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United States History

by: Elza Hane

United States History HST 202

Elza Hane
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.59

John Pohlmann

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John Pohlmann
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elza Hane on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 202 at California State Polytechnic University taught by John Pohlmann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/218109/hst-202-california-state-polytechnic-university in History at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
HST202 Chp 17 amp 18 Terms C112 17 Wright Brothers Wilbur and Orville built a glider that could propel through air by an internalcombustion engine Orville tested an airplane that took off by itself and traveled 120ft in 12 sec under its own power They improved it and was able to y over 23 mi and then few passengers could board them Frederick Winslow Taylor devised a system he called scienti c management Increased employers control of the workplace Workers using modern machines could perform simple tasks at greater speed Greatly increasing productive efficiency Assembly line Most important change in industrial technology along w mass production Introduced by Henry Ford as his automobile plants Was a factory where automobiles moved as they were assembled by workers who specialized on particular tasks Was also a concept Was adopted by General Motors Modern corporation Emerged as a major force after the Civil War Industries began to raise money by selling stock to members of the public under laws of incorporation Investors now had only limited liability where they risked only the amount of their investments and were not liable for any debts the corp might accumulate beyond that point Entrepreneurs could gather vast sums of capital and undertake great projects Andrew Carnegie Scottish immigrant Owned steelworks and dominated the industry Sold out for 450 million to banker J Pierpont Morgan who merged the Carnegie interests w others to create the giant U S Steel Corp which controlled almost 23s of the nation s steel production Horizontal integration One primary method through which businessmen created large consolidated organizations Combined a number of firms engaged in the same enterprise into a single corp such as the consolidation of many different railroad lined into one company Vertical integration Company would take over all the different businesses on which it relied for its primary function eX Carnegie Steel which controlled not only steel mills but mines railroads and other enterprises Standard oil Owned its own freight cars and developed its own marketing organization A company of Ohio formed by Rockefeller who had such dominance within the petroleum industry Trust pioneered by Standard Oil Under a trust agreement stockholders in individual corp transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself Owners of trust certi cates often had no direct control over the decisions of the trustees only received a share of the profits The trustees might literally own only a few companies but could exercise effective control over many Holding company a central corporate body that would buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust and establish direct formal ownership of them Ideology of individualism It was that the industrial economy was not shrinking opportunities for individual advancement but rather providing every individual with a chance to succeed and attain great wealth Social Darwinism The misapplication to human society of Charles Darwin s laws of evolution and natural selection among species It argued that only the ttest individuals survived and ourished in the marketplace Russell H Conwell Baptist minister Became the most prominent spokesman for the idea by delivering the lecture Acres of Diamonds He told a series of stories of individuals who had found opportunities for extraordinary wealth in their own backyards Some of his stories were inaccurate Horatio Alger Most famous promoter of the success story Driven away from his pulpit as a result of sexual scandals He wrote over 100 celebrated novels all of them tributes to social mobility and the ability of Americans to rise from rags to riches Lester Frank Ward Argued that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence which could shape society as it wished Thought that an active gov engaged in positive planning was society s best hope Henry George Blamed social problems on the ability of a few monopolists to grow wealthy as a result of rising land values An increase in the value of the land was a result of unearned increment produced by the growth of society around the land Proposed a single taX on land to replace all other taxes which would return the increment to the people It would destroy monopolies distribute wealth more equally and eliminate poverty Edward Bellamy Wrote novel Looking Backward Described person going into sleep and waking in the year 2000 to find a new social order in which want politics and vice were unknown New society had a peaceful evolutionary process the large trusts had grown in size and combined with one another until they formed a single great trust controlled by the gov which distributed the abundance of the industrial economy equally among all the people Fraternal cooperation Philosophy was named nationalism Child Labor Children under 16 yrs old were employed in factories and fields Child labor laws were passed in 38 states Molly Maguires Militant labor organization sometimes used violence and even murder in its battle with coal operators Knights of Labor lst major effort to create a genuinely national labor organization It championed an 8 hr workday and the abolition of child labor but they were more interested in longrange reform of the economy