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Agriculture and the Modern World

by: Dr. Jackie Windler

Agriculture and the Modern World AG 101

Dr. Jackie Windler
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.96

Ryan Nichols

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Ryan Nichols
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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Jackie Windler on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AG 101 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Ryan Nichols in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/218146/ag-101-california-state-polytechnic-university in Agriculture and Forestry at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
WORLD HUNGER FACTS to W WWW end we Mumwma quotHunger is not an issue ofcharity It is an issue ofjustice acques Diou Food andAgricultural Organization irector general 111313 De nition of Hunger A strong desire or craving A craving or urgent need for food or a specific nutrient Weakness debilitation or pain cased by a prolonged lack of food neasy painful sensation Exhausted condition The want or scarcity of food in a country Hunger Experience 0 All of us have been hungry at some time or another a We simply have an appetite o Hunger experienced by mil ions of people w Not an appetite that comes and goes a A consuming debilitating minutebyminute dayafter day experi w Chronic hunger Chronic Hunger Persistent chronic relentless conditions a Keeps people from working productively n Prevents clear thinking a ls intensely painful a Can sult in permanent damage to the body and mind v Decreases resistance to disease a ligoes on long enough it kills 111313 Types of Hunger u E Under nutrition person does not get enough food lt Secondary malnutritiona con i io Malnutrition environmental or genetic dwat prevents digestion of food or absorption of nutrie Over nutrition excess diet or calories Malnutrition PEM ProteinEnergy Malnutrition PEM 39gt Lack of protein from meat amp other sources Necessary for key body functions including provision of essential amin i s 0 Lack of food to provide energy calories 0 Most lethal form of malnutrition and hunger 111313 Malnutrition Micronutrient De ciency 0 Micronutrient De ciency v Insuflicient vitamins amp minerals 0 Vitamin A scurvy rickets b indness 0 Vitamin C scurvy teem loss inability to ght infection v Iron anemia loss of energy v Iodine physical crippling mental retardation Malabsorptive Hunger Condition dwat often occurs with hunger a Body is incapable of absorbing nutriean o Often due to parasites in intestinal tract or severe protein deficiency Common where water is contaminated and absence of medical care Chronic Under Nutrition The most widespread manifestation of hunger today e Person consumes fewer calories and less protein than the body n v Lethargic ill health 0 Primary victims child ren World Hunger in 200 DEVFland munnin Near Ear and Noth Alrka i7 mm America and the minivan s SubSaharan Alrica 139 Am and the Palfic 573 mm mm 111313 World Hunger 200 0 925 Million l3i6 of world population id V 1 lo 0 quotl m E 1 n E lo a Overallsteady increase since I996 vow Number w hungry pmer znnnnna Hunger Stars 0 25000 people die everyday from hunger amp a related causes 0 Asia amp the Pacific 0 Over half of world s population 6 Nearly 23 of world s hungry people 111313 Hunger Stats 39IrlMol39e than 60 of chronically hungry people are women l billion people in the world living on less than a day 26 billion people live on less than 2 per day 4 as he world39s population sAlmosthalfthe world 3 billion people lives on less than 250day Hunger Stars 65 of world s hungry people live in 7 7 countries v lndia 0 China a Democratic Republic of Congo l a Bangladesh v lndonesia v Pakistan a Ethiopia World Food Frugramme PrimaryVictims CHILDREN 1 Poor nutrition responsible for 5 million child deaths each year t Every day almost l6000 children die from hungerrelated causes 0 That39s child every 6 seconds 111313 PrimaryVictims CHILDREN Malnutrition remains the world39s most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child death 0 More dqan HIVAIDSTB and malaria mt PrimaryVictims CHILDREN 0 Nearly US of children in the developing world are chronically malnourished 39 More than 70 ive inAsia a 26 in Africa 4 in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 y r 39 91 r 111313 PrimaryVictims CHILDREN Malnutrition worsens effects of other diseases 7 contributing to related deaths 39gt Malaria 57 39gt Measles 45 0 Pneumonia 52 0 DiarrheaDehydration 6 iii Malnutrition Undernutrition t Malnutrition among pregnant women in 1 developing countries c Leads to I out of 6 infants born with low birth weight 39 A riskfactor for neonatal deaths i Also causes Learnlng disabiimes Mental retardation s Premature death World Hunger in 200 0 Factors leading to Increase Neglect of agriculture relevant to very poor people by governments and international agencies v The current worldwide economic crisis v The signi cant increase of food prices in the last several years which has been devastating to those wida only a few dollars a day to spend 111313 DAILY INCOME Daily Income Population Global lt 100 1 billion lt 200 6 bi 40 ufwurld pupulatmn lt 250 3 billion 50 ufwurld pupulatmn WHY DOES HUNGER i EXIST IF 0 The world produces enough food to feed ne eve ryo 0 World agriculture produces 7 more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago despite a 70 