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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 1 1272012 123200 AM Ferdinand Magellan Initiated the first successful circumnavigation of Earth Established the length of a degree of latitude Stanley Miller 22 year old graduate student conducted a laboratory experiment that that had profound implications about the development of life on earth In his experiment Miller exposed a mixture of Carbone dioxide methane ammonia hydrogen and water to a sparkwhich imitated lightening He found an assortment of organic chemicals including Amino Acids Polynesians 7 Early celestial navigators 7 Colonized a huge region of Pacific Islands from observations of waves cloud formations stars Phoenicians The first humans who developed the art of navigation The first recorded navigation was to Africa in 590 BC Prince Henry the Navigator led the expiation to explore outside of Europe 7 Established a naval observatory 7 Trained other navigators and sailors Vikings 7 Improvements in shipbuilding 7 Trade and colonization through the North Atlantic Captain James Cook 1776 The first oceanographer 7 Ships named the Endeavor Resolution and Adventure 7 Measured Temp and Sal and collected many samples 7 Azoic Hypothesis Forbes 1850 HMS Challenger 1872 1876 Beginning of modern oceanography Institutional collaborative multidisciplinary 7 C Wyville Thomson Expedition leader 7 4 naturalists Murray Buchanan von Willimoes 7 Suhm Moseley 1 artist Wild 7 o 35 years 7 0 68890 n miles 7 o 362 stations 7 o 40 time spent in ports 7 19th century equivalent of the US space program in 20th century 7 Challenger Expedition GOALS 7 Objectives To map 7 1 Global patterns of deepwater circulation 7 2 Chemistry of world s oceans 7 3 Geology of the deepsea floor 7 4 Distributionabundanceorigin of deepsea 7 organisms 7 Determine chemical composition of seawater physical conditions of the deep sea characteristics of sediment deposits 7 distribution of organic life Johannes Kepler 7 Described planetary motion Galileo Galilei 7 Mass weight and acceleration Isaac Newton 7 Principia and law of gravity Importance of Charts and Maps 7 Trade travel and exploration 7 Development of more accurate navigational charts and instruments 7 Relationship between time and longitude 7 John Harrison first chronometer to keep accurate time at sea 7 First hydrographic offices to map the oceans established in France 1720 and Britain 1795 7 Voyages of James Cook 7 Used Harrison s chronometer to update and correct navigational charts 7 Explored and charted the South Pacific regions of Antarctic waters east Australia and New Zealand and sailed through the Bering Strait 7 European discoverer of Hawaii 7 Benjamin Franklin 7 Published a chart of Gulf Stream and helped establish a more rapid sailing route between the Europe and the US east coast 7 Compare Figures 110 and 111 7 National and commercial interests 7 US Survey of the Coast set up in 1807 by Thomas Jefferson now known as the National Ocean Survey The Age of Discovery in Europe 30 year period 1492 1522 Europeans explored S America and N America Explorers learned the true extent of the world oceans Reason for increase in Ocean Exploration 1 Sultan Mohammad II captured Constantinople in End of Chapter Questions 1272012 123200 AM Chapter 1 How did the view of Oceans change by the early Mediterranean cultures influence the naming of the planet Earth 1272012 123200 AM