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History of Civilization The Middle Period

by: Elza Hane

History of Civilization The Middle Period HST 102

Marketplace > California State Polytechnic University > History > HST 102 > History of Civilization The Middle Period
Elza Hane
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.59

Mahmood Ibrahim

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Mahmood Ibrahim
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elza Hane on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 102 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Mahmood Ibrahim in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/218115/hst-102-california-state-polytechnic-university in History at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1 The Japanese called their warriors daimyo samurai yujo renmin danzaemon gt99 2 Which of the following factors did NOT lead to political uni cation in Japan between 15001800 a Relatively small size b A culturally homogenous population c Natural boundaries d Emphasis on feudalism e None of these 3 In 1592 after years of civil war Hideyoshi a launched an invasion of Korea and China b was killed by his palace guard c successfully pacified the country by outlawing all weapons d converted to Buddhism e renounced violence in all forms 4 One ofthe consequences of Japanese aggression in the sixteenth century was the creation of the Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere the defeat of weakened Chinese armies by the Manchu the complete defeat of Japanese forces the alliance formed between China the Manchus and Japan the destruction of the Manchu Empire DQOC39N 5 Afterthe period of civil wars ended in Japan a Japanese leaders fragmented into many feuding castes b Korea invaded Japan c Japanese leaders resigned thus allowing a true democracy to form d e b c d e Japanese leaders established the Tokugawa Shogunate a centralized military government China invaded Japan The main form of economic exchange in the Tokugawa Shogunate was a land cash political power rice stock options Which Japanese city emerged as one of the world39s most populous centers of trade by the late 17th century a Honshu b C 39D b c d e Osaka Edo Nagasaki Kyoto The group within the Tokugawa era that weakened centralized economic policies was daimyo a b shoguns c d e merchants samurai scholars The term quotDutch studiesquot referred to a a period in Japanese history that corresponded to the quottulip periodquot of the Safavid empire a partnership between Japanese merchants and the VOC for trading of porcelain Japanese who learned about European weapons shipbuilding and sciences the requirement by the Emperorthat Christian missionaries must learn Japanese as the Dutch had done a learning curve as the Dutch traders attacked the technologically inferior Japanese who adapted their technology to overthrow the merchants later The Japanese response to the Society of Jesus or the Jesuits was a to officially welcome it with open arms b to murder every Jesuit that entered the country c to adopt Catholic beliefs d to blend Shinto Buddhist and Catholic belief systems e mixed while some were opposed to it others were attracted In the 1630s the Japanese government a adopted an quotopen doorquot policy in regards to foreign trade b largely closed Japan to European trade and Christian influence c encouraged the people to choose an economic system d encouraged the people to choose a religious system e opened up trade to England only Which of the following did notcontribute to Tokugawa Japan39s instability a The samurai went into debt The merchants gained in power The government remained traditional in a society that was changing The introduction of Christianity caused Buddhism to die out b c d e Population and economic growth put a strain on resources A ronin was a a moneylender b an elite minister of the shogun c a merchant d a masterless follower who had lost his samurai e a Buddhist monk European visitors to Ming China in the sixteenth century were a dissatisfied with the quality of Chinese goods b trying to convince the Chinese to accept the Russian presence in Manchuria c buying huge quantities ofopium which was unavailable in Europe at the time d astonished at its power manufacturing and vast population unimpressed by China39s grandeur 39D What was the main reason for population decline in the rural areas of Ming China Moving to the cities to participate in manufacturing Bubonic plague Lack of agricultural innovation and crop fungus European invasion QOC39N 20 e b c d e b c d e Economic depression Which empire replaced the Ming Empire of China a Qing Empire Han Empire Yuan Empire Yi Empire Qin Empire When Li Zicheng overthrow Beijing the Ming empire turned for help to whom a The Japanese Ronin Mongolian Buddhists Manchu soldiers from the Northeast Rebel forces