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Exam 2 Chapter 6 Creative Problem Solving 0 Identify general recommendations for managing stress p 138140 Awareness be aware of behaviors that cause stress Knowledge learn good habits and unlearn bad ones Action doing an action technique or changing thoughts to help stress Mental Skills practicing mental skills to manage stress Consistency Practice technique on a regularconsistent basis Don t ignore stress 0 Identify steps to creative problem solving p144 ldistinguish between stressors you can do something about and stressors you cannot change 2 Brainstorm possible solutions What can you do to decrease or eliminate the stressors over which you have no control 3 Select the best feasible ideas Ofthose possible solutions which are you willing to do 4 Implement the idea 5 Evaluate the outcome Did it work Why or why not Ifit didn t work start over and try another possible solution Chapter 7 The Power of Thoughts 0 Describe each of the cognitive restructuring techniques p159161 1 Keep it in perspective Don39t blow things out of proportion 2 Choose a quotstress timequot Address stressors and dont ignore them but don t dwell on them either 3 Optimistic Thinking when having a negative thought stop 4 Psych yourself up Stress inoculation is a process to build up positive thoughts when negatively perceived events are encountered 5 Humor Therapy Laugh at your situation 6 Enjoy the Here and Now learn to place importance on here Don t worry about the past 7 H ave the attitude of Gratitude Be thankful 8 It could be worse your bad day could be worse 9 Look for the Good in the bad learn from your challenges so they are not going to waste 10 Use a power phrase Use a word or phrase that has positive connotation Repeat it when bad situation 0 Identify ndings of psychosomatic disease experts pg158 want to end relationship diarrhea Determined to persevere constipation Interfered with or prevented from doing something hives Desire for revenge ulcers Wished something had no occurred nausea 0 Describe the bene ts of laughter Chapter 8 The Power of Emotions 0 Identify the two emotions that are especially associated with the stress response pg 183 Anger and Fear 0 Describe anger mismanagement styles pg l83l84 Somatizers refrain from expressing any anger Self Punishers feel guilty if they are angry Exploders Lose temper when angry Underhanders Tend to use sarcasm and ridicule towards those with whom they39re angry 0 Identify recommendations for managing anger p 184185 1 Take Deep Breaths 2 Think before responding 3 Express your feelings in the directions of the provacation Dont take anger out on someone else 4 Do not provoke retaliation Focus on solving the problem not getting back at someone 0 Identify the stages of grieving p188 1 Denial 2 Anger 3 Bargaining 4 Depression 5 Acceptance Chapter 9 Communication Skills 0 Describe the types of nonverbal communication p206 Touch Adaptors Body language crossing arms Regulators Body movements used to regulate conversation eyehead movements Affect Displays facial expressions Paralanguage pitch tone and volume of voice 0 Identify differences between communication patterns among males and females p 208 Females females speak to generate involvement more direct eye contact face person head on hand movements small but closer to body talk faster than males excellent articulation higher pitch rich descriptive language provide empathy Males tendency to interrupt change the topic ask more questions talk slowly less articulate less eye contact less verbalnonverbal encouragement provide solutions when someone complains to them 0 Describe recommendations for communicating during con ict pg 209212 Say at least one positive for every negative thing bring at least one solution for every criticism Begin with quotmayl offer a suggestionquot Use the language of quotrequest and respectquot Take time out and time in use the mirror technique see page 211 be a content communicator 0 Identify con ict resolution styles withdrawl person avoids con ict altogether surrender someone gives in to avoid con ict persuassion people try to get other to agree with them hostile aggression person uses intimidation to get point across dialogue person exchanges ideas opinions attitudes facts and ideas Chapter 10 Time Management 0 Describe the difference between the clock and the compass pg 232233 Clock commitments appointments schedules goals and activities what we do with and how we manage our time Compass our vision values principles mission conscience and direction what we feel is important and how we lead our lives 0 Describe prioritization techniques pg 229 ABC Rank order method assign letters to our responsibilities Ahigh priority Pareto Principle 8020 rule 20 tasks 80 results focus on one or two significant tasks Premack Principle quoteat your peas before your desert making effort to work on things you dont want to do before those you do Reverse calendar method quotYou can eat an elephant one bite at a timequot Break down project into minigoals and deadlines 0 Describe scheduling techniques pg 230 Boxing breaking down time into 3 to 5 blocks of time Responsibility in each block Time mapping Breaks down day into very small blocks of time similar to boxing Clustering Make list of errands you need to run and cluster or map by location 0 Describe the reverse calendar technique quotYou can eat an elephant one bite at a timequot Break down project into minigoals and deadlines Allows time for large projects Chapter 11 Exercise 0 Identify I 39 39 39 39 tic 39 39 39 39 and 39 39 39 39 bene ts of exercise p248251 Physiological Increased Efficiency of heart muscle Decreased resting heart rate decreased resting blood pressure decreased muscle tension better sleep quality increased resistance to colds and illness decreased serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides decreased percentage of body fat decreased bone demineralization decreased rate of aging increased