Hoped to replace the wage system with a new cooperative system where workers would themselves control their workplaces Remained a secret fraternal organization Samuel Gompers Powerful leader of the American Federation of Labor AFL Concentrated on labor s immediate objectives wages hours and working conditions Demanded a national 8 hr workday and called for a general strike if not achieved Haymarket bombing There was a protest meeting when police ordered the crowd to disperse someone threw a bomb that killed 7 policemen and injured 67 others Police who had likked 4 strikers day before fired guns and killed 4 more To most middleclass Americans the bombing was an alarming symbol of social chaos and radicalism Anarchism now became in the public mind a code word for terrorism and violence Homestead strike The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers a powerful trade union called for a strike They set the river on re and used guns and dynamite to ght with the Pinkertions Public opinion turned against the strikers when a radical made an attempt to assassinate Henry Clay Frick The Amalgamated shrank Pullman strike Pullman car Company slashed wages wo reducing high rent charges towards their workers so they went on strike Received support from the American Railway Union Railroad operators said that the strike was preventing the movement of mail on the trains so a federal court issued an injunction forbidding the union to continue the strike When refused were arrested and strike collapsed C112 18 City beautiful movement It strove to impose a similar order and symmetry on the disordered life of cities around the country Only rarely were planners able to overcome the obstacles of private landowners and complicated urban politics to realize more than a small portion of their dreams Effort to remake the city didn t only focus on redesigning its existing landscapes It led to the creation of entirely new ones Railroad suburbs Chicago connected nearly 100 residential suburbs to the downtown by railroad Were less expensive lands on the edges of cities Tenement Originally referred to a multiple family rental building but it had become a term for slum dwellings only First tenements had been hailed as a great improvement in housing for the poor But most were miserable places with many windowless rooms and little or no plumbing or heating Solution reformers simply to raze slum dwellings wo building any new housing to replace them Urban boss A political boss that was suppose to win votes for his organization Winning the loyalty of his constituents Might provide them w occasional relief basket of groceries or coal Step in to save those arrested Find work for the unemployed Rewarded many of his followers w patronage Simon Patten Articulated new view of leisure in his works instead of the old linking with laziness or sloth New economies could create enough wealth to satisfy not just the needs but also the desires of all Spectator sports Important responses to search for entertainment Baseball football basketball Vaudville Form of theater adapted from French models Consisted of variety of acts and was at least in the beginning inexpensive to produce Was one of few entertainment media open to black performers Coney Island Famous and selfconsciously fabulous amusement park and resort on a popular beach Luna Park provided rides stunts and reproductions of exotic places and adventures Coney Island was found appealing because it provided an escape from the genteel standards of behavior that governed so much of American life at the time Decorum was forgotten ppl delighted in nding themselves in situations that in any other setting would have seemed improper Bell System Controlled all American telephone service Hired young white women to work as operators hoping that it would make the experience of using telephones more appealing Resistance to evolution Resistance was from educators theologians and even many scientists Then it was most members of the urban professional and educated classes even many middleclass Protestant religious leaders Pragmatism Doctrine Modern society should rely for guidance not on inherited ideals and moral principles but on the test of scienti c inquiry No idea or institution was valid unless it worked unless it stood the test of experience Free public schooling Free primary and secondary education spread Compulsory schoolattendance laws existed Many blacks in the south had no access to schools but for white men and women educational opportunities were expanding dramatically Educational reformers extended them to Indian tribes in effort to civilize them and help them adapt to white society Land grant colleges Morrilll Land Grant Act federal gov donated public land to states for estab of these colleges Were specifically mandated to advance knowledge in agriculture and mechanics Were committed also to make discoveries that would be of practical use to farmers and manufacturers Women s colleges Coeducation was less crucial only a few women admitted along w men to women s education than was the creation of a network of women s colleges Few of the larger private universities created separate colleges for women on their campuses Female college was part of an important phenomenon in history of modern American women Chapter 20 Muckraker Among the first people to articulate the new spirit of national reform were crusading journalist who began to direct public attention toward social economic and political injustices Theodore Roosevelt accused them of raking up muck through their writings they were committed to exposing scandal corruption and injustice Social Gospelgrowing outrage at social and economic injustice committed many reformers to the pursuit of social justice The effort to make faith into a tool of social reform The Social Gospel movement was chie y concerned with redeeming the