Let dreamers dream what worlds they plea e39 Those Edens can t be found 25 eetest owers the fairest tree We re neither pure nor 39 e nor go We ll build our ho se and Ch Are grown in solid ground 11 do the best we know nd make our garden grow 26 Sister Revolutions Prim tiV39e Innocence or Human Depra 4 December 2007 mm iicm NEWS Examquot m mm WWW TWO KEY WORDS REPRESENTATION Making present representing what is notpresentquot TRACT a contingent agreement representation There can be nu mxunun Wham raprzsentnhmw Social Contract Jacques Louis David T he Tennis Court SISTER REVOLUTIONS Vizer gymM d lmtJhm 1491 aw LAB gt1 k L M M m WW y 4 a u mm H SUSAN DUNN l l w 1121791 Archeology Two revolutions l Two Enlightenment V democracy l Two Visions of human nature Phil Core Phil of the Pers 11 39ster Reva1171mm the 1011 of human nature 11111112111 natm lndamentally eo11 11pt selh 1L even de 1 Reason 7 y 1 but remember Bible Cheek m1dbz112111eequotit at eve1 ep of the 11 Best 2111tho1139t 39 Prevent the tyranny of the mty39arity French Revolution 11789 111 21 11111111139e ta 11 nature humans 11u1ncem quot11139111211L1011 cnnupt Reeuerale them 21ndlhe11 seLL1 h 111111c11h11 1 llL E 1 21111 will confoun m the general 1 1 101111 01101129 Besl anthout 1 authun quotarry am the General 1 39 Key question for H8067 quot71 at is the relationship between the subjective individual and the commtm39 Premodernquot camnmnitarlmn Unde Modern ind dualist Und quot and the whole as a com osite of indi 39 Modern socie quot democrad individual rights Modern societ 39 democrac individual rights FRench SHARE non belief in yam yyynm based on 1 ular sovereiontv and wmmzm ii y the will of the ma39o DIFFER Two conceptions of uni 39 American co ent is good SL SAN DUNN French no lace for dissent a uni ed General 11 Two revolutions based on opposed 39 ions of human naturequot n nRelu n17 1 Human dep Prevent the tyranny of the mty39arity F Re olution 1 1789 Plimitive innocence Enforce the General Will The Terror of 17921794 A desperate effort to stabilize subjective individualism into a community where they will be interconnected and care for one another Begin with American Gridlock against the tyranny of the in jority 1 LEGISLATIVL BRANCH Mm 0quot MI rm n itn The Comm gt Hans ntskwrexanmlvu arms nu pwwtom an mu Ham and Sam mn mngressmnal van eadt mm ms Mam jquAL mum m cam Supreme Cam Conn aFAupaal Dimla mm mun n rowuu van mm lussm Demrallr rum ch hm represents me me m the SISTER Dunn s explanation 39 REVOLUTIONS Americans were men of experiencequot quot7quot Wer I what does that mean ex t1 7 2 Not deluded about human nature I what does that mean exactl 3 English tradition govemment V39 opposition 4 Believed reason essentiallx fallible quot quot quot I they were made gmatic not utopian Believed39 quotllue of factions t concentration of power Note the imlicit cultur deas and values Sufficientl deep archeology of American mindset What s missing Calvinism John Calvin 1509 w man m Lam i g 1 m in 01jo J uuimimmmw rm minimal Pam m Mama m m I m mum s mix V 1 1i mm mm mam vim qu quot Em mm mm Edkxm i m Oil i V rm Wham 11 3 M New mi 7 g Mafia751 awk 1511 4 My mi5y w iii 5mm Wig mint1pm Eelan my walla ms 4611911154 21m NB The deprav39 God 1 3 0 elonh u e 61 free to do what God iTniRnx u m Keep in mind while reading Adam Madison um mm John Adams The French A peculiar mixture of Enlightenment neoClassicism Scientific Revolution Mathematics Catholicism tion for French 5151511 quot REVOLUTlONS mum V WWW litionquot ofgoveinment vs expeiience Three deep some 1 Enlightenment C1 7 Scienti 3 Catholic 0 THREE KEY IDEAS Original innocence Social Compact General 1 la voltrmquot ga m mla JeanHonor Fragonard Diana andEna 39 JeanHonor Fragon d A Game ofHorse andRidel 1 childhood 18 quot c neo French R000 7 PreChl Innocent innocence nature 211131 Innocence I Mm m n I qu FRANKEN STEIN MARY SH Contra Biblica mm 39x m a 1 NW 391 an Organic World 7 Atomistic World NB Phrygian of freed slaves Republican gavel is the only Iegitinmte government c General Will In the act