longevity Psychological increased perceptions of acceptance by others decreased feeling of depression or anxiety decreased overall sense of stress and tension greater sense of overall wellbeing Behavioral decreased alcohol consumption decreased overeating 0 Describe why exercise is helpful in managing stress pg 251 1 When you exercise you use up the byproducts of stress 2 Catecholamines are released to produce a euphoric feeling 3It39s an effective distraction 4 Those who exercise are used to going through the stress response and so they dont do it to the same extent during exercise 0 Brie y describe results associated with NCHA and exercise p248 nonexorcising college students had 37 more physical symptoms than those who did 21 more anxiety 0 Identify the recommendations for eliciting a meditative response when running pg 252 Run at a gentle regular pace Deeply relax all muscles Breathe in long through nose and short through mouth repeat silently as you exhale quotOMquot or word of choice Dont worry about relaxation Overcome distracting thoughts Remain vigilant to dangers Chapter 12 Nutrition 0 Identify vitamins that are known to be greatly affected by stress p265 Vitamin C E and Bcomplex vitamins 0 Describe how stress is associated with cravings for sweets p266 Stress increases cortisol which increases production of chemical neuropeptide Y Y or NPY in brain Responsible for cravings of carbohydrate rich foodsparticularly sweets Chapter 13 Introduction to Relaxation 0 Identify the primary purpose of relaxation techniques To intercept the physiological changes associated with stress Need both coping and relaxation techniques together to work efficiently 0 Identify the visible and nonvisible signs of being relaxed Visible pink or pale palms and ngernail beds forehead neck and facial muscles are smooth and less noticeable NonVisible Body sensation you feel warmer and heavier altered perceptions tingling sinking oating drifting weightlessness and physiological alterations extremities don t feel attached or different time perception longer and shorter Also increased salivation decreased heart rate and breathing is relaxed and natural 0 Identify physiological parameters measured with the use of biofeedback Information can be obtained about speci c organ activity Every physiological change is caused by a change in attitude or consciousness People can be taught to control their autonomic nervous systems to in uence these changes Heart rate is the easies physiological parameter that you can take EMG iMuscles EKGHeart EEGBrain GSR Skin Chapter 14 Diaphragmatic Breathing Abdominal Breathing 0 Identify the number of breaths per minute during normal exercise and relaxed states N0rmall4l6xmin Exercise60xmin Relaxed46xmin 0 Describe the types of breathing Upper Coastal Breathing upper third of chest expands Middle Coastal Breathing 6t rib down expands Diaphragmatic Breathing belly expands Abdominal Breathing sit in straight position close eyes and place hands on abdomen just below the rib cage Breath slowly and deeply through your nose concentrating on lling your stomach hands should move with stomach and chest rising but mot too much Breath out and let tension g0 10 breaths Then wait a minute and return to normal breathing and start again Relaxation Breathing Sit straight put tongue on the back of your upper teeth and let tongue sag down Breath slowly out of your mouth without moving your tongue Exhale the breath until it is fully exhausted Close mouth and inhale slowly but fully though your nose Hold breath and count till 5 Breath out for 6 counts out of mouth Repeat Counting CloudsBreaths Get a relaxing CD to listen to for about 10 min Sit up straight and close eyes Breath deeply and fully and count each exhalation in head up till 5 The repeat for full 10 min Invigorating Breathing sit straight Mouth and eyes closed Breath in and out rapidly out of nose Quickly and consistently Do for 20 sec then return to regular breathing and repeat Chapter 15 Meditation 0 Identify the main purpose of meditation Main purpose is to gain control over your attention 0 Identify psychological and physiological bene ts of meditation Psychological Decreased Anxiety fears and phobias and alcohol and drug use Increased Feeling of self worth internal locus of control and general euphoria Reverses coronary heart disease with diet and exercise Physiological Decreased Oxygen consumption blood lactate levels heart rate and blood pressure muscle tension Increased alpha waves skin resistance 0 Identify recommendations for doing meditation Quiet environment no sound A mental device any object or tool that is used to replace all other thoughts focal point to direct all attention Ex mantra A passive attitude a receptive attitude let it happen rather then force it to happen Comfortable position sit with straight back and all the way back feet on oor hands laid in lap 0 Describe the meditation continuum Continuum the cognitive stages of meditation 1 Meditation begins Boredom Distracting thoughts Deep relaxation Detached Observation Supraconsciousness enlightenment mind is completely open P P PF E J Chapter 16 The Power of Sight 0 Describe the differences between mental imagery guided mental imagery and visualization Mental Imagery Touches on all of most of the five senses and is done by yourself Beach hear the crash of the waves feel the wind in your facetoes in sand taste the salty air etc Guided Mental Imagery is when mental images are suggested by another person o Ident Visualization involves creation of images or scenes Usually directed toward self improvement Only involves one scene your vision or sight Not as effective as mental imagery ify the bene ts of mental imagery Cancer Hypertension Chronic pain Asthma Obesity Headaches Insomnia Shyness Pain control Athletic performance 0 Identify the color and image that is thought to be the most relaxing Color Blue Image Water Chapter 17 The Power of Sound 0 Identify the bene ts of music therapy