nations cities Hull HouseNothing produced more distress many urban reformers believed than crowded immigrant neighborhoods One response to the problems of such communities borrowed from England was the settlement house The most famous was the Hull House social worker Jane Addams It became a model for more than 400 similar institutions throughout the nation Staffed by members of the educated middle class settlements houses sought to help immigrant families adapt to the language and customs of their new country New Middle Class Professionals New technology and required scientist and engineers who in turn required institutions and instructors to train them By the turn of the century those performing these services had come to constitute a distinct social group New WomanA product of social and economic changes in both the private and public spheres By the end of the nineteenth century almost all incomeproducing activity had moved out of the home and into the factory or the office At the same time many women were having fewer children and their children were beginning school at earlier ages and spending more time there More and more women began looking for activities outside the home Clubwomenthe women s clubs began largely as cultural organizations to provide middle and upper class women with an outlet for their intellectual energies In 1892 when women formed the General Federations of Women s Clubs to coordinate the activities of local organizations there were more than 100000 members in nearly 500 clubs By 1917 there were over 1 million members Woman SuffrageSuffrage seemed to many of its critics a very radical demand Throughout the late nineteenth century many suffrage advocates presented their views in terms of natural rights arguing that women deserved the same rights as men including first and foremost the right to vote Elizabeth Cady Stanton for example wrote in 1892 of woman as the arbiter of her own destiny if we are to consider her as a citizen as a member of a great nation she must have the same rights as all other members Social DemocracyRepresented a great shift in the character of public life all over the industrial world Instead of battles over the privileges of aristocrats or the power of monarchs reformers now focused on the social problems of ordinary people and attempted to improve their lot Joseph Chamberlian said The politics of the future are social politics referring to efforts to deal with the problems of ordinary citizens City Manager Planelected officials hired an outside expert often a professionally trained business manager or engineer to take charge of the government The city manager would presumably remain untainted by the corrupting in uence of politics By the end of the progressive era almost 400 cities were operating under commissions and another 45 employed city managers Initiative and referendumFirst proposed by the Populist in the 1890 sThe initiative allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by referendum provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval By 1918 more than twenty states had enacted one or both of these reforms Tom J ohnson Made a fortune in the steel and streetcar business and then entered politics partly as a result of reading Henry George s Poverty and Progress He became mayor in 1901 and in his four terms waged strenuous battles against party bosses and corporate interests Lost the struggle for municipal ownership of public utilities Robert M LaFolletteHe helped turn his state into what reformers across the nation described as a laboratory of progressivism Under his leadership Wisconsin progressives won approval of direct primaries initiatives and referendums They regulated railroads and utilities They passed laws to regulate the workplace and provide compensation for laborers injured on the job The instituted graduated taxes on inherited fortunes and they nearly doubled state levies on railroads and other corporate interests Triangle Shirtwaist fire191 1 a terrible f1re swept through the factory in New York 146 workers most of them woman died Many of them had been trapped inside the burning building because management had locked the emergency exits to prevent malingering WEB Du Bois advocated thath talented blacks should accept nothing less than a full university education They should aspire to the professions They should above all fight for their civil rights not simply wait for them to be granted as a reward for patient striving IWWAmong the militants was the radical labor union the Industrial Workers of the World kown to the opponents as the wobblies Under the leadership of William Big Bill Haywood the IWW advocated a single union for all workers and was on of the few labor organizations to champion the cause of unskilled workers Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt allied himself with those progressives who urged regulation of the trusts At the heart of his policy was a desire to win for government the power to investigate the activities of corporations and publicize the results John MuirFor over a decade a nettle rages between naturalists and the advocates of the dam a battle that consumed the energies of Muir for the rest of his life and that eventually many believed helped kill him William Howard TaftAssumed presidency in 1909 had been Roosevelt s most trusted lieutenant and his handpicked successor progressive reformers believed him to be one of their own New NationalismIn it he outlined a set of principles that made clear he had moved a considerable way from the cautious conservatism of the rst years of his presidency He argued that social justice was possible only through a strong federal government whose executive acted as the steward of the public welfare Woodrow Wilson had been a professor of political science at Princeton until 1902 when he was named president of the university Presented