population increase provide everyone in the world with at least 2720 kilocalories kcal per person per day a This is enough to Wu Lari t9 Donal The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow or income to purchase sufficient food Hunger in the United States 49 million people including I7 million children live in households that experience hiin r or rhe risk oi hunger Thls represents more than l ln l0 households In the Unlted States l 09 4 of US households experience hun er too llttIE somet m i es golng Wic out iood ior a whole day ll million peopleinel homes udlng 430000 chlldren live In these Nearly l in 4 children is at risk oi hunger l ln oi hunger 111313 Hunger in the United States 7 oi us households are at risk oi hunger Members oi ihese households have lower quallty dlets or must ihe iood they need gt 24 million pecplelncludlng l2 million children llve in ihese homes More than l in a people in the Unlted States llves helow die poverty linewhieh is 52 l 755 ior a famlly oi ioiir in 2009 lln 5 chlldren ln the Unlted States llves below the poverty llne Research shows that preschool and schoolaged children who experlence severe hunger have hlgher levels oi chronic illness anxlety and depressionend behavlor problems than children Wlth no hunger We have the ability we have the means and we have the capacity to eliminate hunger from the face of the earth We need only the willquot President John E Kennedy A1 101 Ag E the Modern World TRIAL S ERRQR a EARLY INQH TBAL EURQPE I Farmers discovered the longer land is under continuous cultivation the land will prodgqe llgs crops with poorer nutritional value quot quoti quotaquot 39 39 w Soil Los s I Progress focused on keeping soilfertil 1r lr15rtease in39food productionto39fe ed i D 39 if II ii um USDUSIRIAL EQBQPE I Improved transportation x Rapid expansiOn of urban markets 10213 EARLY INDUSTRIAL EUROPE 1 Fast sea transportation and exploration allowedi European Ag to expand globally Cheap landmechanization used in European 39v I39I overseas colonies to grow grain tqfeed Europ e139i It industrial towns Hf u Costless 39 x Use of foreign land and labor to c lgi Europe THE RESULT x The Present pattern of world agriculturewaejl framed bythe end of the 18003 f THE DISCOVERY OF THE AMERICAS 10213 EARLY EXPLORERS I North America rst quotg discovered by Vikings in 0 AD I Greenland 986 AD 7 Vlnland Newfoundland 39 00AD x mlony later abandoned due to hostile natives 10213 1492 1500 u Christopher Columbus sailed across Atlantic from Europe trying to reach IndiaAsia Landed in Caribbean Islands Bahamas x Called the natives quotIndiansquot x Didn39t find spices or anythingto trade SPANISH COLONIALISM 1500 s I Spain became concerned with Christian expansion 4 Subjugated Indians r Early 15005 Created the Colonies of Cuba amp Hispaniola SPANISH COLONIALISM 150039s x Created feudal plantations and used Indians for labor v Primarily sugar cane Within 1 generation the native population39was wiped out by Smallpox Began importing African slava to work the plantations x Precedent that would be fo39yowed for centuries 10213 SPANISH EXPEDITIONS x 1513 x 1519 Cortes Florida Discovers the Aztec Cuba SOGietY n 1517 Gulf of Mexico x Discovered Mayan society SPANISH EXPEDITIONS I 15391542 I 15401542 Florida California r Georya Arizona 8 Carolina i New Mexico r Alabama Ts Mississippi Oklahoma Arkansas Kansas w Louisiana Spanish rind Enqllsh Exuiomhon m Inc American e J 1L 10213 SPANISH EXPLORATION 15131607 THE NEW WORLD 1 The naming of America Amerigo Vespucci Italian merchant banker voyages in 1497 and 1504th the quotNew Worldquot I Explored South America Gulf of Mexico N to Flgfida N to Chesapeake Bay Claimed it as a quotNew Worldquot not part of Asia n 1507 German mapmaker created maps bearing name of America latin form of A quot 1 BBQUGHTLO Tl39 ENEW WORLD a Spanish brought to the Americas 39 es 4 Pigs Cattle 4 Sheep Goats Poultry Wheat 4 Barley iAIfa391fa r F Sugar Gene 1 BRQUQHT FROM THE 1 Spanish took fro Maize Corn n isirreapple FQPP ES ws39quash i I 39ln fln39 l L1 0J3 10213 OTHER EUROPEANS IN AMERICA r 5 You nut befan muquot 7 Usa Simpson FBANQE n 1608 a 1682 39 A 5 Discoverny Canada LaSalle sailed down a quot i Gqu w Founding at Quebec Misaissippi Ive 1612 9 Exploration39of the Great u Lakes regionpf 10213 PUTJ39 I Dutch farmers Were a 160 willing to boggy DEM quotthe Uds m America to far39nj alon River and Albany NY with otherEurop gj w nationalities 1quot n1626 f Dmmmmnmma ENGLI H EXPLQRATIQN 1497 r John Cabot x Discovered Newfoundland 6 a Explojted for fishing grounds 10213 LATE 150039s It 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh Founded Roanoke Island Named the land quotVirginia39 x In honor anueen Elizabeth I 1585 Fort built on Roanoke Abandoned colony Settlers didn t know hwm farm 10213 AMERICA S FIRST SEITLERS x Majority were farmers Eventually they all had to learn to farm x Why didn39t European farmers settle America Didn39t wantto g39ve up established landfarms in England to risk a new Iandclimateventure n Discovered Native Americans iVillagesmithlcultivatedIandlfarms I AMERICA VS ENGLAND x America had Abundance of woodtimber Fastrunning streams Limitless vacant land 1 1st cash crops sentto England Lumber Wood had become soar in En and 10213 AMERIQA FLR T EFILEB many native tribes nAl o brought new pests 39 Bla ckFIy 97 leE TQWN I 1607 13 British colony in Americas I John Rolfe r Planted tobacco for personal use a Discovered it grew well 10213 