SCOM 121: week 10 Persuasion
SCOM 121: week 10 Persuasion SCOM 121 0003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gab Calderon on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Chapter 15 : Persuasive speaking! 1. Define persuasion. A communication process of converting, modifying or maintaining the attitudes and/or behavior of others. (Attitude- a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object… Example of attitude is the iPhone is better than the Droid) 2. What are the primary dimensions of credibility (competence trustworthiness, dynamism, and composure)? Credibility- judgement made by the perceiver concerning the believability pf a communicator. Competence- audiences’ perception of the speaker’s knowledge and experience on a topic. So basically does the speaker know what they are talking about? Trustworthiness- how truthful or honest we perceive the speaker to be. To increase your trustworthiness you argue against you self-interest like take positon that will cost you money. Dynamism- the enthusiasm, energy, and forcefulness exhibited by a speaker. Composure- speakers who are emotionally stable, confident and in control of themselves have a greater influence on their audience. 3. Identify and discuss how the three Aristotelian modes of proof (ethos, logos, and pathos) are used in persuasive speeches. Ethos- good sense, good moral character, and good will. Logos- logic and evidence… Proposition- the primary, overriding claim for a persuasive speech. Define and focus the argument, limit issues to what is relevant and set standard for what should be addressed. Proposition of fact- alleges a truth Proposition of value- calls for a judgement that assesses the worth or merit of an idea, object or practice. (Abortion is immoral) Proposition of policy- significant change from how problems are currently handled. (Smoking should be banned in public places) Always present as many strong arguments as you can Evidence must be a high credible source and must gain attention of audience. Pathos- emotional appeals Emotions that change behavior are pride, sadness, hope, guilt, envy, and shame. Fear appeals- Examples are don’t put that in your mouth and don’t run with scissors. Adults have these like photos of black lungs form smoking. These don’t always work… Audience must feel vulnerable, a clear specific recommendation for avoiding or lessening the fear is important, the recommendation must be perceived as effect, listeners must perceive that they can perform the actions recommended and fear appeals are more persuasive when combined with high-quality arguments. Anger appeals- the intensity of the anger. Anger Activism Model: helps explain the relationship between anger and persuasion. Anger provoke desired behavior when the target audience initially agrees with your persuasive message, the anger produced by your message is intense and your audience members perceive that they can act effectively to address their anger. Emotional appeals arent necessarily unethical because they arent a logical appeal. 4. Identify and discuss how propositions of fact, value, and policy are used in persuasive speeches. NOTES WHILE READING: Coercion- those who seek to eliminate choice by force, threats of force, or intimidation. (Free choice is taken away) Persuade- use logical and emotional appeals not threats. Listeners are free to choose what to believe and how to behave. Attitudes and behaviors: 1. Direct experience- if attitudes are experience directly then they conform more closely to actual behavior than those formed more indirectly. Second-hand attitudes are ones from media images or what friends have told you. This is a weak predictor of behavior. 2. Social pressure- some people don’t speak up because they fear social disapproval. 3. Effort required- always want the easier choice so like a petition is easy for audiences to do rather than filling out papers. Goals of persuasion: 1. Conversion- asks the listener to move from their anchor position to a completely contradictory position. (This is highly unlikely to happen in a persuasive speech) Social judgement theory- explains attitude change… when listeners hear a persuasive message they compare it with attitudes they already hold. Anchor (reference point) is the preexisting attitude. Latitude of acceptance- is positions a person find tolerable. Latitude of non-commitment- positions that provoke only a neutral or ambivalent response. Latitude of rejection- positions a person would find objectionable because they are too far from the anchor attitude. Ego involvement- the degree to which an issue is relevant or important to a person. 2. Modification- If the speech is very persuasive someone might modify their anchor position. 3. Maintenance- Counter persuasion- attacks from an opposing side. TO induce resistance to persuasion- Warn you audience that there will be an attempt to change their attitudes and inoculate the audience (exposes your listeners to a weakened version of the counterarguments) • Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)- overarching explanation for how listeners cope with the bombardment of persuasive messages by sorting them into those that are less relevant. • Central route- requires mindfulness… counterarguments are considered and weighed… questions form… • Peripheral route- mindless… mental shortcuts to make quick decisions like credibility, attractiveness and consequences if the listeners agrees or disagrees with the persuader. Parallel processing- use both central and peripheral route. Establish Identification to connect with audience: • Identification- affiliation and connection between speaker and