of making the social contract Each 11d all his power in common under the supreme directit Problem an indi lual general will which he 11 So that the cial compact mav not be an emptv obeV t l quotd39lw l h Cl L39Y v V391 n rrgme m mu I V v quot w 11112 0 Gen 3 So that the quotocial WIHpaL mm not be an empty fonnulm enel om l th hall Ie c Di sent and factions e ntial Prevent tvranny of maj 01 over ind dual minorin Wills Human nature eason fallible Catholic atholic theology of grace and nature C iginal Sin of Adam and Eve CL Irupted human nature but 11 7t radically ie not deprave Grace 1otradicall Rather grace builu Unnature nature into i 1pe1natural if v potential til ature 1 capable of being good Hence trong human in ituti monarchy government church ci tom Rou eal lalitical ideal a1 contract into ar olutionaw lan ciet aton from center I imagine the 1 being at the center of a la occupy equal 1 AL Abb Si yes Whari the Third E rare 2 hat should we do ith privileged ordersquot nobilit and clerg who do not want to be tripped ofprivileges and become citizens like even else This is the equivalent of what 7 ace one wishes to rn innant turn r that torment undermines the strength of the l sick per n neznreilix d s and NB analogy S Declaration of the Rights of Man USA Bill of Rights 10 Amendments 3 Tlnpnuctpleofallsmere re 39iee r en all innr nation No 0d 101 in iduamayt anyauthox much not 39 y from the on n the freedom to do i l In an the enjoyment nt an only be Ich mju 1C8 ofthenmural 39gh ofeach man minmn cepllh wlmha Uri memi 5 Law can ox uch action are hnrrtllllo uhichi lotf dden y a be forced to do anything not law the imhe enern very citizen ha articipate per nallyort er entati formation It ml r x it p te l pl e 25 September 1789 Immunity 26 August 1789 Human Rights Protect indiv against state majority Strong nation society Equal dignity positive freedomquot freedom for negative freedomquot freedom 39om 22 w uth um I n a m I quot3 Hutuquot 3 Liberty co m the freedom 0 do everything which injure hence the exerc ofthe natuml ofeach man 11 39 e u m 39 x number u 1 Unity United in concrete allegiance to TPHS constitution Faction Unity s mathematical Dissent not logicall permitted else no compact 23 The Terror of 17921794 A desperate effort to stabilize subjective individualism into a community where they will be intereonn 39 and care for one ano v 21 Januar Crime rimes against the state 24 gt Contrast with 28 October 1793 l Iarientoinette Guillotined PCSSimismu Of Crime Promiscuity American Optimism volatile mixture General Will forced to be freequot 17eutmizeJ 39 Con Slim on of me Pessimismquot Art u 7 4quot W I 71 m 1 Wm Mquot TM WwMLM 3941 m 1 Zr c w mew a 12 I ml m4 42 quotLlMa39s V I 4 2F John Adams 1 onstit utional L wnvention 7004 26 NOMINATED FOR mummy Amum RICHARD BURTON 0 5E LE Becket 4 O Neill Media Center B Medle Center 39MarginstediatiOI Purgation Ca 1300 1 1 September 201 Veek ZL ecturel Point of this lecture Show representations of the 13th century 1200s selfunderstanding as an interrelated organic hierarchy a great chain of being with strong boundaries of purity and impurity a mediation system that gives people a sense of place and meaning in a cosmos often filled with chaos ie order out of disorder 1 Great Chain of Being A Mediated world Being God Angels Realm of Demons Being Man Woman Animals Realm of Plants Becoming Mnerals Angels Dem ans Realm of Being E 5 quot2 r Man Animals Plants Minerals Realm cirf Hamming Non Being Great Chain of Being Macrocosm Mesocosm Microcosm Supernatural Emihly Individual 3 estates in red G Od quot lcrks Clerics Knights State Family m sPim I39wson Anf ge Pope King Husband Pass39m i 1 People Archbishops Dukes Wife i l Anlmdls Bishops Earls etc Son lion l I g Priests Knights Servants i Plants Laity nonclcr Sells peasants g J limnimatc Objects Gold Dirt 1m 1m 0mm Hmw mg A m u u lm mm mm WM um mm W Mum mum hum m Mmrr mhu x m M u Wm M W mm 5 Element Attribute God quotEverything and morequot Angels Imuilion Mankind Emsmncc Growth Passmn Reason Animals Existence