JAMESTOWN x Never established diversified farming Focused on Tobacco only x Traded with Native Americans for food Violence against natives caused end to trade x The starving Timequot 16091610 in Number of colonists decreased from 530 60 4 JAMESTOWN x Not an organized settlement of families r Lawlessness and anarchy quotEvery man for himselfquot 1 Character of the settlers quotGREEDquot Tobacco became currency and cash crop No villagecommunity structure Plantations reigned x 39KING TOBACOO39 KING TOBACCO I Other Jamestown settlers followed in cultivating tobacco Even though there was a shortage of corn for the colonists diets I 1616 2500 lbs tobacco exported from Virginia 1620 119000 lbs 39 1 r a 1626 333000 lbs r a 1638 3100000 lbs t Tobacco became the curren 10213 FQB TQBAQGO QRQP x Initially subjugat d Indians Many died from diseases Led to antaganistic relationship u Replaced by Africans I Indentured servants worked for a peri then freed Slaves freeJabor 10213 JAM ESTOWN I httgwwwmutubecomwatch vng5046lgykampfeaturerelated I The Value of Tobacco labor V wwwhisto oom shows america the sho f u videoslamericablackblizzammnevaluea tobacoo Jamesan ampTobacoo u htt 39 www utubeco watch BMW n httg wwwhistoucom showszamerioaethes lnmoltusl vi39de amenblack blinardlife in mesden 7 NEW ENGLAND COLONIES I Located in the North Natives were welcoming and mentoring to Pilgrims Taught them how to select plant and 39cultivate native crops especially CORN l EARLY AMERICAN FARM x NOT like traditional English farm x 4 distinct traits Cut off from daily contact with outside world Selfsustaining x Subsistence farming Family run Small in size EARLY AMERICAN FARM x Limitations Labor Family members Simple mols hand tools x Shovels hoes ax scythe Few plows until late 160039s 2 Needed oxenhorses to pull plows 2 Had to wait for those animals to arrive from England CORN THE quotMIRACLE PLANTquot America Methods of planting cultivation and harvesttaught by natives x Adapted corn culture directly from Native ns x Planted beans and pumpkin vines around corn stalls 1 Provided been pales and shade for vines Taught settlers how to harvest and grind cbrh into meal as well as preserve through the year CORN THE MIRACLE PLANTquot x Settlers refused to call it Maize lnsisted on quotCamquot generic English name for gains hum mm50mm 106nm mummyva mmmod 10213 CORN THE quotMIRACLE PLANTquot x ALL farms grew Corn Nourishment for humans and animals Immune to most diseases Easyta raise v High yieldacre I 7x the yieldacre afwheat quot9y CORN THE quotMIRACLE PLANTquot u ALL pans of plant used Stalks winter food for cattle Husks stuff mattresses cabs jug stops incl handles pipes r kernels feed for poultry EARLY SEITLER S DIEI39 I Corn x Kitchen Garden Vegetables Parsnips turnips onions bbage carrots peas u Orchard Fruits Apples peaches Also turned into cider Applejack and Brandy I lM at 10213 SEITLEMENT ANIMALS Initially brought pigs goals chickens PigsPork became staple meat Pigs lived on scraps and foraged on the woods Able to defend against predators wolves All parts of pig were usable x Meat x Intestines for sausage skins in Bladdertn hold lard Hair from tail to sew buckskins V V n salted meat lasted throughout winter fPorkBansl39 x Chickens were unpopular until endpf 16903quot w Then discovered they thrived onloorn kernels 10213 SEITLEM ENT ANIMALS Goats popular Horses Easytotransport Too small for plow work Me almost anything Only used for riding 4 Provided milkcheese A quot Lostpopularitydueto J 1 destructive hahils 8 Sheep unpopular Used forwool Fussy ters Didn t leave enough glass for cattlehorses to graze I Docileand easy prey for A wolves l r Iielluiredshephen ls oo SEITLEMENT ANIMALS I Cattle Very popular Provided cash income meat milk cheese x Major industryfor all early American farmers Commodity of wealth x Considered more valuable than land x Willed to children ratherthan land 9 Sold to supply meat for Tobacco ships x Exported live for meat to West Indies Ran loose in South fencedin in North XB quot 39d reg39ist39ered With pawns n qf mllnershln E VIDEOS at Video America the Bountiful httovideocsupomonaeduFDGibbons AmericaTheBountifuI245asx Pilggim s if yle Plymouth The Story of Us httg www utubesomlwatch vPoXHngRJvc8 featurerelated n Jamestown amp Tobacco http wwwgutubesam match vng5046lgzkampf6aturerelmfu 10213 VIDEO CLIPS x httpwwwmutubepomgwatch vPoXHngRJvcampfeaturerelated x httpawwwwutubeoomzwatch vZlNHF DpSs8tfeaturerelated u httpwwwyoutubecomwatch v65Y139sD39HEampfeaturerelated IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANISM x Increased food production with fewer laborers x Freed up labor from the land to work in industrial mills in 18th to early 20th centuries x Improvements in transportation 1 Rapid expansion 7 of market amp trade g 101413 Willie llYli ill Anemia51a flgnl bfl l 39lfii V A 90 1906 The Pure Food and quot 39 Drug Law was enacted a Required the USDA to inspect the cleanliness of Agricultural goods 1 DOUBLEDAYPAGE O C NEW FR Response to public outcry after Upton Sinclair s novel The Jungle a Described horrendous conditions in Chicago s meat packing district l l Tribe Emergence ii lipid lfi i il f 39i l liila l lb 20 1908 aquot First electric milking A 1 machine patented 20 190020 Extensive experimental work to breed disease resistant varieties of plants to improve plant yield and quality and to increase the productivity of farm animal strains tillair Time lEi lfl i 20 Europe engaged in World