from the Southwest Korean private armies eager to overthrow Japan Although European enthusiasm for Chinese trade was high a the bigotry of the West limited the market for Asian goods b China produced virtually no products c d e Western countries feared the opium trade the Chinese were slow to embrace European trade Chinese products were of inferior quality Merchants from which country were the first to arrive in East Asia a Spain b Portugal c d e England Holland Italy The VOC Dutch East India Company representatives gained the favor ofthe Chinese emperor by DQOC39N acknowledging him with the ritual of the quotkowtowquot providing him with concubines providing him with bribes freeing the royal family members held hostage by Ming loyalists providing him with beautiful clocks 21 22 23 24 25 26 What European organization was a transmitter of science and technology to China a b c d e The Society of Jesus or Jesuits The Teutonic Knights The Knights Templar The Order ofthe Cross The Royal Scientific Society Who was Matteo Ricci a b c d e The man responsible for domesticating rice The rst European to speak Chinese and Japanese The Chinese emperor39s prime ministerto Europe A Jesuit missionary who introduced European technology to China The quotMarco Polo of the eighteenth centuryquot Why did the Jesuits succeed more than other Christianizing organizations in China a Jesuits focused on the intellectual and political elite b Jesuits focused on the merchants c d e Jesuits focused on conversion of the bottom of society Jesuits used syncretism to promote Buddhism as a parallel of Christianity Jesuits were banned from China Who helped negotiate an act of settlement between Russia and China a b c d e lvan IV and Kangxi Jesuit interpreters Siberian shamas Confucian scholars Marco Polo39s grandson The Treaty of Nerchinsk a allied the Chinese and Russians against the Germans b allowed Europeans into formerly closed China c d e gave China a communist political system fixed the northern border of China along the Amur River was violated the day after it was signed and led to a war To gain converts the Jesuits made what compromise a b c d e They tolerated Confucian ancestor worship They allowed Chinese women to become priests They acknowledged the emperor to be a god on earth They broke away from the Catholic Church They freely mixed Buddhism and Confucianism into Orthodox Catholicism During the Qing Empire what new items or ideas did Europe notgain from China Use of gunpowder The practice of decorating homes with wallpaper Silk porcelain and tea The poetry written by the Qing emperors An early form of inoculation DQOC39N Under the Qing Europeans were permitted to trade only at a Beijing b Canton 0 Shanghai d Kashgar e Hunan Among the crosscultural intellectual exchanges between China and Europe variolation as when diplomats spontaneously combusted immunization by vaccine a bilingual printing oftrade contracts drawing maps that showed the Eastern as well as the Western world a means by which Chinese physicians compared European anatomy to that of Asians 090me What problem did the British face with China39s quotCanton systemquot a Britain couldn39t meet China39s demand for goods b China bought few British goods 0 China wanted British rule in Canton to facilitate trade d the British wanted to go to Canton only fortrade e a gold deposit was required as goodwill collateral The British Macartney mission was an attempt to persuade China to revise its trade system find a lost British missionary Eli Macartney assassinate the emperor39s main rival convert the Chinese to Christianity establish diplomatic ties with Japan DQOC39N 32 Population growth in China in the 1700s led to a a better standard of living due to cheap labor 33 34 35 36 37 0000quot massive unionization of Chinese workers better working conditions among artisans severe environmental problems an economic quotboomquot as demand for goods rose as well The princes of Muscovy organized a movement of conquest and expansion against the a b c d e Japanese Chinese Tibetans Golden Horde Koreans The predominant religion in the eastern Russian empire was a b c d e Orthodox Christianity Catholicism Paganism lslam Judaism After 1547 the Russians used which term as the title for their leader a Emperor b c d e Grand Prince Pasha Tsar King The motivation for Russian expansion to the east was DQOC39N the promise of captives for religious sacri ce to free people under Japanese rule to capture the deepwater port at Vladivostock demand for animal pelts the acquisition of Siberian oil reserves Why was Siberia seen as a good avenue for expansion DQOC39N the far north was frozen most ofthe time the southern ports ofthe black see were controlled by the Ottoman Empire The Northwest access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden and Poland There were very few inhabitants to the east