Chemistry And Physics in the 19th Century
Chemistry And Physics in the 19th Century AS.140.302
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sanobar Shaikh on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AS.140.302 at Johns Hopkins University taught by Jon Mercelis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Rise of Modern Science in Science at Johns Hopkins University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Lecture 17 Week 7, Monday March 7, 2016 th The Institutional Transformation of Chemistry and Physics in the Long 19 Century Institutional Transformation of Chemistry Introduction o Emergence of a Research University Germany Pioneer Competition between German states Result of political fragmentation Try to unify the country through culture and education Competition to attract the best professors and students Increasing nationalism Increasing competition amongst scientists Competition with Britain and France Components of research university Characterized by close union of teachingresearch Romanticism Original authorship valued (doctoral dissertation) Teachingresearch seminar o Links between social and human sciences o Emerges in philology o Teaching is not about a teacher lecturing, but also about someone seeking new knowledge o Should be more interactive Teachingresearch laboratory o Large numbers of students are trained in a single laboratory o Complement each other in that setting o Emergence of Organic Chemistry Distinction between “organic” and “inorganic” chemistry (1810s 20s) Animal / vegetable / mineral substances Initial dominance of inorganic chemistry Organic substances harder to analyze and classify Large chains of molecules Interest in arrangement of atoms in molecules Improved methods of analysis—rise of organic chemistry Organic chemistry closely related to development of new industries (synthetic dye) French chemist, Leurent, new theories to pay exact attention to molecules and the impact that the arrangement has on the properties of atoms (not enough to identify) ***Reminiscent of Humboldt, plants, and biodistribution Difficult to establish the position of these atoms Justus Liebig (18031873) o Contributes to improved methods of analysis o Able to absorb carbon dioxide out of organic substances o Weighs substances before and after carbon dioxide absorbed, determine number of carbon atoms in compounds o Emergence of teachingresearch laboratory Liebig’s chemical laboratory in Giessen Small provincial town—less distractions Modeled after ChemicoPhysicoPharmaceutical Institute of J.B. Trommsdorf Less competition in field of organic chemistry, thus was able to establish a dominant position in the field Early years: organic chemical analysis Research increasingly prominent New and unique aspects of the lab o Not simply training his students in a specific field o Involves students in research projects o Focused heavily on his chemical analysis “Big Science” o >700 students o Work being done in the lab was not original o “Mass production” of knowledge (almost like capitalism/industrialism) Consequence of his organizational structure—were able to carry out experiments in groups and succeed that other scientists did individually and failed Students came mostly from UK and most focused on Pharmacy o Research schools in 19 century science Dependent on entrepreneurial director Access to students—scientists based at educational institutions who were able to establish themselves as dominant in field “Mass production” of knowledge by means of simple experimental techniques Even less advanced students were able to make contributions in research schools because shared experimental methods and techniques were passed from teacher to student Publication opportunities Outlet for research of teacher and also students Provided incentive for them to take their work more seriously Institutional power and financial support Attracted a lot of students Contributed to prestige of university E.g. Liebig—Thomas Thomson (inorganic chemistry, minerals; did not give students prospect to publish their own work) Other scientists who led their own research school o Lavoisier—institutional power o Humboldt—mass production of knowledge, “Humboldtian science”, but no institutional power, financial support, or political backing August Hofmann (18181892) o Student of Liebig o Appointed at Royal College of Chemistry secured by Liebig o Tries to establish Giessenstyle research school Smaller, facilities did not allow for mass production o Contributions to early synthetic dyestuffs industry Emergence of this industry further increases status of organic chemistry Encourages other states to invest in studying organic chemistry Economic value of science o Design of chemistry “palaces” in Berlin and Bonn Larger and betterequipped laboratories than Giessen o Early synthetic dyes Identification of aniline (C6H5NH2) William Perkin synthetized aniline purple (mauve) Aniline red and may other synthetic dyes followed in next decades Increasingly complex and more firmly grounded in organic chemistry German firms overtake British and French competitors Lecture 18 Week 7, Wednesday March 9, 2016 Thethnstitutional Transformation of Chemistry and Physics in the Long 19 Century 1. August Hofmann (1818-92) Appointment at Royal College of Chemistry secured by Liebig Tried to establish Giessen-style research school Contributions to early synthetic dye industry Design of chemistry “palaces” in Berlin and Bonn Hofmann at inauguration of Royal College of Chemistry in London 2. Early Synthetic Dyes Identification of aniline (C H NH ) 6 5 2 William Perkin synthetized aniline purple (mauve) Aniline red and many other synthetic dyes followed in next decades o Increasingly complex and more firmly grounded in organic chemistry (e.g. synthetic alizarin) German firms overtake British and French competitors Ring formulae of benzene proposed by August Kekulé, a student of Liebig who had come to lead a research school of his own Synthetic alizarin “The purpose of this new German Chemical Society is to provide a forum where representatives of speculative and applied chemistry can exchange ideas and thereby reaffirm the alliance between science and industry.”