Warl in 1914 Busy fighting these nations struggled to feed their citizens and soldiers so The USDA urged American farmers to step up production to meet increased demand at home and abroad Agricultural exports soared a Farm prices more than doubled i This boom renewed business interest in farming w 1916 President Woodrow Wilson signed the Farm Credit Loan Act to provide longterm loans to farmers With money for expansion farmers purchased nearly 50000 tractors and put 40 million acres of new land into production in 1917 it The war effort also saw meat production swell by more than 20 Agricultural scientists developed methods for dry farming that made it possible to grow wheat and hay in arid areas of the United States without irrigation 101413 Ru rali Mp so Rural quality of life lowerthan urbancity a 40 rural homes without indoor plumbing or electricity Was Emeligoln r Mb 11 Mmoniraaa 1 illilo l il so 1911 1917 Immigration of agricultural workers from Mexico so 1914 Establishment of the federalstate extension service Major step in direct education for farmers so 1917 Smith Hughes Vocational Education Act passed so 1920 31000 students enrolled in agricultural courses so 1920 Agriculture prices collapse Due to surplus of crops 39 192 a 193 so Total Population so Total Population 106 million 123 million so Farmers so Farmers 27 of labor force 21 of labor force so Number of farms so Number of farms o 65 million a 63 million so Average acres so Average acres 148 acres 0 157 acres WW1 11 9M so As Europe recovered the wartime market disappeared Created a surplus of products and decreasing prices T Product lPrice so Many farmers could not make the payments on loans they had taken out for machinery land and seed during the war Banks began to foreclose on them 39 so A nationwide agricultural depression set in A 1000000 farmers had to seek employment in the cities 20 The agricultural depression of the 1920s was only the beginning of the Great Depression v Agricultural Depression would last until 1940 J v m A 1 39 x r a is tribe Emigrgenee 1 Mi Amrsrr rem 1 l 9920 1 l 9 1390 lftm 9 19211940 Longterm agricultural depression 9 1922 Capper Volstead Act gives cooperatives legal standing 20 1924 Immigration Act greatly reduces number of new immigrants 9 19251945 Basic research done in land grant colleges lays groundwork for second agricultural revolution 9 1929 Stock Market Crashes Beginning of The Great Depression Wtih Average annual consumption of Agr39CUItural exports39 commercial fertilizer 20 19001910 9 1900 1910 917 millionyear 58 of total exports 37 million tonsyear 20 19101919 m 19101919 19 billionyear 45 of total exports 61 million tonsyear 20 19201929 90 19201929 194 billionyear 42 of total exports 39 6398 m39mon tonsyear 101413 Nothing to Fear so As the summer of 1932 turned toward autumn the depression deepened so The net income of farmers was less than onethird of what it had been in 1929 which meant they earned a lot less money 90 Presidential Candidate Roosevelt declared We have no actual famineouragricultural mechanism can produce enough to spare Our governmentowes to everyone an avenue to possessplenty for his needs through his own work 101413 Ni Pi NW eai so President Roosevelt took on the farm problem immediately He visited poor farmers shook their hands and promised change His wife Eleanor fought for the rights of sharecroppers and other minority groups in trouble so Roosevelt firmly believed that solving the agricultural problems facing Americans was fundamental to easing the Depression 39 New lil lPlroQ 2o Designed to help farmers 20 Programs focused on 2 The Agricultural Adjustment 1 Improving farm services ACtS 1 Reducing farm surpluses 2 The Civilian Conservation Increasing prices Corps The Farm Security Administration The Soil Conservation Service The Rural Electrification Administration deultlttu li Adliusiment so Despite opposition Roosevelt quickly signed the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 Brought immediate change 90 The Act provided for crop reduction through Pow ups paying farmers not to plant For example under the first cotton contracts growers agreed to plow up twenty five to fifty percent of their crop before harvest in exchange for cash payments Slaughtering millions of pigs so Some farmers protested but the plan showed positive results Eventually caused a 50 increase in farm income 101413 al k ipis i so Much of the nation faced devastating drought so Dust storms swept away valuable layers of topsoil across TX OK KS AR NM and CO m Dust storms were made worse by the practice of plowing fields and leaving the soil exposed before planting in the spring as These areas became known as the Dust Bowl s Thousands of farmers were I J forced to move r 1 5 90 The Soil Conservation Act passed after a dust storm from the Midwest engulfed the Capitol in Apnl1935 so The USDA s soil conservation programs designed to help farmers change farming practices in order to prevent erosion httpwwwyoutubecomwatchv pVoXW4Yrde 101413 ngress passed sec 0o ond Agricultural Adjustment Act in 1938 a While legislative actions were helping farmers many Americ ans were upset by the disparity of having r arm surpluses while many people went hungry T help alleviate hunger and reduce surpluses the USDA initiated new ood programs The Food provlded Stamps prugrarn r1339 surplus food to pccrrarnllles School Lunch programs used surpluses tureeu crllldrerl 39o The usoA built four new research labs across