All ofthese 39 40 4 42 43 38 Merchant families like the Stroganovs meow Expansion into Siberia was largely led by Imperial armies forming penal colonies Cossacks Mongols the British Muscovy trade company The Cossacks were a b a Byzantine trading society at Cherson c an independent tribal society of warriors d e nomadic reindeer herders ofthe Eastern steppe missionaries an elite military force of the tsar The nobility in Russia were known as the a raznochintsy b daimyo c d e Cossacks boyars mestnichestvo How did the growth of a centralized Russian Empire affect the peasants a b c d e Peasants could move freely at any time to improve their lot in life Peasants became serfs people who were tied to the land Peasants39 standard of living improved to a quotmiddleclassquot level It gave the peasants the vote Peasants were deported and sent to gulags According to the Russian census of 1795 over half the population were a b c d e college educated nobility in military service freemen serfs The greatest Romanov tsar was a lvan the Terrible b c d e Peter the Great Nicholas lll Edward II Charles Vl 44 45 46 47 48 49 One result ofthe quotGreat Northern Warquot was a the liberation of Constantinople b c d e the death of Peter the Great Russian access to the Baltic Sea Russia39s retreat into isolationism the destruction of Russia39s navy Peter39s main goal in building up Russia was a b c d e modernization in a western fashion conquest of Russia39s longterm enemy Sweden to establish trade with China where Europe had failed to extend Russian Orthodoxy and drive out Buddhism and Islam to return to the Golden Kievan era preMongol invasions The new city that was to be Russia39s quotwindow on the Westquot was a b c d e Stalingrad Moscow Kiev St Petersburg Krakow Why did Peter the Great attempt to Westernize Russia a b c d e To join the Russian Orthodox Church To end serfdom To ultimately follow the British movement into political liberalization To strengthen the Russian state and its autocracy Because he was from the West he inherited Russia39s throne Which of the following statements about China and Russia is nottrue a b C d Both tolerated diversity while trying to promote assimilation 390 Both were large land empires Both suffered large population declines in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Both had armies that depended on large numbers of soldiers to defeat enemies Both used forced labor such as serfs and peasants Catherine the Great used three successive partitions of which area to expand Russia39s borders to the West a b Sweden Prussia 0 Lithuania d Poland e Romania MULTIPLE CHOICE 1 Although tobacco was a New World plant long used by Amerindians a Europeans attempted to outlaw its use in America b it was Europeans who began growing the crop on large plantations c European diseases made the plant extinct d it never became popular in Europe because of its unhealthy effects e it was originally from Turkey 2 Chartered companies were a private investors with trade monopolies in colonies maritime manufacturers of maps and charts c companies of missionaries and religious societies d groups of Amerindian investors who pooled money and resources e illegal in most European countries 3 Which of the following does not describe the Dutch West India Company a It was never very profitable b It seized sugarproducing areas in Brazil c It shipped slaves to Brazil d It paid stockholders huge dividends e It was a private trading company 4 The expansion of sugar plantations in the West Indies required a a sharp increase in the African slave trade b an increase in arable land c new fertilizers and seeds d the creation of new markets among the Amerindians e government consultants to oversee farming 5 Which area best illustrates the dramatic transformation that sugar brought to the 17 h century Caribbean a Martinique b The Bahamas c Cuba d Jamaica e Barbados 6 In the seventeenthcentury Caribbean indentured servants cost 7 as slaves a twice as much b three times as much c half as much d approximately the same e four times as much 7 The cultivation and production of sugar can best be described as a requiring farm methods only b requiring farm as well as factory production methods c requiring factory methods only 9 0 0 d requiring little labor and high amounts of technology e simple and inexpensive How did France and England expand their Caribbean holdings a making alliances with the indigenous tribes of the West Indies b By using the Atlantic Coast of North America as a base and launching coordinated stealth attacks c By attacking older Spanish colonies d By defeating the Portuguese e Bankrupting the Dutch West Indies Company and taking over their properties The French plantation economies were considered quotmore diversequot because they also produced a coffee and cacao b bananas and plantains c molasses and rum d wine and cheese