New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chemistry And Physics in the 19th Century

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Sanobar Shaikh

Chemistry And Physics in the 19th Century AS.140.302

Marketplace > Johns Hopkins University > Science > AS.140.302 > Chemistry And Physics in the 19th Century
Sanobar Shaikh

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

The institutional transformation of chemistry in the long 19th century Emergence of a research university, organic chemistry, Justus Liebig, research schools, August, Hoffman, chemical palaces, Ge...
Rise of Modern Science
Jon Mercelis
Class Notes
Science, history, History of Science
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!"

Popular in Rise of Modern Science

Popular in Science

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sanobar Shaikh on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AS.140.302 at Johns Hopkins University taught by Jon Mercelis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Rise of Modern Science in Science at Johns Hopkins University.


Reviews for Chemistry And Physics in the 19th Century

Star Star Star Star Star

Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!



Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/19/16
Lecture 17 Week 7, Monday March 7, 2016 th  The Institutional Transformation of Chemistry and Physics in the Long 19    Century Institutional Transformation of Chemistry  Introduction  o Emergence of a Research University  Germany Pioneer  Competition between German states  Result of political fragmentation  Try to unify the country through culture and education  Competition to attract the best professors and students  Increasing nationalism  Increasing competition amongst scientists  Competition with Britain and France  Components of research university  Characterized by close union of teaching­research   Romanticism  Original authorship valued (doctoral dissertation)  Teaching­research seminar o Links between social and human sciences o Emerges in philology o Teaching is not about a teacher lecturing, but also about someone seeking new knowledge o Should be more interactive   Teaching­research laboratory o Large numbers of students are trained in a single laboratory o Complement each other in that setting o Emergence of Organic Chemistry  Distinction between “organic” and “inorganic” chemistry (1810s­ 20s)  Animal / vegetable / mineral substances  Initial dominance of inorganic chemistry  Organic substances harder to analyze and classify  Large chains of molecules  Interest in arrangement of atoms in molecules  Improved methods of analysis—rise of organic chemistry  Organic   chemistry   closely   related   to   development   of   new industries (synthetic dye)  French chemist, Leurent, new theories to pay exact attention to molecules   and   the   impact   that   the   arrangement   has   on   the properties of atoms (not enough to identify)  ***Reminiscent of Humboldt, plants, and biodistribution  Difficult to establish the position of these atoms  Justus Liebig (1803­1873) o Contributes to improved methods of analysis o Able to absorb carbon dioxide out of organic substances o Weighs substances before and after carbon dioxide absorbed, determine number of carbon atoms in compounds o Emergence of teaching­research laboratory  Liebig’s chemical laboratory in Giessen  Small provincial town—less distractions  Modeled after Chemico­Physico­Pharmaceutical Institute of J.B. Trommsdorf   Less competition in field of organic chemistry, thus was able to establish a dominant position in the field  Early years: organic chemical analysis  Research increasingly prominent  New and unique aspects of the lab o Not simply training his students in a specific field o Involves students in research projects o Focused heavily on his chemical analysis   “Big Science” o >700 students o Work being done in the lab was not original o “Mass   production”   of   knowledge   (almost   like capitalism/industrialism)  Consequence of his organizational structure—were able to carry out experiments in groups and succeed that other scientists did individually and failed  Students came mostly from UK and most focused on Pharmacy o Research schools in 19  century science  Dependent on entrepreneurial director  Access to students—scientists based at educational institutions who were able to establish themselves as dominant in field  “Mass production” of knowledge by means of simple experimental techniques  Even   less   advanced   students   were   able   to   make contributions   in   research   schools   because   shared experimental methods and techniques were passed from teacher to student  Publication opportunities  Outlet for research of teacher and also students  Provided incentive for them to take their work more seriously  Institutional power and financial support  Attracted a lot of students  Contributed to prestige of university  E.g. Liebig—Thomas Thomson (inorganic chemistry, minerals; did not give students prospect to publish their own work)  Other scientists who led their own research school o Lavoisier—institutional power o Humboldt—mass production of knowledge, “Humboldtian science”, but no institutional power, financial support, or political backing  August Hofmann (1818­1892) o Student of Liebig o Appointed at Royal College of Chemistry secured by Liebig o Tries to establish Giessen­style research school  Smaller, facilities did not allow for mass production o Contributions to early synthetic dyestuffs industry  Emergence of this industry further increases status of organic chemistry  Encourages other states to invest in studying organic chemistry  Economic value of science  o Design of chemistry “palaces” in Berlin and Bonn  Larger and better­equipped laboratories than Giessen o Early synthetic dyes  Identification of aniline (C6H5NH2)  William Perkin synthetized aniline purple (mauve)  Aniline red and may other synthetic dyes followed in next decades  Increasingly complex and more firmly grounded in organic chemistry  German firms overtake British and French competitors Lecture 18 Week 7, Wednesday March 9, 2016 Thethnstitutional Transformation of Chemistry and Physics in the Long 19 Century 1. August Hofmann (1818-92)  Appointment at Royal College of Chemistry secured by Liebig  Tried to establish Giessen-style research school  Contributions to early synthetic dye industry  Design of chemistry “palaces” in Berlin and Bonn  Hofmann at inauguration of Royal College of Chemistry in London 2. Early Synthetic Dyes  Identification of aniline (C H NH ) 6 5 2  William Perkin synthetized aniline purple (mauve)  Aniline red and many other synthetic dyes followed in next decades o Increasingly complex and more firmly grounded in organic chemistry (e.g. synthetic alizarin)  German firms overtake British and French competitors  Ring formulae of benzene proposed by August Kekulé, a student of Liebig who had come to lead a research school of his own Synthetic alizarin  “The purpose of this new German Chemical Society is to provide a forum where representatives of speculative and applied chemistry can exchange ideas and thereby reaffirm the alliance between science and industry.”