the natrcn to find new u e c that rs could find new markets rcrtherr surpluses 0 Once relrer was rlcwrng attitudes Improved In Total Populatlon 23 million 2 Farmers 21 of labor force 2s Number of farms 63 million In Average acres 157 acres 1940 to Total Pcpulatlon 132 million an Farm rs 18 of labor force 2 Number offarms 61 million an Average acres 175 acres a United States agriculture braced forthe unknown as foreign markets closed and surpluses surged higher than ever i Farmers were asked to produce only what was needed at home m 1941 USDA once again urged American farmers to produce mor 93 Manufacturing of new armaments forthe US military and its allies increase Jobs opened up everywhere Large numbers of men men especlally mlnorltles left farm work for nlgner paylngjobs ln lndustry Man forn tersoutnern snarecroppers lnlgrate to warrelated lobs ln cllles 101413 WWU H such as Planting hybrid corn so The attack on Pearl Harbor changed everything v Farmers dedicated themselves to the defeat of the Axis They eagerly adopted science and technology to increase production so Even as farm output increased food rationing went into effect so Farmers began using more and more machinery to replace animal power The shift away from horses and mules freed up more land for the production of feed grain for livestock and increased meat production record levels f 2 She Troops so By the end of 1942 farm labor became scarce so To reduce the of men leaving farms to go to war the Government exempted 1600000 men from the draft 1 These farm workers helped fight the war on the home front The shock troopsquot of the countryside made a major difference in By the end of the war US food and fiber production reached t FIND YOUR WAR JOB In IndustryAgricultureBusiness x a m During WWII the USDA was increased research efforts to meet defense needs in Needed Substitutes for rubber v tropical oils cork other imported products in The Japanese controlled much of the world s supply of tropical agricultural products i has war m USDA scientists also developed better methods of food dehydration Instant potatoes quotDriedquot milk Powdered eggs Combining various dried vegetables and meats into prepackaged soups m Improved methods of food preservation helped reduce weight and bulk and made shipping and food storage easier War 101413 90 New glues plastics paints and fabrics were developed from milk soybeans cotton and many other agricultural commodities so The military adopted aerial mapping and photography techniques that had been pioneered by the USDA Forest Service 20 After the War private industry commercialized many of the 20 Of all these endeavors the massproduction of penicillin became the most important contribution of agricultural researchers during World War II After the war it launched a new pharmaceutical industry The lPost ilWlii Emmi it To prevent the return of agriculture to pre war Depression conditions 4 million acres of crops were plowed up and a peacetime economy was formed in 1948 The Marshall Plan Response to notion that the US has a moral responsibility to feed the hungry people of the worldquot The United States sent millions of tons of food abroad to prevent mass famine in the years after WWII Livestock seed fertilizer and farm machinery were also sent overseas to help rebuild Europe s agricultural system European farmers visited the US to learn American farming techniques 10 Picks i MWMD lilacs Fem 101413 w Congress passed the Gl Bill in 1944 Providing Veterans with educational and other benefits Enrollment in land grant colleges soared in More and more men and women graduated and took agricultural jobs off the farm with the goal of feeding the world f1 97 1940 on the Farm 58 of farms have cars 25 of farms have phones 33 of farms have electricity 1940 584000 students enrolled in agricultural courses 1941 National Victory Garden Program 19411945 Frozen foods popularized 1946 National School Lunch Act 931 l 409s Trends in 19403 19503 Acreages of crops such as oats required for horse and mule feed decrease sharply as farms use more tractors in 194555 Increased use of herbicides and pesticides m 1945 Food and Agriculture Organization of the Untied Nations established 1467 7 s 11 groin lm 101413 Agricultural exports m 19201929 194 billionyear 42 of total exports in 19301939 765 millionyear 32 of total exports so 19401949 24 billionyear 22 of total exports Average annual consumption of commercial fertilizer m 19201929 68 million tonsyear 50 19301939 66 million tonsyear in 19401949 r 136 million tonsyear rem t 39 39r nb LA is 9 U ilrltjo 7 quot39 C 771 l 2 i r gt ma L 0 4112 11 al 1940 in Total Population 132 million m Farmers 18 oflabor force 2 Numberof farms 61 million 20 Average acres 175 acres 1950 m Total Population v 151 million 9 Farmers r 12 of labor force a Numberof farms 54 million an Average acres 216 acres Ex 2 20 1350 an e in 9 1940 in Total Population 39 132 million 2 Farmers 18 of labor force 2 Number of farms 61 million an Average acres 175 acres 20 Total Population 151 million 20 Farmers 12 of labor force 20 Number of farms 39 54 million 9 Average acres 216 acres 12 101413 farm exports skyrocket From 2 billion in the 19405 to nearly 4 billion in 1950 Helped restore European economy US sent millions of tons of food abroad to prevent mass famine o Livestock seed fertilizer farm machinery sent to rebuild Europe s agricultural systems 20 American farmers prospered due to record agricultural production and prices