a progressive program that came to be called New Freedom Wilson seemed to side with those who believed that bigness was both unjust and inefficient that the proper response to monopoly was not to regulate it but to destroy it Income TaXT39his rst modern income taX imposed a 1 percent tax on individuals and corporations earning more 4000 a year with rates ranging up to 6 percent on incomes over 500000 annually Federal ReserveIt created twelve regional banks each to be owned and controlled by the individual banks of its district Federal Trade CommissionCreated a regulatory agency that would help businesses determine in advance whether their actions would be acceptable to the government Chapter 19 Pendleton Act In 1883 Congress passed the rst national civil service measure which required that some federal jobs be lled by competitive written examinations rather than by patronage Relatively few of ces fell under civil service at rst but its reach steadily extended Rum Romanism and Rebellion Shortly before the election in 1884 a delegation of Protestant ministers called on Blaine in New York City their spokesman Dr Samuel Burchard referred to the Democrats as the party of run Romanism and rebellion Sherman Antitrust ActIn July 1890 both houses of Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust act laws prohibiting combinations that restrained competition indifferently enforced and steadily weakened by the courts had no impact As of 1901 the Justice Department had instituted many antitrust suits against unions but only fourteen against business combinations there had been few convictions Interstate Commerce Act In 1887 banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls required that railroads publish their rate schedules and le them with the government and declared that all interstate rail rates must be reasonable and just A ve person agency the INTESTATE COMMERCE COMMISION ICC was to administer the act But it had rely on the courts to enforce its rulings For almost twenty years after its passage the Interstate Commerce Act haphazardly enforce and narrowly interpreted by the courts had little piratical effect Grangers the rst major farm organization was the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry founded in 1867 Granges in the Midwest began to organize marketing cooperatives and to promote political action to curb monopolistic practices by railroads and warehouses Grange supporters controlled the legislatures in most of the Midwestern states The result was the granger Laws of the early 1870 s by which many states imposed strict regulations on railroad rates and practices Populism Also known as the People s Party Populism had great appeal to farmers particularly to small farmers with little longrange economic security Populism failed to move much beyond that group Its leaders made energetic efforts to include labor within the coalition by courting the Knights of Labor and adding a labor plank to its platform Populists Reform ProgramThey proposed a system of sub treasuries a network of governmentowned warehouses where farmers could deposit their crops allow them to borrow money from the government at low rates of interest until the price for their goods went up Populist called for the abolition of national banks which they believe were dangerous institutions of concentrated power the end of absentee ownership pf land the direct election of the United States senators which would weaken the power of conservative state legislatures and other devices to improve the ability of people to in uence the political process Panic of 1893 Precipitated the most severe depression the nation had yet experienced It began in March 1893 when the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad unable to meet payments on loans declared bankruptcy Two months later the National Cordage Company failed as well Together the two corporate failures triggered a stock market collapse William Jennings Bryan Democratic Convention of 1896 in the glow of Bryan s speech the convention voted to adopt a prosilver platform And the following day Bryan was nominated for president on the fifth ballot Alfred Thayer Mahan The ablest and most effective apostle of imperialism was Alfred Thayer Mahan a captain and later admiral in the United States Navy Mahan s thesis presented in The In uence of Sea Power upon History 1890 and other works was simple countries with sea power were the great nations history Maine American battleship Maine blew up in Havan harbor with a lost of more than 260 people Dopuy de Lome A Cuban agent stole a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome the Spanish Minister in Washington A splendid little war Secretary of State John Hay called the SpanishAmerican con ict a splendid little war an opinion that most American with the exception of many of the enlisted men who fought in it seemed to share Black Soldiers in the SpanishAmerican Warracial tensions continued in Cuba where African Americans played crucial roles in some of the important battles of the war including the famous charge at San Juan Hill and won many medals Nearly half the Cuban insurgents fighting with the Americans were black including one of the leading insurgent s generals Antonio Maceo Anti Imperialist League Established late in 1898 by upperclass Bostonians New Yorkers and others to ght against annexation waged vigorous campaign against ratification of the Paris treaty Platt AmendmentWhen Cuba drew up a constitution that made no reference to the United States Congress responded by passing the Platt Amendment in 1901 and pressuring Cuba into incorporating its terms into its constitution The Platt Amendment barred Cuba from making treaties with other nations gave the United States the right to intervene in Cuba to permit American naval stations on its territory The amendment left Cuba with only