Dementia Osteoarthritis Pain Postoperative delirium Sleep difficulties Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Reduced chronic pain up to 20 and depression up to 25 disability and increase power 45 minutes of soft music before bedtime can improve sleep by more than 13 Useful intervention with people that have autism Can improve cardiovascular system Joyful music has a healthy effect dilate on blood vessels U ofMaryland Similar to response to laughter Music help retain math baroque music enhances learning as well and performance on some tests Baroque music citrus scent and pastel colors 72 decreased violence over 2 years and better grades Tend to listen to music that matches our mood Chapter 18 The Power of Smell 0 Identify possible benefits of aromatherapy Healing wounds Energizing Improving skin tone Relaxation of muscles Regulating hormones Reducing in ammation Relieving mistral cramps Improving sleep Stimulating the immune system Killing fungal and bacterial infections Decreasing sinus and lung congestion Aiding digestion Relieving tension headaches Aiding blood circulation Chapter 19 The Power of Touch 0 Describe indicators of the importance of touch Stimulates growth in premature babies Infants and children that are tough deprived have psychological and physiological problems later in life 0 Describe bene ts of massage therapy Physiological Reduces effects of stress Decreases chronic pain Improves nerve function Improves sleep Improves skin tone Increases blood supply Compensates in part lack of exercise Decrease blood pressure Strengthens the immune system Psychological Improves functioning Helps control hyperactivity Calms a bad temper Improves concentration Enhances selfimage Promotes greater creative expression Reduces anxiety Provides a feeling of overall wellbeing Performance enhancements Chapter 20 Other Relaxation Techniques 0 Identify benefits of autogenic training The focusing of feeling warm and heavy making your blood vessels dilate Decreased heart rate Decreased respiration rate Decreased muscle tension Decreased serum cholesterol Increased blood ow to the arms and legs Reduced anxiety Reduced depression Reduced fatigue 0 Define bracing Unnecessary muscle tension 0 Identify recommendations for progressive relaxation Start with lower extremities Isolate muscle groups Simultaneously contract both muscle groups on the same side Hold contractions for 510 seconds and hold the relaxed phase for 45 seconds Focus on intensity of the contractions as well at the relaxation phase Inhale as you contract and eXhale as you release 5 minutes 3Xday 0 Identify benefits of pet therapy Touching and interacting with an animal can help lower a persons blood pressure lower blood fat too and provide stress relief People with pets have longer life spans and suffer from less depression Reduce loneliness in residents in longterm car facilities Children that are raised in a home where a pet is considered a member of the family are more empathetic then those without pets KIN 370 Stress Management for Healthy Living Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2011 Existential Stress 1 Know what existential stress is It is stress that is associated with what or due to what 2 Victor Frankl learned several crucial lessons in the Nazi concentration camps There are three fundamental ideas Know what these lessons are 3 Know what a provisional existence is and what the three characteristics of a provisional existence are 4 Victor Frankl argues that people in the Us are suffering an existential crisis What is the cause of this crisis 5 Know what a presupposition is 6 Know Nihilism is and what the presuppositions underlying Nihilism are 7 Know what presuppositions that Victor Frankl believed in In particular compare Frankl s view of what determines human behavior to that of B F Skinner s Victor Frankl believed humans have a particular capability and that it was this capability that largely in uenced human behavior B F Skinner would not have agreed with Victor Frankl and believed that human behavior was determinedaffected by something else What are their differing views regarding factors that affect human behavior 8 Know what the purpose of Logotherapy is gt0 What are the recommendations for instilling meaning in your life 10 There is one question which gets at a connection between Existential Stress and Locus of Control One of the presuppositions underlying Nihilism essentially re ects a particular locus of control What is the locus of control that would tend to characterize a nihilistic individual Cognitive Reappraisal 1 Know what psychogenic stress is 2 At what stage of the Psychosomatic Model does cognitive reappraisal intervene to reduce stress 3 In general what does cognitive reappraisal require you to do 4 What is free will and why is free will important for this technique V39 9 gt1 9 What effect has the in uence of evolution had on with respect to this topic What is the central assumption underlying this technique Know what the principlesideasvalues represented in the YingYang symbol are What is meant by limited attentional capacity What are secondary gains and why are they important Cognitive reappraisal cannot be used to cope with what kind of stressors Review the difference between the Biomedical and Holisitic Perspectives on health and treating maladies that is in this case managing stress These perspectives provide a basis for attitudes toward stress management What are the most appropriate attitudes toward stress management Cognitive Therapy 1 N 9 4 V39 0 gt1 9 0 O N Know what the four general assumptions underlying almost all cognitive therapies are Stress is said to be transactional in nature What does this mean Also know what a major implication of the transactional view of stress is This was discussed in class Who created Rational Emotive Therapy RET What is the focus or emphasis of RET What are the characteristics of rational thoughts In accordance with RET what is the cause of