A tleuiverym quotulna rul 2c Farms became mechanized New pesticides weed killers and chemical fertilizers increased crop yields 26 Agriculture became more efficient r Fewer farms but larger 1 Fewer people needed to work farms Many left the countryside for work in the city and homes in the suburbs Alter total war 20 Higher standard of living increased home and car ownership 20 More educational opportunities 20 A whole new economy based on Consumerism Television images increased public appetite for new products i 13 101413 i elepisirlhie glottal Kimarr Lira lleEjif i 20 Communist North Korea invaded South Korea The US Re armed 20 President Truman ordered USDA to increase agricultural production for the war The American public asked to conserve food again by growing Victory Gardens an The war became an economic boom for farmers so The USDA increased research J t w New fabrics developed to shield soldiers from burns and protect wounds from infection Dextran a sugar produced from bacteria acting on cane or beet sugars was developed to assist blood transfusions 50 Improved the flavor and stability of soybean oil Made a once insignificant crop one of America s most important products 90 Farm K lnnovaElOl lS lnCl easea 1950 Avg farm size 213 DVOdUCtiVity acres Mechanical cottonpicker 1960 297 acres 39 Mechanized processing of m of large scale commercial peanrOm me to freezer farms continued to increase 9quot smaller farm OWnerS had More efficient amp productive to seek eXtra from other employment or form cooperatives to compete with large scale agriculture 14 g Swog fiUSI 5 HntURGERS 1 uusn39wwrfanc l l l 39 m Ii 9 1i 9 Amelie Eating iHla so 1954 1St TV dinners instant success m 1955 Fast food the 1St McDonalds 20 More prepared foods in the market Supermarkets began to replace corner grocery stores 0 The frozen food industry boomed Americans bought larger refrigerator freezers Sought more convenience foods i1 Eating Habits inair 39 quot I f so Increase in 917 of working wives 50 of working women with child k 39 20 Meals needed to be quick a simple for the new American household 20 Improvements in refrigeration transportation and processing Increased Variety Decreased Cost 11 the kiteBan Wan 9 Surpluses dramatic price drops for farm 90 1953 USDA established producta Agricultural Marketing Service AMS to solve problems of surpluses m Government encouraged farmers to produce less again and Lrg gaegep r tigi g developed new vegetables markets for agricultural Established better DVOdUCtS warehousingfood storage Improved food Quality Saved growers and the public 101413 15 1C AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AG 101 Ag amp The Modern World 10813 THOSE WHO LABOR IN THE EARTH ARE THE CHOSEN PEOPLE OF GOD Thomas Jefferson 1784 Native American Farming Pre Colonial Contact o In uenced by Mesoamerican Indians 0 American Indians manipulate land for crops 0 Primarily with re slash amp burn over centuries o Practiced soil rotation o Cultivated maize beans squash 0 Larger populations in the South due to more sophisticated agricultural systems 10813 Native American Farming Post Colonial Contact o Epidemic diseases introduced by Spaniards Wiped out entire native populations in Caribbean Mortalities from disease also seen in Southeast Mississippian Indian cultures decimated by disease by 1600 0 Deaths greater among old and young Loss of manpower made it difficult to maintain agricultural systems and fire regimes Loss of elderly storehouse of knowledge tradition and custom 0 Arrival of English continued epidemic diseases THE 1600 s 0 Establishment of the o Settlers in this century were American Colonial Often poor Period Settled as squatters without clear title to land 39 Land remamed under Believed land should be given Brltlsh Contml for free if they remained on British Crown carved the land worked land land into large chunks and granted to private companies or well connected individuals Grantees divided land further and sold to other individuals THE 1700 s 0 Northern farmers produce a variety of crops and o Colonies export livestock Tobacco Sometimes supplemented Rice by craftwork Indigo I Grain 0 Southern Plantation Meat products agriculture concentrates on eXport crops 39 Tobacco main cash crop 0 Local governments often regulate the prices of basic food 10813 AMERICAN AGRARIANISM O Agrarian defined by MerriamWebster 1 of or relating to or characteristic of farmers or their way of life 2 of or relating to fields or lands or their tenure O Agrarianism defined by MerriamWebster a social or political movement designed to bring about land reforms or to improve the economic status of the farmer oUS has a history of political commitment to place control of land under primary producers vs European feudal system land owned by aristocrats and landlords O AMERICAN AGRARIANISM Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens They are the most vigorous the most independent the most virtuous and they are tied to their country and wedded to its liberty and interests by the most lasting bonds Thomas Jefferson Farmer in Political duty is to preserve and protect farmers o A population that owns amp works its land is less susceptible to shortterm unstable government policies o Farming creates democratic virtues moral standards Independence and selfreliance Commitment to the common good 0 Farmers are virtuous their means of making a living meld together private and public interest AMERICAN AGRARIAN PHILOSOPHY I