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Human Anatomy

by: Ms. Matteo Hayes

Human Anatomy ZOO 234

Ms. Matteo Hayes
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.73


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Class Notes
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This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Matteo Hayes on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOO 234 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/218144/zoo-234-california-state-polytechnic-university in Animal Science at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Tissue Level of Organization ZOO 234 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Outline Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue Introduction The body is composed of approximately 75 trillion cells These cells are organized into only four categories called tissues A tissue is a group of cells performing similar functions Introduction Tissues vary in structure function and the content of their extracellular matrix a substance produced by the cells of a specific tissue and can contain protein fibers salts H20 and dissolved macromolecules ocated outside of cells Tissue Types of the Body Epithelial tissue Covers the body s outer surface and lines its internal cavities Connective tissue Binds and supports the body s organs Muscle tissue Enables movement Nervous tissue Enables communication among the body s organs 3 Epithelium i Basal lamina 39 3 Reticular lamina Balsemem membrane a Epithelial Tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue lines every body surface and all body cavities Organs are lined on the outside and inside by epithelial tissue The majority of glands are derived from epithelial tissue Epithelial tissue possesses little to no extracellular matrix Apical free surface Epi1helium j Basal lamina 3 Basement Lateral surface quot Remu39ar lemma membrane Characteristics of Epithelial T u 6 Blood vessel Connective tissue All epithelia share several common characteristics Cellularity composed almost entirely of cells with little extracellular matrix Cells are bound together by several types of intercellularjunctions discussed later Polarity epithelial cells have an apical top or exposed surface and a basal surface where they attach to underlying cells Apical free surface 7 Epithelium Basal lamina Reticular lamina Basemem Lateral surface membrane Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 39J Connective tissue Attachment basal surface is attached to a thin basement membrane which is an acellular structure produced by both epithelial and underlying connective tissue cells Avascularity all epithelial tissues lack blood vessels the cells receive their nutrients by diffusion from underlying ssues Apical free surfacex Epi1helium Ej Basal lamina Reticular lamina Basemem membrane Characteristics of Epithelial T u 6 Blood vessel Connective tissue Innervation epithelia are richly innervated to detect changes in environment at a body or organ region Regeneration because apical surface is constantly exposed to the environment epithelial cells are frequently damaged or die they are replaced as quickly as they are lost Epi1helium j Basal lamina 39Reticular laminaBasemem Lateral surface membrane Basal surlace Functions of Epithelial Tissue Connective tissue Physical protection from dehydration and abrasion and physical chemical and biological agents Selective permeability regulates the passage of certain molecules in or out of a certain region of the body Secretions some epithelial cells called exocrine cells produce secretions such as sweat or oil Sensations possess nerve endings that can detect light taste sound smell and hearing Basement Membrane A specialized structure of epithelium Found between the epithelium and underlying connective tissue Provides physical support and anchoring of epithelial tissue Acts as a barrier to regulate passage of large molecules between epithelium and underlying connective tissue Classifying Epithelia Many different types of epithelial tissue Classified according to two criteria number of layers of cells shape of the cells Epithelial Cell Layers Simple epithelium a single layer of cells with all cells having an apical surface and attached to the basement membrane Stratified epithelium two or more layers of cells not all cells have an apical surface nor do all cells attach to the basement membrane Pseudostratified epithelium single layer but not all cells reach the apical surface and their nuclei give the appearance of multilayered stratified epithelium but they are not Epithelial Cell Shapes Squamous flattened and similar to the shape of a fried egg Cuboidal about the same size on all sides the nucleus is usually centrally located Columnar taller than they are wide and nucleus is oval and located in the basal region of the cell Simple Squamous Epithelium Structure Single layer of flat cells39 Function rapid diffusion amp some secretion in serous membranes Locations Lining of alveoli of lungs Lining of blood vessels called endothelium only component of walls of capillaries Lining of heart called endocardium Serous membranes of body cavities Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Structure a single layer of cube shaped cells Function absorption amp secretion Locations thyroid gland follicles kidney tubules ducts amp secretory regions of most glands goblet Cell microvilli Simple Columnar Structure single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide ovalshaped nucleus near base of cell apical regions have microvilli may contain goblet cells that secrete mucin Function absorption amp secretion secretion of mucin Locations lining of most of digestive tract Simple Columnar