Chapter 2 Realist Perspectives
Chapter 2 Realist Perspectives PSCI 220S-01
Popular in Intro to Comparative Government
Popular in Political Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Fraser on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 220S-01 at University of Montana taught by Eric Hines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Government in Political Science at University of Montana.
Reviews for Chapter 2 Realist Perspectives
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 2 Realist Perspective Thursday September 24 2015 151 PM Chapter 2 The Realist Perspective What do we study 39 Realism 0 school of international relations that focuses on 39 power 39 security 39 state interests 39 power 0 ability of a state to 39 protect its own security 39 impose its will on other states and actors 39 realists say whaaaat 0 states can not be equal because powers aren t equal 0 states try to build order in situations of 39 anarchy D lack of exec power above individual states capable of regulating their behavior 39 International order D established system of the worlds organization and functioning 0 do not believe NGO s or IGOs can influence international affairs 39 realipolitik D policy that believe the foundation ofa nation s security is power and the threat of its use 0 choice is between imperfect order or something much worse Power in IR 39 GDP gross domestic product 0 total market value of all goods and services produced within a nation in a speci c time 39 realists the more wealth D the more economic power D easier to protect itself D more attractive to tother countries in making deals 39 hegemony 0 one states overwhelming power in relation to other states 39 BUT imperial overreach hegemonic state exhaustion of economic sources 000 rescission of political will 0 waking of imperial ideology Development of realism 39 Intellectual 0 refer to pg 45 for various philosophers 39 Realism in Europe 0 Cold War 4689 39 state of tension and competition D soviet Union and allies D western world USA W Europe and allies 39 Shaped politicians views on nuclear superpowers 39 Becoming atheory 0 just some vocab in the section 39 world federalism D attempt to form a uni ed structure of gov with central or federal authority realists said it was unreasonable D paci sm policy of refuting violence in attempts to resolve international conflicts ltgt realists say suicidal in the presence of aggressive states 0 Cold war shaped the idea and theory 39 many scholars and politicians gained insight Neorealism 39 theory that argues 0 states seek security rather than power according to existing international order 0 couldn t quite explain Soviet union under Gorbachev Internal Order 39 realists order determined by power distributions 39 Polarity O multi 39 world with multiple centers of powers and influence 0 bip 39 world organization based on 2 centers of power 0 uni 39 only 1center of power 39 Realists believe multi is most stable 0 creates more opportunities for balancing LOGIC OF REALISM 39 Anarchv is the natural state of affairs among states U 39 Sovereign states trying to survive anarchy act in self interest to maximize power 39 To avoid all out war states balance each other using diplomacy and by building alliances and coalitions 39 international order emerges from state s self interested actions 39 within that order states seek greater security for themselves Realpolitik 39 Rules of Engagement 0 chances to succeed are higher when the state has military and economic advantages over other countries 39 retaliation is less likely 39 USAOttoman Empire 0 to survive in the anarchy ofnt Real states must combine military power with diplomacy 39 examp pg 60 GB vs GE 0 state should not make too many commitments that constrain its freedom of action 39 foreign policy following moral considerations or solidarity may hurt state s interests 39 Predator states 0 some believe power politics less war more peace BUT 39 Predator state D conducts policies of systematic disregard for international rules D actions affect international arena D Hitler with GE against states surrounding Europe D shift balance of power regionally and globally 39 power shifts D create international instability D cause counteractions affecting power blanches already in existence 39 Reactions D stronger states form an alliance against threat D weaker states make deals with predator states to bargain Use of force 39 realism does not say war is always the answer 0 power states use threat of war not war itself 0 to settle disputes establish control 0 prevent attacks 0 get economic gains 39 but war can not always be avoided 0 effective instrument of realpolitik 39 Types of responses to force 0 calculated on states 39 interest I Lvnn A nFnunnFn LlllCdL LU lllLCleLb 39 outcomes of inaction and counter action 0 forceful 39 remove threat to balance 0 ambivalent 39 threat is serious but outcome is uncertain O indifferent 39 war doesn t directly affect state 39 NeoRealists 0 military confrontations are potential but not inevitable after power shifts 39 bene cial for state to stay away from violence 39 BUT 39 quotoffensive realists D acting decisively against predator state is best way to respond 39 NON military action 0 realists do not endorse war 39 economic incentives economic help sanctions Application of realism 39 Individual 0 Realism 39 not so much interested in personal choices of leaders 39 interested in international structure 0 BUT Sometimes dramatic shifts come when a leader dies or a new one comes in Disproves theory that leader shapes to structure not the other way around 39 State 0 domestic political factors play a serious role in foreign policy and international relations 0 harder to conduct power politics in times of peace 39 log rolling concession to opposing party on a domestic policy in exchange for support ton a foreign policy 0 defensive realists 39 importance of domestic political factors are recognized 39 governments create military con icts under pressure from domestic political forces 0 US is the big player that is currently holding things together 39 good helps small states with protection 39 bad uses too much military force and gets too involved 39 Combined 0 power and leadership of USA will help maintain international order 39 must remain indispensable global leaderstrengthen world stability 0 if America powerleadership diminishesglobal instability 39 economic competition 39 other powers arrive 39 Systems 0 Uni sustainable USA maintaining superpower status 0 Multi New multi with china EU India Russia as centers 0 intergov diminish power and states increase power of int orgs 39 NATO 0 created argument between defensive and offensive realists 39 offensive D expansion of NA alliance was not necessary D NATO deliberately exaggerated external threats created bogus reasons to expand 39 defensive D NATOs eastward enlargement created anxiety for Russia