negative selfdefeating emotional What are the assumptions underlying RET How does Albert Ellis characterize the effects of relaxation therapies and anXiolytic drugs and why does he characterize them as such Know what absolutistic thinking and musturbation are What effect do irrational beliefs and the emotions they produce have on selfesteem What is the focus or emphasis of Aaron Beck s cognitive therapy What are the potential consequences of having too few or too many automatic thoughts 13 Know what personalization and polarized thinking are and what the potential outcomes of each type of thinking are Locus of Control 1 What is Locus of Control 2 What are the four attitudinal options regarding locus of control Have a working knowledge of these ideas If given brief descriptions of an individual s attitudes be able to correctly identify what his or her locus of control is or attitude toward control is 3 What is the likely emotional outcome of holding each attitudinal option 4 What is cocreator perception What characteristic underlies cocreator perception 5 Know how each attitudinal option regarding control is related to a tolerance for ambiguity 6 Know what some of the speci c indicators of either a completely internal or completely external locus of control are 7 Know what the presuppositions underlying cocreator perception with shortterm optimism and cocreator perception with genuine optimism are Lecture Construction of Reality Regarding our sense of reality 1 Do we know Reality ie the physical objective real world directly or do we come to an understanding of what Reality is indirectlyithat is by some process Asked another way how would you describe your sense of what reality is 2 The process by which we construct our reality may be best characterized by what term Hint the answer is an Rword What is an important implication of this idea 3 What are two general processessteps that are involved in constructing our sense of reality Hint Computer metaphors were used Know what each step involves 4 What are perceptual transducers Have a working knowledge of this idea so that if you are asked to identify an example out of list of possibilities you could do so 5 What are the two software subprocesses involved in shaping our sense of reality Know what each processes involves and how each leads to a smaller construction of reality 6 Know what habituation novelty and orienting are 7W hat is a priori knowledge What role does it plays in constructing our image of reality and what does it enable us to experience Creativity 1 What is the traditional old assumption about what was necessary to be creative What was the new assumption presented in class a b 0 2391 FD P U FD quot1 9 Regarding the creative process Know what the four stages of the creative process are Know what is occurring in each stage Know what marks the beginning and end of each stage For example an impasse or crisis tends to mark the end of one stage and the onset of another What stages are these Review the information on the thinking processes in the Incubation stage What hemisphere tends to dominant thinking in this stage What type of information does the mind tend to use in this stage The Veri cation stage involves two processes What are they Regarding crises In general know the processes are surrounding an impasse or crisis What leads to an impasse and crisis How do people who have been through a crisis describe the experience What is occurring during the crisis with respect to cognitive structures or one s construction of reality How is a crisis resolved Is the shift change from one cognitive structure paradigm to another continuous or discontinuous What is an important psychological consequence of entering an impasse or crisis that facilitates the creative process Know what characteristics of altered states of consciousness facilitate creativity 5 What is the essence of creativity 6 What are two cognitivebehavioral strategies that can be used to improve one s creativity 7 Is creative potential something that everyone has or is it a talent that only a few people are lucky enough to be born with THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE NOT COVERED ON THE FINAL EXAM P 439 14 4 nu vv vvllou me esseuee I is l Y quot quothunk I 39u pr a um 39 1 m r m w i w we agg u e A i nr V n xxlnnffln U quott m P 1 14h Pk m 4 a m w m i a Jp i e a 4 In an I 439 I39 k n v 439 um 14 t Mr m l e u me u 1 x Lmt nr P quot4 fm t n r 1 mm A 4 g a 7 x 14 14 Dnr t T 39 39 39 n x 14 14 39 quot 439 FHA Dnr t DA n xxf1 A U W m J u u H p 1 A A39 t w39 A A n 14 14 m t39 A n th h v fm 1 J m m r a mu m I X lant nr t n 39 39 U P I AD n1 7 m we we ye 1 cm 4 i 5 ms V n n Lmt 14 39 39 11 ha trnt mm L 1 m w g a mug u g i a u u 4 Ian 2 th tvv trat gi f r 39 quot39 39 tal andlm 2 what th d i i nrul ar Q 14 14 k tn t m I A A J xf Inr J is me ees way M N r mge J 0 x Lmt nr n m t m A 439 439 1quot 1 4 um vvuJ uv ur My 1 9 11 n Ha 4 m J U P rn illin H u E u nu uv unbr Exam 1 Chapter 1 The Nature of Stress According to the de nitions of stress identify the components of which stress is comprised pg 8 l A stressor or some sort of demand pressure situation or event our perception of that stressor an emotional reactions a psychiological reaction Describe the two types of stress and the two types of distress pg 9 Eustress and Distress are 2 types Distress public speaking abusive relationship Describe the YerkesiDodson Principle pg 13 Too little stress as well as too much stress is unhealthy Describe the types of stressors pg 17 Physiological stressor illness injury etc Sociological stressor relationships with others psychological stressor subconscious perception ofyourself philosophical stressor stems from not liVing with your valuesbeliefs De ne each of the dimensions of health pg 21 Physical health social health emotional health intellectual health spiritual health environmental health occupational health holistic health comprehensive and includes more than physical health Describe