know of no other pursuit in life in which more real and important services can be rendered to any country than by improving its agriculture its breed of useful animals and other branches of husbandman s care George Washington Those who labor the earth are the chosen people of God Thomas Jefferson 0 Science and development of the scientific method in uenced plant cultivation animal husbandry development of agricultural technology 0 Early settlers went to the New World to escape religious persecution Farming perceived as a spiritual quest of faith AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776 o Colonies revolted against trade taxations and power of England over them o 1776 Declaration of Independence Partially a result of British controls on Farm exports Restrictions on land titles Limitations on western settlement 10813 DID YOU KNOW o 1780 US Ambassador Ben Franklin sends soybeans back from France o 1786 George Washington breeds the first mules in the US Used animals given to him by the King of Spain Also experimented with crop rotation 1790 s 01790 c Total Population 39 million 0 90 2 Farmers Value of tobacco exports 44 million 0 44 of total exports 39 1790 s INNOVATIONS o 1793 Invention of Cotton Gin Eli Whitney Revolutionized the Cotton Industry A o effects 10813 1790 s INNOVATIONS o 1794 Thomas Jefferson creates plow with lower resistance moldboard 0 Thomas Jefferson writes about American Agriculture as a way of life Agrarian g o 1797 first castiron plow patented o Began to use horsepower to pull newly invented farm implements Broadcast seeder Mechanized Reaper 1 790 s 0 1796 Public Land Act 0 Allows Federal land sales to the public o Minimum of 640acre plots 0 2 per acre of credit 0 Immigrants Came to America in droves exchanging their own indentured labor for passage 0 1799 0 George Washington suggests to Congress the establishment of a National Board of Agriculture State Land Claims and Cessions To the Federal Government 17821802 THE 1800 s 0 1800 Total Population 53 million Average value of Ag exports 23 million 0 75 of total exports D Area ceded by New York In 1782 C Avea ceded byVIIgnln In 1784 10813 1803 THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 0 15 million 0 Roughly doubled the size of U S territory 0 President Thomas Jefferson justified the purchase as a means to provide enough fertile land to expand the Agrarian way of life Agrarian 2 relating to farmers and their way of life Jefferson wanted to create a country of small farms living independently in states under U S governance 0 Felt farmers had the virtues needed to sustain a Democratic society l al39i r Ormn lrwlul M 1804 I806 Allunlit 10min quotin l lv 10813 18051810 0 1805 Cotton begins to replace Tobacco as main cash crop of the South 0 1810 Total Population I 72 million 0 Ag exports 40 million 87 oftotal exports Beginning of the Industrial Revolution mt rrnonmzss ur 7m nfuky NORTH Vs SOUTH o Industrialized o Exported o Exporting Cotton sugar rice tobacco Wheat manufactured goods 0 Depended heavily on food imported from 0 Overall population upper Mississippi valley increased 0 Immigrant Boom o Plantation system dependent on slave labor 0 Population stagnated 18101850 0 1819 US canning industry started o 1831 the grain reaper invented o 1837 2 John Deere manufactures the steel plow 0 1843 founding of the commercial fertilizer industry by developing a process for making superphosphate fertilizer 0 18451855 Great Potato Famine in Ireland 0 1850 mechanical cotton picking machine developed 10813 18501860 0 1855 2 Michigan and Pennsylvania established the first state agricultural colleges 0 1856 A patent for condensing milk was issued to Gail Borden o 1858 Mason jars used for home canning were invented THE COTTON BOOM o 1790 US eXported 3000 bales of cotton 0 1793 Invention of Cotton Gin o 1831 US eXports 800000 bales of cotton 0 1860 5 million bales 39 Cotton now accounted for 23 of all U S foreign trade The American South was the world s top cotton producer 10813 MANIFEST DESTINY 18408 O The idea that America had a special destiny to stretch across the continent motivated many people to migrate West In 1845 John L O39Sullivan editor of the Democratic Review referred in his magazine to America39s quotManifest Destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions quot One of the most in uential slogans ever coined quotmanifest destjnyquot expressed the romantic emotion that le Americans to risk their lives to settle the Far West 2 77 O MANIFEST DESTINY 18408 o Manifest Destiny led expansionists to demand the U S should own the entire Paci c Northwest all the way to the southern border of Alaska C Many invoked the idea to justify Indian removal war with Mexico and American expansion into Cuba and Central America C More positively the idea of Manifest Destiny inspired missionaries farmers and pioneers who dreamed of transforming the great plains and fertile valleys into farms and small towns 53 Ar CIVIL WAR 18611865 0 North preserve the 0 South to preserve Union and end economy and way of life slavery At least 50 0f 7 V population was slaves 1862 LINCOLN LEGACIES President Lincoln created the USDA The People s Department as Lincoln called it was created to acquire and to diffuse useful information on subjects connected to agriculture Signed Morrill Act 0 Gave each state 30000 acres of public land per seat held in Congress to build and maintain Agricultural Colleges m 1887 Hatch Act granted more landfunds