e jute and twine Sugar plantations caused environmental damage through a the disposal of used canes b soil exhaustion and deforestation c supplying power for the mills d overfertilizing the elds e silting up of bays and estuaries Where would slave children most likely be found working In the cane processing factories tending to livestock in quotgrass gangsquot doing simple lighter work With their parents Children were exempt from labor EDP057 LN U 0 12 On most islands the percentage of slaves in the population was a 35 percent b 55 percent c 75 percent d 90 percent e 20 percent In the eighteenth century West Indian plantations were controlled by a plantocracy a a group of people concerned about the environment a small number of rich men who owned the land and slaves a group of botanists who encouraged the growth of new and exotic plants a religious sect of Protestantism none of these supow Men outnumbered women on Caribbean plantations because a twice as many men were imported b men lived much longer than women c women were not as strong as men d women were more susceptible to disease than men e women refused to consent to plantation work quotDriversquot were typically a white indentured servants b white overseers c free black overseers d male slaves e ship captains Plantation slaves were motivated to work hard a to earn extra wages b because they were promised freedom c to escape punishment d because they were rewarded with extra food e because they were promised a share of the pro ts Manumission permitted slaves to sell their surplus produce or goods from their own work have time off during certain religious holidays purchase or receive their freedom from slavery marry and not have families separated switch job practices on the plantation EDP057 00 20 22 Life expectancy for nineteenthcentury Brazilian male slaves was a b c d e 10 years 23 years 39 years 50 years 65 years Most slaves died of a poor nutrition b disease c overwork d abuse e accident Which was NOT a method used to curtail African cultural traditions by European planters a Learning colonial languages b Converting to Christianity c Mixing slaves from different parts of Africa d Mandatory primary education e All of these 3 sun057 Among the planter elite in Saint Domingue where would free blacks rank in the social hierarchy First Second after the grands blancs Third after the petits blancs Fourth after free whites Last blacks were not accorded free status in Saint Domingue Which maroon community first signed treaties recognizing their independent status as runaway slaves a b c d C Jamaican Guianese Haitian Dominican Belize To reduce the risks of overseas trading companies b c d built larger ships bought insurance created the capitalist system conducted most of their commerce by land attacked one another39s ships N u 26 N 00 W O Mercantilism is a the recognition by the state that all individuals have economic rights b the belief in a completely freemarket economy c a government policy that protects trade and demands the accumulation of gold and silver d the political doctrine that only people who produce economic wealth may vote e another name for capitalism The English Navigation Acts in the l660s were meant to a con ne trade to English ships and cargoes b restrict the English shipping industry c put a tariff on English goods d restrict the English slave trade e encourage free trade While the British system of mercantilism was defined by the Navigation Acts the French system used laws known as a les T arszs b qu39elle damage c Exclusif d case nostra e Entrep t The quotclockwisequot network of trade in the Atlantic was the a Continental Trade Route b Reverse Option Market c Robinson Route d European Circuit e Atlantic Circuit The second leg of the Atlantic Circuit transporting slaves across the Atlantic to plantation colonies was known as a the Middle Passage b the Deadly Voyage c Impressment d Involuntary Servitude e Chains of Sorrow During the rst 150 years after the European discovery of the Americas how many Africans were transported in the Atlantic slave trade a b 800000 c 16 million d 52 million e 69 million During the quotsugar boomquot from 1650 to 1800 7 slaves were transported a 800000 b 16 million c 55 million d 75 million W L e 10 million What was the principal cause of mortality aboard Atlantic slave ships b a A use b Execution c Disease d Suicide e Piracy Africans who provided slaves to Europeans most often preferred to receive in return beads and blankets gold and ivory rum and horses guns and textiles e silk and porcelain 9 57 37 The African state most dependent on the slave trade was a Oyo b Dahomey c Asante d Elmina e Kush Most slaves taken from Africa were a kidnapped b prisoners of war c crimin s d political opponents e Muslims In the eighteenth century what was the major source of slaves in the interior of the Bight of Biafra