-Hofmann in 1867 2. Chemical palaces of the 1860s New generation of chemical laboratories o Larger in size o Improved health and safety conditions o Disciplinary management and control Generously funded by state governments o Scientific, political and economic competition 3. “Institutional revolution” in German physics c. 1865-1914 Physical cabinet physics institute (1750-1870) o Physics laboratories, full professorships, and institutionalization of research Erection of physics institutes (1870-1914) Increase of students and economic potential major drives of expansion in late 19 century Chemistry laboratories as a model? Physics and electrical technology 4. Physics and Electrical Technology Technological/industrial relevance → extra funds for academic physics o More support for physics research Tension between pursuit of scientific knowledge for its own sake and development of applications Competition between physicists and electrical engineers o « Pure » and « applied » science 5. Concluding Remarks Institutional expansion of chemistry and physics driven by o Competition between states/countries/research schools o Need for enlarged teaching facilities o Anticipated economic benefits Synthetic dyes and electricity Tension with newly emerging engineering specialties Impact of organization of science on knowledge production? o Teaching-research laboratories → large-scale group work o Ever-increasing need for resources Creation of Kaiser Wilhelm institutes and Physikalisch- Technische Reichsanstalt o Research separated from teaching Lecture 19 Week 7, Friday March 11, 2016 Discussion Section Levere o Rise of chemical education o Chemical laboratory o Chemistry lacked prestige in France and Germany for much of the 18 century because: th Physics and astronomy were the big deal in the 18 century Chemistry was associated with other fields, never its own entity Chemistry was incapable of becoming its own science o How in the way that chemistry was taught contribute to its lack of grounding? Did not stress lab and research, much more classroom based Chemistry is never more than a systematized natural history More of collection of data rather than applying things Instruments were very expensive Taught to get a fully liberal education, it was not fully focused upon Lack of funding for research Didn’t consider chemistry a real science—members of the public, not scientists o Rise of chemistry with Lavoisier, but then in France it was on a decline Napoleon Centralization o Rise again after the decline In Germany there was the establishment of research universities, model that spread everywhere Industrially relevant—economic impetus o German story in the 19 century Chemical engineering Emergence of organic chemistry, synthetic dye o Justus Liebig Giessen—groups rather than individual Spread chemistry Increased national prestige of chemistry People came from abroad to study chemistry in Liebig Prioritized chemical education Hunt o Thomas Edison Brought new technology to public eye, phonograph, telegraph, telephone, lightbulb (eh) Bit of a businessman Controversy Edison hired other scientists and mentors to do the work and took his own credit Used alternating current and publicly killed animals with it to dissuade people to Not a scientist, public figure educating, rather than discovering it Amateur scientist Exemplifies predatory capitalism—frame things that make them wondrous to the public Edison took advantage of Tesla Taken a completely different approach that no one else had done before Discoveries were not taken to scientific community, but rather to the public Edison Contrasted with Previous Scientists Edison’s discoveries were much more applicable to the public Humboldt’s plant species less interesting, less applicable Lavoisier synthesizing water interesting, but not applicable to the public as much Products were much more consumerbased Did not start with the theory, started with the issue to solve Electric chair to kill others, influencing country’s use of capital punishment subtly, and to imply through subtext that his inventions are better than Tesla’s Manhattan Project System of ethics with regard to science Are scientists’ meant to be ethical? Norms were different back then o Faraday’s Business Model Patents o War of the Currents AC vs. DC Perceived drawbacks of the system DC current does not travel as far Edison proclaimed his as more safe o Relationship between industrialism, capitalism, and science Engineering as a field The applications of scientific research Fox and Guagnini o Linked to Prussian unity, to have a prestigious higher education system o Age in which doctoral education is becoming more rigorous o How did physics gain a foothold in German universities? o Impediments in 1840s and 1850s that slowed down process Difficult to get funding Physics was an accessory science, fit in with pharmacy Was not its own entity Geran professors spent most of their time teaching, so did not do much research Graduates entered careers in secondary teaching rather than research, engineering, or industrialization o Academic Reform movement in France Lab research took off French admired German academic life Wanted to show intellectual rigor of German academic system o Britain No institutional basis of research People did research experiments at home and talked about it with their friends o National styles of science Different styles of empire contributed to the character of science Biology playing out in three different countries Empire—nationalism, striving to compete with one another Prestige of university Funding structures Economic relevance Free trade and capitalism Institutional structures—Lavoisier at the French Academy of Science, Britain was more on an individual level rather than institutional level