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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ilene Rowe II on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MHR318 at California State Polytechnic University taught by JamesBassett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/218148/mhr318-california-state-polytechnic-university in Business, management at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
MHR 318 Exam 1 Chapter 2 Organizational behavior study ofindividuals and groups in orgs Organizational culture shared set ofbeliefs within an org Organizational climate represents shared perceptions of members regarding what the organization is like in terms of mgmt policies and practices Individual differences ways in which people are similar and how they vary in their thinking feeling and behavior Self awareness being aware of ones own behaviors preferences styles biases personalities and so on Awareness of others being aware of the differences in others behavior pref styles personalities Self concept view individuals have of themselves as a physical social spiritual beings Self esteem belief about one s own worth based on overall self evaluation Self efficacy individual s belief about the likelihood of successfully completing a specific task Personality overall combo of characteristics that capture the unique nature ofa person Personality traits enduring characteristics describing an individuals behavior Social traits surface level traits that re ects the way a person appears to others when interacting in social settings Problem solving style the way a person gathers info when solving probs and making decisions Social capital capacity to get things done due to relationships with other people 5 personality dimensions Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness emotional stability openness to experience Nature vs Nurture debate debate in which people argue whether personality comes from heredity or your environment 4 problem solving style summaries Sensation feeling people have goal to be helpful Sensation thinking people have goal to do it correctly Intuitive feeling people have goal to make things beautiful Intuitive thinking people have goal to think things through Myers Briggs test Personal conception traits represent individual major beliefs and personal orientation concerning a range ofissues involving social and physical setting Locus of control extent a person feels able to control his or her own life and is concerned with a persons internalexternal orientation Internals persons with a internal locus of control believe that they control their own fate or destiny Externals people with external locus of control believe that much ofwhat happens to them is beyond their control and is determined by environmental forces Proactive personality disposition that determine whether or not individuals act to in uence their environments Authoritarianism tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority Dogmatism leads a person to see the world as threatening place and to regard authority as absolute Machiavellianism causes someone to view and manipulate others purely for personal gain Selfmonitoring persons ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors Emotional adjustment traits traits related to how much an individual experiences emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts Type A orientation characterized by impatience desire for achievements and more competitive than type E Type B orientation characterized by an easygoing and less competitive nature than type A Stress tension from extraordinary demands constraints or opportunities Eustress stress that has a positive impact Leaking pipeline phrase coined to describe how women have not reached the highest levels of organization Workplace diversity mix of people within a workforce who are considered to be different from those in the prevailing constituency Important because it enhances competitiveness build talent expand organization capabilities and enhance access to new markets Chapter 3 4 key emotional intelligence competencies Self awareness Self management Social awareness Relationship management Emotional intelligence ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively Selfconscious emotions arise from internal sources Emotions arise from external sources strong positive or negative feelings toward someone or something Moods generalized positive or negative feelings or states of mind Emotion and mood contagion the spillover of ones moods or emotions onto others Emotional labor where a person displays organizationally desired emotions in a job Emotional dissonance inconsistency between the emotions we feel and those we try to project Display rules govern the degree to which it is appropriate to display emotions Attitude predisposition to respond positively or negatively to someone or something Cognitive dissonance inconsistency between one s attitudes and behavior Iob involvement the eXtent an individual is dedicated to a job Organizational commitment loyalty of an individual to the organization Employee engagement strong sense of connection with the organization and passion for one s job Components ofjob satisfaction The work itself Quality of supervision Relationship with coworkers Promotion opportunities Pay Organizational citizenship behaviors the eXtras people do to go the eXtra mile at work Counterproductive work behaviors behaviors that intentionally disrupt relationships or performance at work Chapter 4 Perception process through which people receive and interpret information from the environment Depends on 3 things The perceiver the person in action The setting physical social and org context The perceived characteristics of the thing object or event Selective screening allows only a portion of available info to enter our perceptions Schemas cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge developed through experience about people objects or events Impression management the systematic attempt to in uence how others perceive us Halo effect uses one attribute to develop an overall impression ofa