Chapter 8-Memory Notes
Chapter 8-Memory Notes 1010-07
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1010-07 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Nicholas Comotto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Memory Chapter 8 What is memory the set off processes used to encode store and retrieve information over different periods of time EncodingDStorageDRetrieval Encoding the input of information into the memory system ReceiVing labeling and organizing sensory information 2 Types of Processing Automatic Processing encoding of details like time space frequency and the meaning of words Effortful Processing encoding of information that takes effort and attention 3 Types of Encoding Semantic Encoding input of words and their meaning Visual Encoding input of images Acoustic Encoding input of sounds words and music Self reference Effect the tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance Storage Creation of a permanent record of information The Atkinson Shriffrin Model Sensory input lsensory memory I short term memory l l long term memory Sensory Memory Storage of brief sensory events such as sights sounds and tastes very brief storage is the information valuable valuable information will be sent to short term memory Short Term Memory temporary storage system that processes incoming sensory memory Known as working memory Converting information to STM or LTM Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to be remembered Memory Consolidation active rehearsal to move information from short term memory into long term memory Long term Memory continuous storage of information Two types EXplicit Memories memories we consciously try to remember and recall Declarative type of long term memory of facts and events we personally experience Semantic Memory type of declarative memory about words concepts and language based knowledge and facts Episodic Memory type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced also known as autobiographical memory Implicit Memories Non declarative memories that are not part of our consciousness Procedural Memory type of long term memory for making skilled actions such as how to brush your teeth how to drive a car and how to swim Retrieval act of getting information out of long term memory storage and back into conscious awareness Three ways 1 Recall accessing information without cues 2 Recognition identifying previously learned information after encountering it again usually in response to a cue 3 Relearning learning information that was previously learned Parts of the Brain Involved Engram the group of neurons that serve as the physical representation of memory Equipotentiality Hypothesis if part of one area of the brain involved in memory is damaged another part of the same area can take over that memory function The Amygdala experiencing of emotions The Hippocampus center of emotion memory and the autonomic nervous system The Cerebellum coordinate and regulate muscular activity Neurotransmitters epinephrine dopamine serotonin glutamate acetylcholine Arousal Theory believed that strong emotions trigger the formation of strong memories and weaker emotional experiences form weaker memories Flashbulb Memory exceptionally clear recollection of an important event Problems with Memory Amnesia loss of long term memory that occurs as the result of disease physical trauma or psychological trauma Two types Anterograde Amnesia loss of memory for events that occur after the brain trauma Retrograde Amnesia loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain trauma Memory Construction and Reconstruction Construction formulation of new memories Reconstruction process of bringing up old memories that might be distorted by new information Suggestibility effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories Eyewitness Misidentification greatest contributing factor to wrongful convictions proven by DNA testing playing a role in more than 70 of convictions overturned through DNA testing nationwide Effects Misinformation Effect Paradigm after exposure to incorrect information a person may misremember the original event Controversies over Repressed and Recovered Memories False Memory Syndrome recall of false autobiographical memories Debate over repressed traumatic memories Forgetting Encoding Failure brain39s occasional failure to create a memory link Memory Errors incorrect recall or complete loss of information in the memory system for a specific detail andor event Misattribution when you confuse the source of your information Interference Proactive old information hinders the recall of newly learned information Retroactive information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information Memory Enhancing Strategies technique to help make sure information goes from short term memory to long term memory Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to be remembered Chunking organizing information into manageable bits or chunks Elaborative Rehearsal thinking about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory Mnemonic Devices memory aids that help us organize information for encoding STUDY EFFECTIVELY Use elaborative rehearsal Apply self reference effect Don t forget the forgetting curve Rehearse rehearse rehearse Be aware of interference Keep moving Get enough sleep Make use of mnemonic deVices OSquotHgtP Nt
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