how stress and health are related pg 28 quality of each dimension of health may perpetuate and exacerbate a stressful life or contribute to peaceful life Brie y identify results from NCHA regarding stress as it s related to health obesity and smoking obese people high BMl were most stressed under them underweight students Chapter 2 The Face of Stress Identify the pioneers of stress and with what they are credited D8 56 57 look at page Describe the Social Readjustment Rating Scale pg 47 Life changes scale Predict relative chances of getting sick from stressors Describe Abraham Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs and how his theory relates to stress 10 55 Phenomenon that humans have certain needs Identify the components of the ABCs of Human Needs pg 55 56 A Accomplishment Bbelonging ccomfort ddependability eesteem quotF nances ldentify gender differences in the prevalence of stress pg 48 54 Look at pages but women more stressed than men Identify the prevalence of stress among Americans Pg 48 49 Look at pages Brie y describe results from NCHA regarding stress and ethnicity among college students pg 49 Black lowest stressiprone AlaskanIndian highest next hispanic asian then white Brie y describe results from NCHA regarding differences among male and female college students pg 49750 LECTURES Females report a lot higher stress Brie y describe differences in the way males and females handle stress LECTURE Females handle stress better in high risk behaViors as a way of coping with stress Identify the number of workers who experience high levels of stress 9 out of 10 Identify the number of workers who said job stress lowered their productivity and caused frequent ailments pg 52 LECTURE 7 out of 10 ldentify how many workers have taken a mental health day off ofworkdue to stress one in four ldentify differences in health care costs associated with workers who report that they are stressed compared to those that aren t stressed lecture stressed people accrue health costs 46 higher than normal people Chapter 3 The Mind Body Connection Describe the Stress Response or Model of Stress Pg 7475 1 First you encounter a stressor 2 Cognitive appraisal is the stressor bad How bad is it Perceptions and thoughts are made about the stressor come into play based on your personal experiences phiolosophy values attitudes and beliefs which are largely determined by you past experiences Feelings and emotions Your thoughts and perceptions are closely tied to your feelings and emotions In other words how you re feeling results from and is determined to a large extent by what you are thinking 4 Physiological reactions Your body responds to your emotions which were elicited by your thoughts and perceptions and either prepares you to ight or run away Aka fight or ight 5 Health Consequences Describe psychophysiology and psychoneuroimmunology pg 73 Psychophysiology the mindbody connection psycho mind or consciousness physiology body how the mind affects the body Psychoneuroimmunology is more specific and refers to the study of the interaction of your consciousness psycho your brain and central nervous system neuro and your ability to fight disease immunology so it is the study of how your mind affects your body specifically the immune system 0 Describe the three stages of GAS General Adeptation Syndrome Pg 78 1 Alarm initial encounter alert attention 2 Resistance Body tries to revert back to homeostasis body still stays aroused but less in intensity 3 Exhaustion feeling burned out When more or one organs cannot meet demands placed on it 03 0 Describe what happens during the fightor ight response or stress response Pg 75 76 The stress response Your body responds to your emotions which were elicited by your thoughts and perceptions and either prepares you to ight or run away Aka fight or ight 0 Describe what happens to each physiological system during the stress response Neurological System hormones and neurotransmitters inhibit short term memory concentration inhibition and rational thoughts Interferes with ability to handle difficult social or intellectual tasks and behaviors Hormones and neurotransmitters inhibit long term memory of response to the stress experienced Cardiovascular system heart rate and blood pressure increase breathing becomes rapid Blood ow increases Adrenaline acts on B1 receptors on heart combing to increase blood output Alpha receptors found in the blood vessel walls combine with adrenaline to effectively stimulate the blood vessels better distribution Respitory System increased respitory rate Immune System defense weakens the cells such as WBC are positioned in places where body thinks there is going to be an infection Cortisol suppresses the immune system resulting in increased suseptability of infections Muscular System contraction of muscles Skeletal System Endocrine System secretion of hormones Nervous System CNS PNS 0 Describe what happens to specific organs during the stress response Pg 78 0 Identify the three glands that are most closely associated with the stress response Pg 77 Pituitary Gland brain Adrenal Gland kidney Thyroid Gland base of neck 0 Identify the hormones that are associated with being in a stressed state and a relaxed state Hypothalamus secretes ARH stressed state ARH makes pituitary secrete ACTH adrenocorticotrophic stressed state ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete Adrinaline epinephrine noradrinaline norepinephrine cortisol 7 primary horomones associated With stress 0 Describe differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic responses Sympathetic responsible for activating stress response Parasympathetic conservation of energy and relaxation acetocoline hormone associated wit relaxed feeling Chapter 4 Consequences of Stress 1 Identify the percentage of visits to primary care physicians that are for stressirelated problems and the percentage of disease and illness that is thought to be related to stress pg 94 Stressirelated 7590 Disease