-Hofmann in 1867 2. Chemical palaces of the 1860s  New generation of chemical laboratories o Larger in size o Improved health and safety conditions o Disciplinary management and control  Generously funded by state governments o Scientific, political and economic competition 3. “Institutional revolution” in German physics  c. 1865-1914  Physical cabinet physics institute (1750-1870) o Physics laboratories, full professorships, and institutionalization of research  Erection of physics institutes (1870-1914)  Increase of students and economic potential major drives of expansion in late 19 century  Chemistry laboratories as a model?  Physics and electrical technology 4. Physics and Electrical Technology  Technological/industrial relevance → extra funds for academic physics o More support for physics research  Tension between pursuit of scientific knowledge for its own sake and development of applications  Competition between physicists and electrical engineers o « Pure » and « applied » science 5. Concluding Remarks  Institutional expansion of chemistry and physics driven by o Competition between states/countries/research schools o Need for enlarged teaching facilities o Anticipated economic benefits  Synthetic dyes and electricity  Tension with newly emerging engineering specialties  Impact of organization of science on knowledge production? o Teaching-research laboratories → large-scale group work o Ever-increasing need for resources  Creation of Kaiser Wilhelm institutes and Physikalisch- Technische Reichsanstalt o Research separated from teaching Lecture 19 Week 7, Friday March 11, 2016 Discussion Section  Levere o Rise of chemical education o Chemical laboratory o Chemistry lacked prestige in France and Germany for much of the 18   century because: th  Physics and astronomy were the big deal in the 18  century  Chemistry was associated with other fields, never its own entity  Chemistry was incapable of becoming its own science o How in the way that chemistry was taught contribute to its lack of  grounding?  Did not stress lab and research, much more classroom based  Chemistry is never more than a systematized natural history  More of collection of data rather than applying things  Instruments were very expensive  Taught to get a fully liberal education, it was not fully focused  upon  Lack of funding for research  Didn’t consider chemistry a real science—members of the public,  not scientists o Rise of chemistry with Lavoisier, but then in France it was on a decline  Napoleon  Centralization o Rise again after the decline  In Germany there was the establishment of research universities,  model that spread everywhere  Industrially relevant—economic impetus  o German story in the 19  century  Chemical engineering  Emergence of organic chemistry, synthetic dye o Justus Liebig  Giessen—groups rather than individual  Spread chemistry  Increased national prestige of chemistry  People came from abroad to study chemistry in Liebig  Prioritized chemical education  Hunt o Thomas Edison  Brought new technology to public eye, phonograph, telegraph,  telephone, lightbulb (eh)  Bit of a businessman  Controversy  Edison hired other scientists and mentors to do the work  and took his own credit  Used alternating current and publicly killed animals with it  to dissuade people to   Not a scientist, public figure educating, rather than  discovering it   Amateur scientist  Exemplifies predatory capitalism—frame things that make them  wondrous to the public  Edison took advantage of Tesla  Taken a completely different approach that no one else had done  before  Discoveries were not taken to scientific community, but rather to  the public  Edison Contrasted with Previous Scientists  Edison’s discoveries were much more applicable to the  public  Humboldt’s plant species less interesting, less applicable  Lavoisier synthesizing water interesting, but not applicable  to the public as much  Products were much more consumer­based  Did not start with the theory, started with the issue to solve  Electric chair to kill others, influencing country’s use of capital  punishment subtly, and to imply through subtext that his inventions are better than Tesla’s  Manhattan Project  System of ethics with regard to science  Are scientists’ meant to be ethical?  Norms were different back then o Faraday’s Business Model  Patents  o War of the Currents  AC vs. DC  Perceived drawbacks of the system  DC current does not travel as far  Edison proclaimed his as more safe o Relationship between industrialism, capitalism, and science  Engineering as a field  The applications of scientific research  Fox and Guagnini o Linked to Prussian unity, to have a prestigious higher education system o Age in which doctoral education is becoming more rigorous o How did physics gain a foothold in German universities? o Impediments in 1840s and 1850s that slowed down process  Difficult to get funding  Physics was an accessory science, fit in with pharmacy   Was not its own entity  Geran professors spent most of their time teaching, so did not do  much research  Graduates entered careers in secondary teaching rather than  research, engineering, or industrialization o Academic Reform movement in France  Lab research took off  French admired German academic life  Wanted to show intellectual rigor of German academic system o Britain  No institutional basis of research  People did research experiments at home and talked about it with  their friends o National styles of science  Different styles of empire contributed to the character of science  Biology playing out in three different countries  Empire—nationalism, striving to compete with one another  Prestige of university  Funding structures  Economic relevance  Free trade and capitalism  Institutional structures—Lavoisier at the French Academy  of Science, Britain was more on an individual level rather  than institutional level


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.