Grow h Passion Planls Existence Growth Mmcrals Existence t Element God Angels Mankind Ammuls Plants Mi ncrztls Attribute quotEverything and morequot Intuition Existence Growth Passmn Existence Growth Passiun Existence Growth Existcnce Being Realm of Being Realm of Becoming Non Being Contrast with Dan in s evolution 7 MODERN E 39OhltlL things get better eV Rea Im of Being Realm of Renaming Angels Demons Ma n Animals Plants Minerals 2 a 5 ET 1 a at over time 1 n 1quot t God Angels Demons Man Woman Annuals Plants Minerals 1 he Geometer am he World Cemer orderko 1 Omex mnrgins ch as n w ical entialism ESSENT ALISM onesThomasAqumas WI A M 1105 an my g Q I 39 1 n may 39 l 1 2 undiaan 9 KEY POINT for a course on the invention of the subj ectiV 39 391 i 39 39lualquot and ending up vith the French Ru 1 39 Your identi meaning Ved and unchangeable even before you are born Biolog Tradition Unchangi BLOC 39 hfpdern 39 my individual effort our identi we create 0L 39 ual identi How did the Medievals order their world T BY RACE OR CLASS the Christian race C a capitalist invention Who owns the means of productionquot RATHER ORDERS OR ESTATES cf What is the Third Estate ie LAND property passed 011 through blood m7ily marriage III Societal order the Three Orders Estates 0 First Order hose who prayquot mediators I Bishops Monks Pliests 0 Second Order 7 Those who fightquot I Knights 1e Nobility 0 Third Order39 7 Those w 0 wkquot ltr Laborers the other LAND d wealth unlike capital which can 111 0V e cf the Wandering Jew 1 my D ougl are in othng gender Headdress Headcoverin0 nimbus 39 etemal UNCHANGING of wedding b circle with perfect motimf ENDLESS REVOLUT JNS ie revolving Christ in Majesty Spain 11501200 fresco Boston 1IFA Cultural signi C39 nee meaning of iiimb The saeiul 011 en and eternal 7 v0 11 m 7 t 10 m7 create it 0r emase it In alter it is an act qf39rebellian 39 ukquem ef IV Musical Representation Hildegard of Bingen Humility Hildegard of Bingen 1098117 der 0f Virtues Note Hildegard drawing perfect human being HlLDEGARD VON BINGEN Urdu wnutum SEQUENTIA Ind 1dual dthin a co Mimiif mm mm mammmmmmmw WWW cxwwwmwmmmmwma mmawm M v What epr ent casmic 71111710139039 totle the perfect motion 1 harmony of the Element Allribulc Gad quotEverything and morequot Angels lmuilion Existence Growth Passmn Reason Mankind Anlmnls Enslchc Growth Passwn Plams Existence Growth Minerals Exislcncc Cf 1 39 h of Daedulus Icarus and Tower of Babel those who want to y too highquot have lost sense of their place ie the Virtue of lmmili 39 in the cosmic order 20 The Vlrtues Slng to then SISter the Vlrtue of Innocence momn oh Innocence you who in your fan to lost no perfection who did not devour gIeedil wit 1 the gnllet of the sequent of old nsion to Garden of Edeni NB IT S ABOUT KNO EDGE KNOWLEDGE OF 0 RE You shall be as go knowing good and 6V Then enter the Devil the De but does not 7 he c0 nc He tiies to tempt them to zbandon their miniiquot 39 39 foll 39 39n 139ebellion led rebellion of angel 21in of being The Devil speaks 1111 claim that power but God I ll give them everwlu39no illusion to tempt Devil continues 011 Humility e nothi L 11 quoti1t11es even knew wmryau are arden of Eden sexpent s tation eat of the Tree of vledoe l You will not be ad ades and I know very ell at you are the dragon of old than the highest one limself hurled you in the abyss Gustave Dore39 F all OfLucgf r Cf Myth of Daedulu carus and Tower of Babel those who want to y too highquot have lost sense of their place ie the Virtue of 7101111111 in the cosmic order 23 Virtues conclude 115 w 3111165 d all in the heigh qurem mnnes in woesis hubimmus pre 1 because thew kno their lace humili EB opus fhnn Hildegard von Bingen In Portrait V Architecture Gothic Cathedral Chartres France Theopaquot dfvixian A World of Mediation in Great Chain of Being Durham England Gasson Hall Boston College Cultural meaning of the architecture39 A cosmic harm n mediated chain ofbeing uniting the divine and the human aith and ream n W


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