Ciliated Epithelium Structure the same as nonciliated columnar epithelium except that cells have cilia on their apical surface Function secretion of mucin movement of mucus along apical surface by action or cilia movement of oocyte through uterine tube Locations larger bronchioles of respiratory tract lining of uterine tube Stratified Squamous Epithelium Nonkeratinized Structure Multiple layers of cells named for appearance of apical cells that are squamous Function Protection against abrasion Location lining of oral cavity esophagus vagina anus Stratified Squamous Epithelium Keratinized layers of cells more superficial cells are i dead lack nuclei and t i l Structure Multiple i l filled with protein keratin Function Protection I against abrasion l Location epidermis of skin Stratified a Cuboidal I Epithelium V Strati ed cuboidal epithelium Cuboidal cell Descnp on Two or three layers of boxshaped cells Func ons Protection and secretion Loca ons Sweat glands Descnp on Columnar cell Stratified Columnar Epithelium Stratified Columnar epithelium I Basement membrane Connective tissue Two or three layers of tall elongated cells Func ons Protection and secretion Loca ons Salivary glands some regions of male urethra Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Structure single layer of columnar epithelial cells of different heights all connect to basement membrane but not all reach apical surface this and layered appearance of nuclei suggest multiple layers of cells Ciliated with goblet cells Function protection secrete mucin movemen o mucus Location lines most of respiratory tract Reminder respiratory tract lining Simple Columnar Ciliated Epithelium Locations larger bronchioles of respiratory tract 9 Pseudostratified columnar Ciliated epithelium Locations most of the respiratory tract Some lined with simple squamous epithelium eg alveoli TranSItional Epithelium Structure Multiple layers of cells of varying shapes Cells are cuboidal when the organ 39 39r is relaxed but squamous when the organ is stretched Functions Allows distension of organs that fill with urine Locations Ureters urinary bladder and part of male urethra lncludes some binucleated eiis Connective Tissue CT Most diverse abundant widely distributed and structurally varied of all four tissue types Function is to connect one structure to another structure CT is the glue and filler of the body Examples of CT are tendons ligaments body fat bones and cartilage Structural Components of Connective Tis Cells different cells for different types of CT bone cells cartilage cells fat cells Protein fibers elastic fibers collagen reticular fibers Ground substance a mixture of proteins and carbohydrates with variable amounts of salts and H20 the protein fibers and ground substance comprise the extracellular matrix 7 l which is produced by the quot w H CT cells 39 V 4 39 39 Functions of Connective Tissue Physical protection Support and structural framework Binding of structures Storage Transport Immune protection Classification of Connective Tissue CT proper Supporting CT Fluid CT Blood Classification of Connective Tissue Supporting connective tissue Connective tissue proper l l Carlilage Bone semisolid matrix solid matrix Dense conneclive tissue more bers ose connective tissue fewer fittersv substance substance 1 Compact 2 Fibrocartilage 2 Spongy 3 Elastic 1Areolar 1 Regular 2 Adipose 2 Irregular 3 E astio 3 Relicular Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper There are three general types of protein fibers produced by CT cells and secreted into the extracellular matrix Collagen fibers long unbranching strong flexible and resistant to stretching They make up 25 of all protein in the human body making collagen the most abundant protein Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper Elastic fibers thinner than collagen stretch easily branch and rejoin These fibers allow structures such as blood vessels to stretch and relax Reticular fibers thinner than collagen fibers form a meshworkIike configuration They are found in organs with abundant spaces such as liver lymph nodes and spleen act as packing material A combination of Additional content such Ground Substance of Connective Tiss a a proteins and carbohydrates as H20 and salts can result in a texture anywhere from semi fluid adipose fat to hard bone Loose Connective Tissues I Connective tissue proper I l I Loose connective Dense connective tissue fewer fibers tissue more fibers more ground less ground substance substance I l 1 Areolar 1 Regular 2 Adipose 2 Irregular 3 Reticular 3 Elastic V Areolar CT Structure broblasts collagen amp elastic bers viscous ground substance Function packing around organs attaches to adjacent structures Location major component of subcutaneous layer of skin also surrounds individual nerve amp muscle cells and forms the outer layer of blood vessels Adipose CT Known as fat 4 Structure Composed mainly of adipocytes fat cells that are lled with one droplet oflipid WWW Adipocyle Functions cushioning nucleus oforgans thermal insulation energy storage Locations subcutaneous layer of skin surrounds kidney i Blood vessel Reticular CT Structure contains reticular bers broblasts and leukocytes Function part of lymphatic organs Location found in spleen lymph nodes and bone marrow Dense Connective Tissues I Connective tissue proper l II Loose connective Dense connective tissue fewer fibers tissue more fibers more ground l less ground substance substance I l 1 Areolar 1 Regular 2 Adipose 2 Irregular 3 Reticular 3 Elastic Dense regular CT Structure fibers mostly collagen packed tightly together and aligned parallel to applied force Function provides great strength amp flexibility primarily in a single direction Locations Found