person or situation Selective perception tendency to define problems from one s own point ofview Self fulfilling prophecy creating or finding in a situation that which you expected to find in the first place Attribution the process of creating explanations for events Fundamental attribution error overestimates internal factors and underestimates external factors as in uences on someone s behavior Self serving bias underestimates internal factors and overestimates external factors as in uence on someone s behavior Social learning theory describes how learning occurs though interactions among people behavior an environment Operant conditioning is the control ofbehavior by manipulating as consequences Shaping positive reinforcement of successive approximation to the desired behavior 4 schedules ofpositive reinforcement fixed internal reinforce given after given time paycheck variable interval reinforce given at random times pop quiz fixed ratio reinforce given after number ofbehavior occurrences piece rate pay variable ratio reinforce given after a random number ofbehavior occurrences random quality checks extinction discourages a behavior by making the removal ofa desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence Chapter 5 Types of motivation Content theories profile different needs that may motivate individual behavior Process theories examine the thought processes that motivate individual behavior Needs theories ofmotivation needs that motivate individual behavior Maslow39s hierarchy ofneeds Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Theory that some needs are more important and need to be satisfied before other needs can serve as motivators Aldefer s ERG theory also needs theory but based on Existence needs desires for physiological and material well being Relatedness needs desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships Growth needs desires for continued personal growth and development Need for Achievement nAch desire to do better solve problems and master complex tasks Need for Af iation nAff desire for friendly and warm relations with others Need for power nPower desire to control others and in uence their behavior Herzverg s two factor theory identifies job context as the source ofjob dissatisfaction and job content as the source ofjob satisfaction Hygiene factors in job context can be source ofjob dissatisfaction Motivator factors in job content can be source ofjob satisfaction Iob enrichment process of trying to building more motivator factors into job content Adam s equity theory people will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received for their work in comparison with others Perceived inequity feeling underrewarded or overrewarded in comparison with others Organization justice concerns how fair and equitable people view workplace practices Procedural justice the degree to which rules are always properly followed to implement policies Distributive justice degree to which all people are treated the same under a policy Interactional justice degree to which people are treated with dignity and respect in decisions affecting them Commutative justice degree to which exchanges and transactions are considered fair Vroom s expectancy theory argues that work motivation is determined by individual belief regarding effort performance relationships and work outcomes Expectancy probability that work effort will be followed by performance accomplishment Instrumentality probability that performance will lead to various work outcomes Valence is the value to the individual of various work outcomes Management by objectives process ofjoint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate Goals most motivational when challenging and specific allow for feedback and create commitment and acceptance Chapter 6 Performance contingent pay earn more when you produce more earn less when you produce less Merit pay wage increases directly to measures ofperformance accomplishment Gain sharing rewards employees in some proportion to productivity gains Profit sharing reward employees in some proportion to changes in organizational profits Skill based pay rewards employees for acquiring and developing jobrelevant skills Intrinsic rewards valued outcomes received directly through task performance Extrinsic rewards valued outcomes given by some other person Output measures of performance assess achievements in terms of actual work results Activity measures ofperformance assess inputs in terms of work efforts Ranking performance appraisal orders each person from best to worst Paired comparison in performance appraisal compares each person with every other Forced distribution in performance appraisal forces a set percentage ofpersons into pre determined rating categories Graphic rating scales in performance appraisal assigns scores to specific performance dimensions Behaviorally anchored rating scale links performance ratings to specific and observable jobrelevant behaviors Critical incident diaries record actual examples ofpositive and negative work behaviors and results Performancemeasurement errors Halo effect when a person rates another person on several dimensions and gives a similar rating for each dimension Leniency error some managers tend to give relatively high ratings to everyone under their supervision opposite is strictness error everyone gets low ratings Central tendency error occurs when managers lump everyone in the average category Recency error occurs when a rater allows recent events to in uence a performance rating Personal bias error fails to give the jobholder complete respect eX Racial bias in ratings Taylor s scientific management used systematic study ofjob components to develop practices to increase people s efficiency at work Iob enrichment builds high content jobs that involve planning and evaluating duties normally done by supervisors Psychological empowerment sense ofpersonal fulfillment and purpose that arouses ones feelings of competency and commitment to work Work sharing when employees agree to work fewer hours to avoid layoffs
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