and illness up to 90 2 Describe how stress is associated with heart disease Stress hormones adrenaline noradrenaline and cortisol are secreted extra fat is released into your bloodstream and then it returns to the liver where it s converted into cholesterol pg 96 3 Brie y describe results of studies pertaining to heart disease and stress Paul Rosch professor at the New York Medical College found that stress could be more powerful than diet in terms of in uencing cholesterol levels several studies have shown significant increases of cholesterol levels during stressful situations where there was little change in diet patients who practiced relaxation and taming hostility reduced the risk of having further heart problems by 75 Alan Young a cardiologist at Harvard Medical School found that those already suffering from coronary heart disease experienced even more constriction of blood vessels when under stress Debra Moser of Ohio State University in Columbus found that patients who just suffered a heart attack and were under anxietystress were 49x more likely to suffer additional complications pg 9697 4 Identify the ndings ofthe two articles pertaining to weight gain and stress Lack of emotional support in younger children related to obesity but for older children mental and physical health problems along with nancial strain related to obesity Parents of cancer patients more likely to gain weight and had signi cant weight gain throughout the three months ofthe study lecture 5 Brie y describe ndings of the study done at the University of Minnesota pertaining to academic performance and stress Students with unhealthy behaviors had lower GPA s Stress rated as l health impediment to academic performance Out of 70 of students who reported they were stressed 13 said stress was hurting their academic performance Students with 8 plus stressors had an average GPA of 272 No signi cant stress had average GPA of 33 6 Brie y describe the consequences of stress on academic performance Lower GPA 7 Summarize ndings of stress and road rage Psychiatric distress was highest in hard core road rage perpetrators Young men most prone to road rage 56 of men vs 44 ofwomen on a daily basis Men under the age of l9 most competitiveaggressive Miami Florida most aggressive drivers 8 Identify the stats pertaining to suicide college students have considered attempting suicide in the past twelve months and 14 actually attempted suicide Suicide rates among youth have increased more than 200 in the last fty years Every 100 min someone commits suicide For every suicide there are 100 unsuccessful attempts The leading 1 leading cause of suicide is untreated depression More people die by suicide than homicide Chapter 5 Personality amp Stress 1 Identify components of personality Values attitudes beliefs and behaviors pg 113 2 Identify in uencing factors associated with personality development Genetic factors family dynamics social in uences past experiences pg 115 3 Identify characteristics associated with those who handle stress effectively Control their lives and look for active solutions to problems be committed to meaningful goals use little nicotine and caffeine relax at least 15 min each day get regular aerobic exercise be actively involved with others pg 116 Identify personality characteristics of stressiprone and stressresistant personalities pg 117 121 Stressiprone stress out more often and to greater extent Includes Type A Codependent Helplessihopeless Stressiresistant hardy personality type R high selfiesteem Identify the 3 Cs ofa hardy personality pg 117 Challenge Control Commitment Describe resilience and the traits associated with it Learning to make stress work for you learn and use for motivation for change Ability to adapt when things go wrong i N 4 Decisiyeness Sense of Purposefulness Values Flexibility VIDEOS Stress and Anxiety make Allergies Worse Stress and Anxiety makes allergic responses worse Put pollen on arms ofyolunteers monitored skin To see how stress affects allergic reactions they made them do public speaking The response was 23x as worse Managing Stress on the Job Adrenal glands release cortisol breaks down muscle protein and releases amino acids into blood amino acids used by liver to form sugar glucose glucose is used by the brain and increases blood sugar levels insulins primary responsibility is to control glucose cortisol also releases fatty acids from fat cells to be used for muscle energy Blood is full of FA s and glucose triggers hunger deposits toxic fats adrenalin constricts muscle and increases heart rate Two forms of stress Catatoxic Anything the body does to ght stressor directly bacteriarigt high fever Syntoxic Moderate the catatoxic reaction control everything Stress and Heart Disease Doctor Recommendations Learn how to reduce stress Yoga massage tirchi social support Volunteering Will make you happier Message Being a volunteer and selfessness counteracts the bad effects of stress on body 52 of women that did not volunteer had major illness Oxitosin increases when help others and dopamine Helping reduces your stress boosts immune and cardiovascular system In general 1 2 4 V39 KIN 370 Stress Management for Healthy Living Midterm Study Guide Fall 2011 The Midterm exam will consist of 60 mostly multipleguess questions with some TF questions 2 Study to understand not merely to memorize Some questions will require you to apply your knowledge Ifyou have merely memorize material without understanding it you will not be able to think through the problem 3 It is recommended that you make written notes for each of the items below 4 You will take the exam in Bb The time limit on the exam will be 90 minutes an average of 15 mins per question All of the questions will be available at once and you will be able to skip questions and reVisit them 5 The exam is intended as an open mind test rather than open notes So please do not use any notes the PPT presentations the web etc or other assistance while taking the