PSYS 100 Week 10 Lecture Notes
PSYS 100 Week 10 Lecture Notes Psys 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
▯ PROFS MIDDLE NAME IS MARK!*** ▯ ▯ Learning: ▯ Imitation is a type of learning itself Our third type of learning (a type of learning which is very different than classical or operant conditioning). 3. Observational Learning (or modeling) Here, we learn behaviors simply by observing others engaged in those behaviors. Four important points regarding observational learning: o Reinforcement is not needed for learning to take place. o Learning by watching or listening to others occurs and is not limited to humans. o People do not need to be actively engaged in a behavior to learn it EX: brother gets in trouble you observe that and learn not to do it as well o Observational learning is not a simple process It requires the study of thinking (cognitive processes). Mirror neurons have been implicated in the process (see text) EX: Bobo doll experiment (Bandura – Stanford) Chapter 8: Memory Forgetting: forgetting is often through of in negative terms… Actually forgetting is a very positive phenomenon! It gets rid of the TRASH from our working memory (garbage disposal of the mind) One of the earliest research areas is forgetting dealt with a type of “partial forgetting” Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon: First described by William James 1890 o EX: you’re watching an old movie with a friend and she asks What’s that actors name?? You’re Certain you know the actor’s name, but can’t get at the…. Memory Trace: this is the part of a neuron holding a given memory Source of the problem? o The Retrieval Stage! So, how do we retrieve the memory? Idea… Use a memory trace that can be remembered The one you are sure is linked with the tract that holds the lost memory! They are both part of the same “cell assembly” If you can fire the linked trace(hopefully) it will fire the neuron with the lost memory and you remember! o Based on this logic…. o There are several methods for over coming tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Try to recall the face and voice of a person You can try to remember other movies the actor has been in Go through as many common male names as you possibly can Go through the alphabet phonetically. Perhaps a sound memory trace will be linked with the actor’s name Again, tip of the tongue phenomenon is a problem with retrieval of memory. o Forgetting is due to faulty processing in any one of the three stages of memory: Problems can occur at: Encoding Stage Storage Stage Retrieval Stage (e.g. tip of the tongue phen.) Encoding Problems Pseudo-forgetting (or false forgetting) EX of pseudo-forgetting… o Draw the standard symbol for disabled parking This has never been encoded even though we’ve seen it a million times. Can’t remember exactly what it looks like Pseudo-forgetting isn’t really forgetting at all – it just seems like it. Pseudo-forgetting occurs when you try to retrieve (or remember) information that was never put into memory (or encoded) in the first place. o You just thought the memory was there So, you were trying to remember something that you never knew in the first place Storage Problems Decay: memories tend to fade with time. They become less clear/precise and are also subject to distortion Interference: when other memory information interferes with or blocks a particular memory thereby causing you to forget (KNOW FOR EXAM) Two types of interference: o Proactive interference- when prior learning interferes with something you have just learned. EX: study algebra- study psych – forget the psych o Retroactive interference- when new learning blocks out older information that you have learned. EX: study bio – study psych – forget bio Retrieval Problems Tip of the tongue phenomenon Motivated/willful forgetting (aka memory repression – Freud) Here we can’t retrieve information because we really don’t want too. Sometimes the repression of a terrible even will take other important information with it Called psychogenic amnesia Amnesia can also occur from damage to the brain… Called somatogenic amnesia What about forgetting everything (totally everything) Does it occur? Yes, but it is extremely rare! IMPORTANT Usually selective memory loss occurs with actual brain damage. The type and extent of the memory loss depends on where and how badly the brain has been damaged. Who has forgotten the number? o Point: active forgetting enhances memory! One of the most effective memory techniques is rehearsal o Goes back to the work of Herman Ebbinghaus in the 1880s o Showed that the more one rehearses stimuli, the better it is remembered o And… o Every time you tried to forget the number, you rehearsed it and embedded it deeper and deeper into your memory. This often times happens with catchy songs! ▯ Thinking & Language Development (Ch.9) ▯ ▯ Stages of Language Development: Cooing Stage o Even deaf babies coo Babbling/Echolalic Stage o Gibberish – trying to recreate words/sounds they hear One word stage o Owie, mommy, ball, no Telegraphic/Two-word stage (2yrs) o Up-me, owie – hurt 2 ½ to 3 children explode to exploit thousands of words Overgeneralization: when children apply grammatical rules to irregular verbs and nouns. To make past tense of a verb we add”ed” BUT not always o EX: Children say: “I goed to the store” “I runned” To make the plural of a noun we add s BUT not for all nouns o EX: Man becomes men BUT, children will always use the rule Man becomes mans Video Research with Kids All children go through this stage (despite culture and environment) Deaf infants use the same processes Language environment has strong affect on language acquisition Child learns language from imitation of parents Parental reward/reinforcement for the use of children’s correct language helps in proper development Humans are biologically programmed to developed language Deaf children make the same grammatical mistakes as hearing children