audience. (Likeability) Stylistic similarity- identify with those who look similar to us. • Substantive similarity- creates identification by establishing common ground between speaker and audience. Cognitive dissonance- unpleasant feeling produced by seemingly inconsistent thoughts. NOTES FROM 3-14-16: Who persuades? Careers dependent upon persuasion: legal, advertising, PR, Sales & marketing, management, counseling. Persuasion accounts for 25% or our GDP (Gross domestic product) How are people persuaded? • First of all they have a choice (non-coercive) • Attitudes do not always match behaviors. There are weak and strong predictors of behavior A few theories: 1. Social judgement theory- anchor (current attitude)… Center of latitude of acceptance, ego involvement, point of comparison when we hear a discrepant message. Example: My anchor is that recycling is good. But you say we don’t have room to recycle. 2. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)- How people process messages… Centrally (mindfully. Reasoning) or peripherally (Mindlessly, shortcuts like credibility, likeability or attractiveness). There is also parallel processing- but one is predominant (motivation and ability) Maintaining attitudes and behaviors: • Ongoing persuasion to “hold the fort” or “hold the ground” • When you know people will be exposed to attempts at counter-persuasion • You forewarn- tell them in advance • You inoculate- try to prevent message from you hearing it… like news or media Persuasion is connected to culture • Persuasion must happen within the framework of what a culture values. Persuasion is designed for particular audience. Know who audience is and what they are motivated by. Persuasion is crafting arguments that appeal to the audience and encourage them to change or maintain their attitudes or behaviors. Our speech: Shark tank- what we need to take advantage of... what a student should experience.. Donate to a nonprofit organization. Building arguments- Proposition- the starting point of a persuasive speech. This is a primary overriding claim. Assertion- something you believe/support and will argue for audience to believe or support. (Defines and focuses argument too and limits issues to be addressed) Proposition of fact- alleges a truth, something we can know to be true or false. (example- School uniforms reduce violence in schools. Proposition of value- judgement of worth or merit, right or wrong (example- volunteering is a way for young people to enact citizenship) Proposition of policy- Action should be taken or something needs to be changed (Driving tests should be mandatory every year) Every argument or story or piece of supporting evidence you put in your speech should support your main claim directly. Tools for persuasion- • Narratives • Fear • Anger • Humor • Evidence • 3 types of appeals- Ethos- credibility Pathos-emotion Logos- logic Ethos- credibility Identification is one part (Symbolic, likeability/relatability, similar in style, points out common ground/substantive) Humor is good. Four “earned” Components Competence- know what you talking about Trustworthiness- oral citations, dressing to fit the part Dynamism- ignite a passion, don’t need to be loud Composure- strike a balance, act human not too proper Logos- Build Arguments Avoid reasoning fallacies Support claims with evidence (graphs, charts, first person testimony) Judgement of evidence Criteria- is it credible? Is it relevant? Is it sufficient? Avoid reasoning errors. Common fallacies Credibility issues Questionable statistics Biased sources (payed actors like ones that act like doctors) Expert quote Complete citations Diversions Water is scarce in South Africa, therefore people are poor. Non sequitur- Make sure conclusions matches the premise The president doesn’t care about returning vets. After all, he never fought for his country. Ad hominem- personal attacks that divert from issues Public opinions- Ad populum- everybody else is doing it so why cant I? Jumping to conclusions quickly based on too little or wrong information Inadequate sample- one testimonial is not enough Non causation- how can we prove it’s a direct causation. HAS TO CAUSE ANOTHER THING. Use analogies to things they don’t know about to what they know about. But analogies are often undependable. False analogy- My name is Gab. Im white. Everyone who is named Gab is white. Pathos- Emotion Build on cognitive dissonance- Ability to create someone’s belief and where they should be like people who smoke and see smoking commercial they get cognitive dissonance. Ethical and work best when they complement logical appeals. Persuading with fear- Create vulnerability Needs to be paired with clear, effective actions to avoid or lessen the fear. Persuading with anger Triggering intense anger may lead to dangerous outcomes Trump appeals to anger… like when he takes people out Aristotle thinks emotions are logical. Organizational Patterns: Several common patterns for persuasion (368) Monroe’s motivated sequence- not informative! 5 Step Pattern! Attention-create interest Need- present problem to be solved, make it relevant to the audience. Satisfaction- solution that will satisfy that need Visualization- offer a mental image of what it will look like to satisfy that need. Describe what your life would be like Action- get audience to commit and understand what they must do Problem-solution or problem-cause solution- explores nature of a problem and proposes a solution or possible solutions… here’s best solution and why Problem-Cause solution- exploration of the causes of the problem… we do this so everyone can see/understand so your solution makes sense to them