exam Thanks Lecture Course Introduction 1 Know what the myth of Sisyphus is and why it resonates with us in contemporary times Know what three major bene ts of a college education are for your personal development are as presented by your instructor There were three main ideas presented Then there was a summary list of bene ts that are beyond the nancial bene ts presented This studyguide item pertains to the three main ideas The mission of universities all universities is to acquaint students with the current thinking on the Big Questions about the world and life This courses addresses on of these Big Questions in particular What is the Big Question that is primarily addressed in this course And what is a fundamental answer to this Big Question It was given verbally in class Know what the major BigPicture ideas of stress are as presented at the end of this presentation As part of your review of this section be sure to compare the Defensive and Comprehensive perspectives on what stress management is or means Know what the Human Condition is conceptually and know what some of the Human Conditions are This was discussed in class and is not represented well per se in the PPT presentation In short the Human Conditions are all conditions that people by Virtue of being human are vulnerable to andor will certainly experiencesuffer Know what some of the classic examples of the Human Conditions are Death and fallibility are two classic examples Is stress one of the Human Conditions Lecture Stress Theory 1 N E 4 V39 9 gt1 9 14 Know what the differences between reptiles and amphibian versus mammals are in terms of behavioral strategies are for coping with a hostile threatening environment Stress may be characterized as Aanticipatory and Apreparatory What is meant by these terms Why is the stress response adaptive How does it serve survival Be able to de ne describe the General Adaptation Syndrome Know what the three stages of the GAS are and what is occurring at each stage Know how the GAS differs from the F ightorF light response Know who discovered the General Adaptation Syndrome Know what stage of the GAS corresponds to the FightorFlight response Know the two most important de nitions of stress as speci ed in class In what two ways is stress said to be nonspeci c Know what the ght or ight response is and who coined the phrase Know the difference between a stressor and stress Know what eustress and distress is and know what the four characteristics of each are Know what homeostasis is and it is important Re the unidimensionality and multidimensionality assumptions a Know what the two assumptions posit Fquot How is each assumption hypothetically manifested in a set of physiological responses to a stressor O Which assumption does the stress research support ie which assumption is correct 2 1 What is the implication of each assumption for the measurement of stress D Why is the multidimensionality assumption important for understanding the relationship between stress and disease Know what the parable of the blind men and elephant is intended to communicate Relaxation Exercises 1 Know what the primary components of Progressive Neuromuscular Relaxation PNR are They are of course a intervals of muscular contraction and relaxation and b holding the focus of your attention on the muscle group being contracted and relaxed This latter component is the meditative aspect of this technique 2 Know what the three goals of PNR are 3 What is the primary experiential sign that deep muscular relaxation is occurring What are other major feelingssigns of deep relaxation 4 According to your instructor your attention is analogous to what Lecture Psychosomatic Model 1 Why is stress said to be transactional in nature 2 What does the term psychosomatic mean Related what is meant by dualism 3 What is the historical origin of the philosophical underpinnings of the Psychosomatic Model 4 What is the Cartesian Conundrum Conceptually what is it To be helpful it means that it is difficult to understand how one thing can affect another and vice versa What are these two things Related the Cartesian Conundrum was presented in terms of two questions What are these questions 5 Know what the Psychosomatic Model is 6 Know what the steps in the Psychosomatic Model are and what is occurring at each step 7 What is the single most important step in the model in terms of determining whether a life environmental event will induce a stress response 8 What type of stressor bypasses the Cognitive and Emotional Arousal stages of the Psychosomatic Model and directly stimulates Physical Arousal Lecture J39 and Intermediate Stress Pathwavs 1 How do mammals and reptiliaamphibia differ on the following Mammals ReptiliaAmphibia Metabolic need for oxygen Cardiac activity at rest Cardiac activity during threat Capability for emotions Capability for facial expressions Capability for vocalization 2 How do mammals and reptiliaamphibia differ in behavioral strategies for coping with predators 3 What would the likely consequences for us be if we respond physiologically to a stressor in the same manner as an amphibian 4 What are two human disorders that may involve reptilianamphibianlike cardiac stress responses Brain Structure 5 What areas of the brain are responsible for a Thinking associations intuition ideation b Emotions O Controllingregulating the activity of internal organs via the autonomic nervous system activity d Controlling balance and coordinating movement 6 What is the lesson about emotions from the case of Phineas Gage 7 Regarding the Neocortical Override Theory a Know the brain structures in each of the four levels of the model and what function each brain structure is accomplishing b Know the rankorder of the brain levels by relative age ie what brain structures are oldest next oldest and so forth cWhat is the central premise of the theory 8 Regarding the autonomic nervous system ANS a What is the function of the ANS b What are the two divisions of the