for Ag Research c 1890 2nd Morrill Act funded black Agricultural Colleges 10813 INVESTMENT IN COUNTRY S FUTURE FOOD PRODUCTION amp SUPPLY Government support of science technology and education to improve agriculture established a strong foundation for American agriculture Gave US a competitive edge over rest of world Development of new crop varieties CA navel oranges sugar beets for Midwest Animal husbandry amp nutrition 4 0 e Research in disease and pest management e Fertilizer testing programs 4 Information shared with farmers led continuous improvements in farm life and agricultural production POST CIVIL WAR SOUTH o The southern states were devastated by the Civil War a Georgia lost 66 of its developed resources during the war 0 Pre Vs Post War Example Pre Georgia had 1000 plantations that were at least 1000 acres Post Farm size based on the area a man could manage through his own labor with the assistance of his family or contracted labor 0 Plantations were in poor condition v Stock mules and horses for plowteams were scarce as was grain to feed them a Most of the seed was old and poor quality from neglect during war 10 10813 RECONSTRUCTION ERA 1860 S o 4 million freed slaves 0 Had no land no 35 and little opportunity o Sharecropping Southern form of tenant farming Employed exslaves and other poor workers to farm plantations cotton tobacco in exchange for part of the harvest Many sharecroppers frequently were cheated and exploited System remained for decades i if iv i AFRICAN AMERICAN AG INNOVATORS o Booker T Washington v Believed Education Emancipation First Head of the Tuskegee Institute in AL 3 Provided Agricultural educationtraining for African Americans 0 George Washington Carver Agricultural Scientist at Tuskegee Taught soil conservation w crop rotation Traveled to African American farms to demonstrate better farming methods Introduced profitable new crops to grow vs cotton Peanuts o o Discovered new varieties c Created new uses 3 Establishing a new industry for the South GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER DISCOVERIES c From peanuts 300 products including 0 milk cheese cream coffee plastics paper wood stains our soap linoleum cooking oils cosmetics etc c From sweet potatoes 118 products including starch tapioca molasses feed for livestock dyes our vinegar ink and synthetic rubber c From soybeans flours coffee cheese oil soup mixtures bran etc 0 From cotton paving blocks cordage paper fiber for rope etc 11 o Westward expansion pushed the agri frontier onto the Great Plains o The Homestead Act offered 160 acres of FREE land to settlers who would farm it for 5 years 0 Homesteaders rushed to fill the open lands 0 Homesteading also brought fresh waves of immigrants Sodbusters o The Great Plains soon became America s breadbasket the rich soil yielding harvests of wheat and corn 1860 s RECONSTRUCTION ERA o 1861 Pasteurization invented o 1867 o Barbed wire invented o Cattle boom 0 Range wars break out between ranchers and farmers o 1869 Transcontinental railroad completed PLIGHT OF THE NATIVE AMERICANS o Bison population nearly extinct by 1870 o Continual forced movement westward by the US government o 1887 Dawes Act divided up tribal land for Native Americans but also sold remaining plots to Homesteaders Finally reversed in 1934 o Severely impacted Native American tribes communities structure organization and abilityi i to survive in the newly Homesteaded Prairie 12 10813 10813 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL UNITED STATES 18701900 0 1869 Wilbur Atwater Father of Human Nutrition first discovered and published chemical compositions of foods Later research focused on nutritional quality of cookedprocessed foods 0 1870 Refrigerator railroad car patented o 1881 Hybrid corn produced 0 Mid 1880 s 0 Texas Main Cotton state 0 MN CA IL Main Wheat states 0 1887 The Hatch Experiment Station Act was passed 0 Provided federal grants to states for agricultural experimentation 1880 1890 STATS 0 Total Population 0 Total Population o 50 million o 63 million 0 Farmers 0 Farmers 49 of labor force 43 of labor force 0 Number of farms 0 Number of farms 0 4 million 4 6 million 0 Average acres 0 Average acres 0 134 acres o 136 acres THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA 18701900 o 1888 The first long haul shipment of a refrigerated freight car was made from California to New York 1892 The gasoline tractor was built by John Froelich o 1890 1899 0 Average annual consumption of commercial fertilizer o 1 8 million tons O O 1895 Automobile patent issued 0 1898 New Wheat Varieties imported from Russia i By 1904 Wheat production went from quot 39 39 60000 to 20000000 bushels per year 0 1902 The Reclamation Act was passed 0 Lead to water projects for irrigation 13 CLIPS American Revolution httg HWWW youtube comW5toll7V HWW1OZdF7Wk The Cotton Gin htto HWWW e Manifest Destiny httpwwwyoutubecomwatch7v YLmUhTQQOlE War 10813 Abraham Lincoln http dlwwwgoutubeoomlwatcl7vB 39xbbr t39SAAampfeaturerelmfu i CLIPS CONT The MornllLand Grant Act hug waw ynutube cumwatchNZEVhEExm Emv 7 George Washington Carver Mg wwwyoutubecomwatchv emER 1W 015A Westward Expansion hug waw ynutube cumwatchquot anszYfznampfaaLuxeEFaampns ulLs vxdan The Homestead Act hug wwwyoutubecomwatch7 WyanYSUanAXzfeature iFaamplistFPLSCSZ730BE04D472D amp esults video L8C327SUEE4D472DampIE225 39 Transcontmental Rallroad hug waw ynuLube cumwatchNZnAkaXBUu n


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