Kidnapped people Children sold into slavery by parents Prisoners of war Criminals All of these EDP057 W 0 4 o The greatest source for slaves for the Atlantic trade was from a Asante b Oyo c Biafra d Angola e Luanda Generally the Atlantic African slave trade was based on a partnership between European opportunists and Arab merchants Asian and European elites European and African elites Islamic and African elites Arab merchants and African elites EDP057 Most slaves in the Islamic world were agricultural workers part of the Atlantic Circuit soldiers and servants translators galley slaves EFF057 Islamic law prohibited the enslavement of a a ans b Christians c women d Muslims e anyone The majority of African slaves in the Islamic world were a artisans b worked on sugar plantations c children d women for concubines and servants e translators Both Muslims and Europeans obtained slaves from subSaharan Africa but a the Islamic trade was much smaller b the European trade was much smaller c both slave trades ended soon after they began d Africans refused to deal with Muslim traders e Africans refused to deal with European traders 42 Which of the following is not true of population loss in Africa as a result of the slave trade 4 LN EFF057 Wh g nun057 Areas near the Slave Coast lost a disproportionate number of people Population loss was uniform across all areas of west Africa Even at the peak of the trade the population of Africa remained large New foods from the Americas helped to offset population losses due to the slave trade Population loss was reduced by the fact that more men than women were traded into slavery ich of the following is true regarding the Atlantic slave trade Africans gained far more wealth than Europeans Europeans gained far more wealth than Africans Europeans gained only slightly more wealth than Africans Europeans and Africans gained nearly the same amount of wealth Africans benefited from their inclusion in the world trade system but were harmed by European diseases CHAPTER 12 Dynastic Cycle The theory that Chinese dynasties go through a predictable cycle from early vigor and growth to subsequent decline as administrators become lax and the well off find ways to avoid paying taxes cutting state revenues Paper Money Legal Currency issued on paper it developed in china as a convenient alternative to metal coins Compass A tool developed in the Song Times to Aid in navigation at Sea it consisted of a magnetic needle that would point north in a small protective case Examination System A system of selective officials based on competitive written examinations Movable Type A system of printing in which one piece of type was used for each unique character Neo Confucianism The revival of Confucian thinking that began in the eleventh century Concubine A woman contracted to a man as a secondary spouse although subordinate to the wife her sons were considered legitimate heirs Foot binding The practice of binding the feet of girls with long strips of cloth to keep them from growing large Cloistered Government A system in which an emperor retired to a Buddhist Monastery but continued to exercise power by controlling his young son on the throne The tale of Genii A Japanese literary masterpiece written by Lady Murasaki about court life Esoteric Buddhism A sect of Buddhism that maintains that the secrets of enlightenment have been secretly transmitted from the Buddha and can be accessed through initiation into the mandalas mudras and mantras Bushido Literally the Way of the Warrior this was the code of conduct by which samurai were expected to live Military Land Stewards Officials Placed in charge of overseeing estates Militagy Governors Officials appointed to enforce the law in the province and oversee the samurai there A school of Buddhism that emphasized meditation and truths that could not be conveyed in words CHAPTER 13 Vassal A knight who has sworn loyalty to a particular lord Vassal is derived from a Celtic word meaning Servant M A portion of land the use of which was given by a lord to a vassal in exchange for the latter s oath of loyalty Feudalism A medieval European political system that defines the military obligations and relations between a lord and his vassals and involves the granting of fiefs Manorialism The economic system that governed rural life in medieval Europe in which the landed estates of a lord were worked by the peasants under his jurisdiction in exchange for his protections w A peasant who lost his freedom and became permanently bound to the landed estate of a lord JurorsIn William the Conqueror s reign a priest and siX local people who swore an oath to answer truthfully all questions their wealth Lay Investiture The selection and appointment of church officials by secular authorities Common Law A law that originated in and was applied by the king s court Reconguista A 14Lh century term