nominal political independence Open Door Notes Mckinley issued a statement in September 1898 saying the United States wanted access to China but no special advantages there Asking only the open door for ourselves we are ready to accord the open door to others The next year secretary of State John Hay translated those words into policy when he addressed identical messages which became known as the open Door Notes to England Germany Russia France Japan and Italy He asked that each nation with a sphere of in uence in China allow other nations to trade freely and equally Elihu Root McKinley appointed Elihu Root an able corporate lawyer in New York as secretary of war to supervise a major overhaul of the armed forces HST202 Terms for Quiz Chp 29 New Frontier Set of domestic reforms promised by Kennedy He managed to win approval of tariff reductions and began building a legislative agenda and a signi cant tax cut to promote economic growth Great Society A reform program of Pres Johnson Won much approval through skillful lobbying in Congress Medicare amp Medicaid Medicare provides federal aid to the elderly Medicaid gave federal medical assistance to welfare recipients amp indigent ppl of all ages war on poverty Brown V Board of Education legal challenge to segregation Charles Ogletree amp Derrick Bell Their books argued the Court s decision didn t provide an effective enforcement for desegregation and failed to support measures to make it reality Public schools were now more segregated af rmative action A movement that made employers hired minorities in order to prove that they were not discriminating against African Americans black p0wer Instilled racial pride in African Americans increased awareness of racial distinctiveness Most radical expressions came from the Black Panthers Bay of Pigs 2000 armed antiCastro Cuban exiles sent by Kennedy landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba but were easily crushed by the wellarmed Castro forces Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets placed missiles in Cuba and the US saw it as an act of aggression Kennedy was preparing an air attack but got a message saying that the Soviets would remove them in exchange for US to not invade Cuba Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Amer destroyers had been attacked by North Vietnamese Authorized Pres Johnson to take all necessary measures to protect American forces and prevent further aggression in Southeast Asia David Halberstam The Best and the Brightest argued that policymakers ignored information that suggested they were wrong in that they d have victory in Vietnam Chp 30 New Left Radicalization of many Amer students SDS Gourp of student New Left expressed their disillusionment with they society they had inherited and determined to build a new politics Woodstock Music festival in Woodstock NY that symbolized the fusion of rock music and the counterculture Attended by many and was peaceful Altamont Large rock concert where it became a brutal and violent event where 4 ppl died Hells Angels motorcycle gang beat and stabbed a of ppl AIM American Indian Movement made up of young militant Indians drew support from urban areas and reservations Cesar Chavez Created the United Farm Workers UF W effective union of largely Mexican itinerant farmworkers Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique Revived feminist movement NOW National Organization for Women Demanded greater educational opport for women and denounced the domestic ideal and trad concept of marriage Roe V Wade Legalized abortion in the rst trimester Aldo Leopold The Sand C ountyAlmanac argued that jymand had responsibility to maintain the balance of nature according to land ethic Spread science of ecology Rachael Carson Silent Spring revealed dangers of pesticides Cuyahoga River It burst into ame from the petroleum waste dumped into it Exxon Valdez A giant oil tank that hit a reef in Alaska and caused a large spill Increased environmental consciousness EPA National Environmental Protection Act signed by Pres Nixon Enforced antipollution standards on businesses and consumers Pentagon Papers Daniel Ellsberg leaked them to the press which provided evidence that the govt was dishonest in reporting the military progress of the war and in explaining its own motives for Amer involvement Christmas b0mbing Amer B 52s began air raids on North Vietnamese targets until December 30 Nixon terminated it reapprochement and d tente Initiatives in China coincided with effort by Nixon admin to improve relations w Soviet Union Nixon Doctrine US would participate in defense and development of allies and friends Engel V Vitale Prayers in public schools were unconstitutional Gideon V Wainwright Limited authority of local govt to curb pornography Escobedo V Illinois Defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police lVIiranda V Arizona Obligations of authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her rights George S McGovem Frontrunner candidate of pres election for Democratic Party alongside Nixon Pro ted from party reforms that gave increased in uence to women minorities and young ppl in the selection of Democratic ticket OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries bargained the sale of oil by Third World nations Used it as an economic too and as a political weapon Watergate ve men who had broken into the Watergate of ce were arrested Those involved were former employees of the Committee for the ReElection of the President Were paid for the breakin from a secret fund controlled by members of the White House staff Stanley 1 Cutler The Wars of Watergate andAbuse of Power presents extensive excerpts from conversations about Watergate taped in the Nixon White House Nixon s vicious political tactics and to get the enemies before they got him


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