Week 10 Notes (Body Defenses)
Week 10 Notes (Body Defenses) phys 215
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Viruses verses Bacteria Viruses can be DNA or RNA Example of RNA virus Rhinovirus cold Example of DNA virus Herpes Virus Requires a host Can use a bacteria as a host Bacteria single celled organism with DNA no central nucleus Can replicate without a host Can uptake DNA from other bacteria either in snips or as a plasmid circle of DNA Cannot infect a virus Complement System Activated by carbohydrate chains on the surface of microorganisms and by exposure to antibodies against a speci c invader Complement System Components Chemotaxinsattract phagocytes Opsoninsbind microbes increasing phagocytosis Histaminevasodiolation vascular changes Kinins reinforce in ammatory responses Antibody Subclasses 1 lgM B cell surface receptor for antigen attachment and secreted in early plasma cell response 2 lgG Produced when the body is reexposed to antigen Subtype of antibody 3 lgE protects against parasitic worms and mediates common allergic responses 4 gA found in secretions tears milk digestion respiratory and genitourinary systems 5 lgD present on the surface of B cells Antibody protein structure Y shaped 2 long heavy chains 2 short light chains arm regions determine speci c antibody binding tail region determines what the antibody will do once the antigen is bound Primary antibody responses takes several days requires exposure to antigen and production of antibodies Secondary antibody responses faster longer lasting response mediated via memory cells Active immunity production of antibodies due to exposure to an anUgen Passive immunity transfer of antibodies as a mother to a fetus across the placenta or from a mother to an infant through breast milk 39 WNl l Antigen Presentation Macrophage engulfs and digests the microbe The antigen is bound to an MHC molecule MHC molecule transports antigen to the cell surface The macrophage secretes interleukin 1 which enhances B cell differentiation and proliferation Helper T cells DO NOT SECRETE ANTIBODIES OR DIRECTLY ATTACK CELLS Secrete interleukin 1 Enhance the development of antigen stimulated B cells Enhance cytosolic T cell activity Activate macrophages and modulate the activity of other immune cells HIVAIDS Human Immunode ciency Virus Acquired Immune De ciency Syndrome Selectively invades helper T cells and can infect macrophages as well thus decreases the immune system Cytotoxic T cells Primarily target viruses Recognize and bind to the target antigen with self antigen Kills the target by either releasing chemicals or signaling them to commit suicide Perforin a chemical released by the cytotoxic T cell and by NK cells that forms channellike pores in the cell membrane Cytokines any chemical that is secreted by leukocytes that is NOT an antibody Tolerance prevention of attack on ones own tissues Clonal deletion elimination of clones that recognize ones own tissues by apoptosis cell death of immature cells Clonal anergy 2 signals required for lymphocyte activation the antigen and B7 found on the surface of the antigen presenting cell exposure to a single self antigen renders the T cell inactive Receptor Editing B cell is capable of changing the antigen that it recognizes Thus when a B cell encounters self antigen it often changes the antigen receptor Antigen Sequestering self molecules that are never seen by the immune system not directly in contact with extracellular uid Immune privilege certain tissues such as the eyes and testes possess a molecule that triggers cell death when approached by activated lymphocytes Autoimmune Disease Failure of the immune system to recognize and tolerate self antigens associated with certain tissues when tolerance doesn t work Examples multiple sclerosis rheumatoid arthritis type 1 diabetes mellitus PANDAS pediatric autoimmune disorders associated with streptococci MHC molecules major histocompatibility complex Escorts antigens to the cell surface for presentation Can recognize 3 to 6 antigens By itself signals the immune system to leave the cell alone With antigen signals the T cell speci c for the antigen to bind with the infected cell Class MHC molecule Benign vs Malignant Benign tumors are NOT cancerous They grow slowly They do NOT leave the original location Malignant Tumors ls cancerous Grows at variable rates but generally faster than a benign tumor Can spread outside of its original location metastasize Immediate hypersensitivity allergic responses involving B cells Examples pollen bee venom penicillin nut allergies mold dust cat saliva dog dander mites Result in the synthesis of lgE antibodies Release of antibodies by memory cells upon reexposure leads to a more powerful response Delayed hypersensitivitytake a day or so to occur involve T cells Examples poison ivy poison oak poison sumac Chapter 12 Due review questions 1 2 4 5 714 and essay questions 1 3 6 11 14 due exam day
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