used to describe the Christian Crusade to wrest Spain back from the Muslims clerics believed it was a sacred and patriotic mission Crusades Holy wars sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries Chivalry A code of conduct that governed the conduct of a knight characterized by the virtues of bravery generosity honor graciousness mercy and gallantry toward women Merchant GuildsAssociations of merchants and traders organized to provide greater security and minimize loss in commercial ventures Craft GuildsAssociations of artisans and craftsmen organized to regulate the quality quantity and price of the goods produced as well as the number of affiliated apprentices and j oumeymen Hanseatic Leag e A mercantile association of towns that allowed for mutual protection and security Commercial Revolution The transformation of the economic structure of Europe beginning in the 11EE Century from a rural manorial society to a more complex mercantile society College A University was made up of a collection of these privately endowed residences for the lodging of poor students Scholastics Medieval professors who developed a method of thinking reasoning and writing in which questions were raised and authorities cited on both sides of a question Cathedral A church headed by a bishop which forms the administrative center of a diocese Gothic The term for the architectural and artistic style that prevailed in Europe from the mid 12a century to the 16 century Troubadours Medieval poets in Southern Europe who wrote and sang lyrical verses devoted to the themes of love desire beauty and gallantry Black Death The bubonic plague Great Schism The period from 1378 to 1417 during which the Western Christian church had two popes one in Rome and one in Avignon Jacguerie A massive uprising by French Peasants in 1358 protesting heavy taxation CHAPTER 14 Renaissance Rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity Protestant Reformation A reform movement that begun in the early 16th that rejected the institutionalization of Christianity that characterized the Roman Catholic Church and emphasized individual salvation by grace through faith alone Signori An Italian word used to describe the rulers of citystates and the states ruled by these men Patrons Wealthy individuals who provide financial support to scholars painters sculptors poets and architects Humanism The critical study of Latin and Greek literature with the goal of realizing human potential Individualism A basic feature of the Italian Renaissance stressing personality uniqueness genius and selfconsciousness The Prince A 1513 treatise by Machiavelli on ways to gain Keep and expand power because of its subsequent impact probably the most important literacy work of the Renaissance Secularism An Attitude that tends to nd the ultimate explanation of everything and the nal end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief Christian Humanists Scholars from northern Europe who in the later years of the 153911 century developed program for broad social reform based on concepts set forth in the Renaissance and on the ideals of the Christian faith Anticlericalism A widespread sentiment in the early sixteenth century characterized by resentment of clerical immortality ignorance and absenteeism An important cause of the protestant Reformation IndulgenceA papal statement granting remission of a priest imposed penalty for sin Protestant NonCatholic Christians Predestination God decided who would be saved and dammed from the beginning of time Holy OfficeAgency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy and to promote sound doctrine on faith and morals Huggenots French Calvinists many of whom lived in the major cities of Paris Lyons and Rouen Saint Baquot 39 s Dav A savage Catholic Attack on Calvanists in Paris that led to a long civil war CHAPTER 15 Bride Wealth A south east Asian custom whereby at marriage the groom paid the bride or her family a sum of money that remained under her Caravel A small maneuverable threemast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 1515 century The carvel gave the Portuguese a distinct advantage in exploration and trade Viceroyalties The name for the four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas New Spain Peru New Granada and la plate Audiencia Presided over by the viceroythe 12 to 15 judges who served as an advisory council and as the highest judicial body Quinto OneFifth of all precious metals mined in the Americas that the Crown claimed as its own Columbian Exchange The exchange of animals plants and disease between the old and the new worlds Encomienda System Crown grants the conquerors the right to employ groups of Amerindians in a town or area as agricultural or mining laborers or as tribute payers it was a disguised form of slavery slavery


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