ANS What general effect does each division have on an organ systems eg activates or inhibits 0 d Most organs are dually innervated What does this phrase mean How do the two divisions operate For example intermittentlymne division might be ring while the other is quiescent and vice versa Continuously What does reciprocal inhibition mean FD f In any given moment what determines which division of the ANS is dominant In almost all cases in the ANS two neurons communicate between the spinal column and an organ such as the heart What is each class of neurons called 9 h Know the effects of the Immediate Stress Pathway are on each of the following functions Recall that stress prepares the body to initiate and sustain vigorous physical activity Hence how you would expect each function to change during stress to support physical activity or if the function does not immediately and directly support physical activity what would you expect to happen During stress I would expect heart rate to increase stroke volume cardiac output blood pressure 39 quot rate 39 quot depth 1 blood vessels in muscle blood vessels in the skin blood vessels in the gut gut eg gastric motility 9 muscle tension oxygen consumption carbon dioxide C02 production sweat glands j Know what the delay in the response onset and response duration is for the Immediate Stress Pathway Regarding Intermediate Stress Pathway a What is unusual about the neural communication between the spinal column and the adrenal medulla as compared to ANS communication between the spinal cord and other organs b What two catecholamines are released by the adrenal medulla c In general what effects do the catecholamines have on the body d What are the delay in the response onset and response duration Lecture Long Term Stress Pathways 1 Regarding the ACTH Pathway a What does ACTH mean b In general what is a trophic hormone c What gland releases ACTH d What is the target gland for ACTH ie which gland responds to the presence of ACTH e What two classes of hormones does the target gland release f What is the chief glucocorticoid g The effect of the chief glucocorticoid on sugar metabolism may be characterized by a single word What is this word h More specifically what are the effects of the chief glucocorticoid on mobilization of fat protein and carbohydrates E free oating proteins immunity muscle glucose production and blood glucose levels i What is the chief mineralcorticoid j What effect does the chief mineralcorticoid have on the kidneys And ultimately what effect does the chief mineralcorticoid have on the body ie what is the bottom line effect k What is the delay in the response onset and response duration for this pathway Regarding the thyroxine pathway a The pituitary gland releases a stimulating hormone THS What gland does this hormone activate b In turn what hormone does this gland release c What is the effect of this hormone on general metabolism respiration rate respiration depth heart rate cardiac output myocardial strength probability of heart failure gastrointestinal motility intestinal absorption anxiety insomnia d What is the delay in the response onset and response duration for this pathway e How long after the occurrence of a stressor does hormone levels in this pathway peak Regarding the vasopressin pathway a What hormone is released by the pituitary gland b What are the effects of this hormone on blood vessels dilation or constriction kidneys water retained or dumped bloodvolume blood pressure c What is the delay in the response onset and response duration for this pathway 4 Which stress pathway has the latest onset and longest duration 5 Which stress hormone can produce diarrhea And what is the time delay between the stressor and the occurrence of the diarrhea Lecture Stress and Cardiovascular Disease 1 What is the leading cause of death in the United States 2 What kind of heart disease accounts for the largest proportion of deaths due to heart disease What is the nature of this type of heart disease 3 The traditional risk factors for heart disease collectively account for approximately what percentage of the incidence of heart disease What is the signi cance of this percentage 4 As compared to married people widowed and divorced people have a higher or lower deathrate from heart disease What does this epidemiological data suggest 5 Regarding Type A Behavior Pattern TABP a TABP has been thought to be a risk factor for what disease b What is the toxic component of TABP 6 Regarding the conceptual model linking stress to heart disease a Be able to de ne sudden cardiac death myocardial infarction and heart failure b Be able to define quot 39 quot 39 39 and arter39 39 c By what mechanisms does chronic stress lead to atherogenesis Related to this question what is the endothelial injury hypothesis d Know how atherosclerotic plaques are initiated how they develop and what characterizes the endstage of the disease e What factorsconditions typically occur jointly to produce a heart attack f What factorsconditions lead to heart failure 7 What are four factors that affect blood pressure How does each factor operate to alter blood pressure 8 Are there any stress pathways that do not contribute to the development of hypertension and heart disease 9 Know how each stress pathway contributes to the development of hypertension and heart disease 10 Three monkey studies were presented in class Know what the conclusion drawn in each study 1 Lecture Stress and Performance The YerkesDodson curve describes the relationship between stress and Know what the shape of the YerkesDodson curve is and be able to describe the nature of the relationship between stress and performance as indicated by the curve That is as stress arousal increases from a very low level to a very high level how is performance changing Know what parts of the stress continuum ie XaXis of the YerkesDodson curve may be considered eustressful versus distressful
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