in tendons attach muscle to bone and ligaments attach bone to bone Dense irregular CT Structure bundles of collagen fibers extending in many directions Function provides tensile strength in all directions Locations found in reticular layer of the dermis capsules around organs such as the liver kidney and spleen outer covering of muscles and nerves Structure elastic and collagen fibers are arraganed irregularly Function predominance of elastic fibers provides ability to stretch and recoil Location in the vocal cords and walls of large and mediumsized arteries Cartilage Supporting Connective Tissue I ting connective tissue l I I l Cartilage Bone semisolid matrix solid matrix 1 Hyaline 1 Compact 2 Fibrocartilage 2 Spongy 3 Elastic I V Cells are called chondrocyte Extracellular matrix is gellike amp contains collagen and elastic fibers The only avascular connective tissue Cartilage provides support along with flexibility Chondrocytes occupy small spaces enclosed by their extracellular matrix called lacunae Three types 1 Hyaline 2 Elastic 3 Fibrocartilage Cartilage Hyaline cartilage Structure glassy appearing matrix chondrocytes irregularly scattered throughout Function smooth surfaces for movement supports soft ssue Location found in fetal skeleton at ends of bones that articulate with each other in trachea larynx and nose Elastic cartilage Structure abundant elastic bers form weblike mesh around lacunae Chondrocytes almost indistinguishable from those of hyaline cartilage closely packed with little extracellular matrix Function maintains structure and shape while permitting extensive exibility Location external ear epiglottis of larynx Fibrocartilage Structure readily visible parallel bundles of large collagen bers chondrocytes often arranged in parallel rows densely intenNoven collagen bers contribute to the durability Functions strong support and 39 shock absorption in areas of heavy l pressure and compression l Locations intervertebral discs pubic symphysis amp knee joints l menisci Bone Supporting Connective Tissue I Supporting connective tissue I Cartilage Bone semisolid matrix solid matrix I l 1 Hyaline 1 Compact 2 Fibrocartilage 2 Spongy 3 Elastic I v Bone Cells are called osteocytes reside in lacunae Calcified extracellular matrix is a unique mixture of collagen and bone salts This mixture provides extreme strength from the bone salts and micro flexibility from the 7 Two Types Compact Bone amp Spongy Bone r 3 Compact Bone Structure matrix arranged in osteons concentric lamellae around a central canal lacunae located at boundaries of lamellae canaliculi connect lacunae with central canal Function supports protects levers for r muscles stores calcium V w iafvfisrgi Locations bones of the body M A Spongy Bone re 1 N Structure same matrix O 4D material as compact bone 45 3 V and may have lamellae but It I In a z A g lacks central canal t 7 Function same as 39ri 43 p r kaququot compact bone but also is cite of hemopoiesis formation of blood cells Locations central layer of flat bones inner surface of some long bones Classification of Connective Tissue Copyrigm Graw 39 39 lnr 39 39 39 epmumiunum play Connective Tissue Classification Common origin mesenohyme I Supporllng connective tissue Fluid conneclive tissue Connect el sue proper I Loose connective Dense connective Carlilage Bone tissue fewer bers lissue more bers semisolid matrix solid matrix more ground less ground substance substance I 1Areolar 1 Regular Hyaline 1Compacl 2 Adipose 2 Irregular 2 Fibrocartilage 2 Spongy 3 Rericular 3 Elastic 3 mastic Fluid Connective Tissue Comprised of the following components Plasma a watery ground substance containing protein fibers Erythrocytes red blood cells Leukocytes white blood cells Platelets fragments of blood cells involved in blood clotting Muscle Tissue Comprised of cells called fibers When stimulated by the nervous system bers shorten or contract The result of contraction is movement ie movement of bones blood food sperm Three types of muscle Skeletal Cardiac Smooth y i hummunm ltla igmv In vu F may aquot H h lullinmvmrmwith w l 39quot r 9 m I 392 Skeletal Muscle Structure cells muscle fibers are 1 cylindrical and long some as long as whole muscle 2 multinucleated striated striped internal appearance and 4 voluntary Function contraction causes movement of skeleton or skin Locations attached to bones Q This micrograph looks more like the slides you will see in lab Of and some Skin becauseit shows some cells in longitudinal section and some in cross section Cardiac Muscle Structure cells are 1 branched Yshaped shorter than skeletal fiber cells 2 Striated 3 Involuntary 4 attached endtoend by intercalated discs that allow passage of electrical current from one cell to the next during each heart beat Function Contraction causes movement of blood Locations Found only in the wall of the heart myocardium Smooth Muscle Structure cells are 1 relatively short wide in the middle and tapered at the ends fusiform 2 Involuntary 3 nonstriated Function Contraction causes movement of food blood sperm Locations Found in walls of most internal organs stomach intestines urinary bladder Nervous Tissue Loca ons Brain spinal cord nerves Func ons Enables communication among the body s organs by transmitting electrical impulses Receives and interprets sensory input Controls motor output Nervous Tissue Structure cell called neurons have 1 A central cell bodv houses the nucleu 2 Multiple short dendrites receive incoml impulses 3 A single long axon sends off the outgoing impulse A few reminders Be sure to check your CPP email or course Blackboard site for announcements Register your iCIicker Bring iCIicker to class especially for quizzes


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